Aim of Study: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bidi smoking on periodontitis by assessing the interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 from a gingival crevicular fluid (GCF).
Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were selected, which included 40 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis (20 bidi smokers and 20 non-bidi smokers) and 20 periodontal healthy controls. Diseased and healthy sites were selected from each of the chronic periodontitis subjects. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), periodontal probing depth (PPD), recession (RC), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Pooled GCF samples were taken from the same site and analyzed for IL-1β and IL-8 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: Bidi smokers displayed decreased levels of IL-1β and IL-8 than non-bidi smokers for both healthy and diseased sites and significantly reduced IL-8 levels among bidi smokers when compared to controls. Among bidi smokers, the diseased site had significantly higher levels of IL-8 than the healthy site. Non-smoker subjects with chronic periodontitis especially diseased sites contained significantly higher amounts of IL-1β and IL-8 than smokers and controls. The PI scores were highest among bidi smokers with reduced BOP and GI scores.
Conclusions: Bidi smoking influenced the cytokine profile among periodontitis patients exhibiting decreased levels of IL-1β and IL-8.
Aim: The present research was conducted to identify site-specific pain resulting from musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among practicing dentists and determine its impact on their quality of life.
Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study conducted among practicing dentists of Puducherry Taluk, Puducherry, India.
Method and Materials: A closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 95 practicing dentists to identify site-specific MSP from the study subjects. Data on pain due to MSDs, frequency of pain, its impact on quality of life, relieving factors, patients attended per day, working hours per day, and awareness on ergonomics were also recorded.
Statistical Analyses: The data were analyzed for descriptive statistics, and Chi-square tests was used for proportions.
Results: Almost all respondents experienced pain due to MSDs. Approximately, 11.1% "always" experienced elbow pain; 5.6% "always" experienced pain in neck and back. Approximately, 83% "sometimes" experienced pain in the back. Pain in elbow was significantly associated with gender (P = 0.036), qualification (P = 0.029), and years of practice (P = 0.032). Approximately, 36% reported having an impact on their life.
Conclusion: The magnitude of the problem is slowly shifting from "sometimes" to "always." Although small in proportion, pain due to MSDs has an impact on dental practitioners' quality of life, and elbow pain was reportedly higher in the study setting. Measures need to be implemented before MSD becomes a career limiting occupational hazard.
Aim and Objectives: To detect the presence of micronuclei in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells of mobile phone users as well as to carry out a quantitative analysis of micronuclei in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells of mobile phone users.
Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 100 individuals, out of which 50 were included under the test group and 50 under the control group. Buccal mucosal smears were obtained from each subject. Staining was done using papanicuolau (PAP) stain and the slides were examined for the presence of micronuclei.
Results: The mean duration of mobile phone usage in years was 5.32 years for the exposed and 2.42 years for the control. Mean duration of mobile phone usage per day in the test group was 94.8 min and 12.4 min in the control group. The frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC) in test and control groups ranged from 0 to 16 and 0 to 2 respectively. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Student t-test and significant results were obtained at 0.0001 level.
Conclusion: Our study concluded that there is an increased frequency of micronuclei in mobile phone users which is related to carcinogenesis.
Subjects and Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional design, we used simple random sampling technique to select 242 multiracial Malaysian male fishermen aged between 18 and 75 years from five fishing villages located at Gurney Drive, Tanjong Tokong, Tanjong Bungah, Batu Ferringhi, and Teluk Bahang to participate in this study. During four consecutive weekends in January 2017, we conducted face-to-face interviews with participants using a pre-validated, interviewer-administered WHO oral health questionnaire. We categorized participants as having "good" or "poor" oral health based on a mean cutoff score of 14. Multivariate regression models were fitted to assess the oral health status and associated lifestyle factors among the study population, using SPSS version 22.
Results: We achieved a response rate of 97.6%. Overall, the prevalence of poor oral health in this study was 47.5%. "Income" (RM/month), "type of fishing," "additional occupation," "age" (years), "frequency of pies, buns consumed," and "frequency of sweets, soft drinks consumed" were significant predictors of oral health status among the fishermen.
Conclusion: Poor oral health is relatively highly prevalent among the fishermen in our study. The oral health status of fishermen in Teluk Bahang was consistent with the national average and significantly associated with their sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Targeted interventions are required to arrest and reverse this trend.
Methodology: A total of 31 thalassemic children were a part of the study. Cephalometric readings were recorded for the study and the control group.
Results: Within the Group I stage, the anterior cranial base length was 68.40±2.93 mm, shorter when compared to the control group. In the Group II stage, the maxillary/mandibular angle was 31.58° for the case group and the mandibular length was shorter in comparison to the controls. In the Group III stage, the SNB angle was 76.42°, lesser than the control group. A relative maxillary prognathism of 9.88 mm and 12.85 mm was observed in thalassemic males and females respectively through the Wiley's analysis.
Conclusion: The overall picture depicted a retruded position of the maxilla and a retrognathic mandible within the study group. A class II profile has also been observed among the study subjects.
Aim: To determine WMSS experienced by dental auxiliaries and their coping strategies toward these symptoms.
Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 82 dental auxiliaries at a university dental hospital in Malaysia.
Materials and Methods: Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and the Brief COPE questionnaire were used to measure the musculoskeletal symptoms and coping strategies of the respondents, respectively. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 22.0.
Results: Dental auxiliaries consisted of dental staff nurses (30.5%), dental surgery assistants (40.2%), dental technologists (18.3%), and healthcare assistants (11.0%). Their mean [standard deviation (SD)] age was 33.4 (7.60) years. Most of the respondents had been troubled with ache, pain, and discomfort at the neck, 54.9% (95% confidence interval 44.0%, 66.0%]. In addition, they were troubled mainly with distress at the low back (34.1%) and the ankle or feet (34.1%) which had prevented the respondents from doing their regular job over the past 12 months. The most common areas that had troubled the respondents over the past 7 days were the neck (36.6%), low back (36.6%), and ankle or feet (36.6%). The coping strategy most commonly practiced by the respondents was religion with a mean (SD) score of 3.70 (2.15), followed by active coping [3.13 (0.68)] and acceptance [3.13 (0.69)].
Conclusion: The prevalence of WMSS was high in the dental auxiliaries particularly in the neck region. The most common coping strategy used was religion. Awareness programs on the prevention of WMSS among the dental auxiliaries should be increased.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 CBCT-Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine files of the patients of 3 ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese and Indian) between the ages of 18 and 80 years were selected for the study. The files were imported onto the iCAT software. The measurements of the SIDIAN to the lower border of the mandible in molar regions were done on both sides. The data was analysed using t-test, one-way analysis of variance test, and correlation coefficient test via the SPSS software.
Results: Statistically significant positive correlations were identified between the SIDIAN from the lower border of the mandible in the first and second molar regions within the same side as well as between both sides of the mandible (r ≈ 0.8). There were no statistically significant differences between genders. However, there were statistically significant differences on both molar regions and on both sides in all three ethnic groups (P < 0.05). In general, the SIDIAN from the lower border of the mandible was greatest amongst Chinese and smallest amongst Indians.
Conclusions: The strong positive correlations on both sides of the mandible indicate the presence of symmetry. Ethnicity-related variations exist in terms of the location of the IAN in the mandible.
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