Pilomatricoma (PMC) is a relatively uncommon benign skin neoplasm arising from the skin adnexa. Since the first description of PMC in 1880, there has been a gradual increase in understanding of the morphologic features and clinical presentation of this tumor. However, difficulties still persist in making clinical and cytologic diagnosis. We report the clinical and histopathological findings of two cases of pilomatricoma. In case 1, a 10-year-old girl presented with a right upper back mass. In case 2, a nine-year-old girl presented with a left ear lobe mass. The clinical findings in both the cases were suggestive of epidermoid/dermoid cyst. However, subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed these cases as pilomatricoma. This report reveals that pilomatricoma is a frequently misdiagnosed entity in clinical practice. The purpose of this article is to create awareness among clinicians on the possibility of pilomatricoma as a cause of solitary skin nodules, especially those on the head, neck or upper extremities.
A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.
Blau syndrome (BS) is a very rare autosomal dominant juvenile inflammatory disorder caused by mutation in nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2). Usually, dermatitis is the first symptom that appears in the 1st year of life. About 220 BS cases with confirmed NOD2 mutation have been reported. However, the rarity and lack of awareness of the disease, especially in the regions where genetic tests are very limited, often result in late diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Here, we report a de novo BS case from Malaysia, which may be the first report from southeast Asia. PCR and DNA sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were performed to screen the entire coding region of NOD2 gene. A heterozygous c.1000C>T transition in exon 4, p. R334W, of the NOD2 gene was identified in the patient. This report further reaffirms the ubiquitousness of the disease and recurrency of p. R334W mutation.