The major hemorrhagin from C. purpureomaculatus (mangrove pit viper) venom was purified to homogeneity and termed Maculatoxin. Maculatoxin has a molecular weight of 38 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. It is an acidic protein (pI= 4.2) and exhibited proteolytic and hemorrhagic activities (MHD10 = 0.84 microg in mice) but was not lethal to mice at a dose of 1 microg/g. The hemorrhagic activity of Maculatoxin was completely inactivated by EDTA and partially inhibited by ATP and citrate. The N-terminal sequence of Maculatoxin (TPEQQRFPPTYIDLGIFVDHGMYAT) shares a significant degree of homology with the metalloprotease domain of other venom hemorrhagins. Indirect ELISA showed anti-Maculatoxin cross reacted with protein components of many snake venoms. In the double-sandwich ELISA, however, anti-Maculatoxin cross-reacted only with venoms of certain species of the Trimeresurus (Asia lance-head viper) complex, and the results support the recent proposed taxonomy changes concerning the Trimeresurus complex.
Mother-offspring interaction begins before birth. The foetus is particularly vulnerable to environmental insults and stress. The body responds by releasing excess of the stress hormone cortisol, which acts on glucocorticoid receptors. Hippocampus in the brain is rich in glucocorticoid receptors and therefore susceptible to stress. The stress effects are reduced when the animals are placed under a model wooden pyramid. The present study was to first explore the effects of prenatal restraint-stress on the plasma corticosterone levels and the dendritic arborisation of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of the offspring. Further, to test whether the pyramid environment would alter these effects, as housing under a pyramid is known to reduce the stress effects, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were restrained for 9 h per day from gestation day 7 until parturition in a wire-mesh restrainer. Plasma corticosterone levels were found to be significantly increased. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the apical and the basal total dendritic branching points and intersections of the CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The results thus suggest that, housing in the pyramid dramatically reduces prenatal stress effects in rats.
In the present study in vitro expansion of human keratinocytes by supplementing dermal fibroblasts conditioned medium (DFCM) has been reported. Effect of two different DFCM acquired by culturing fibroblasts in keratinocyte-specific medium (defined keratinocytes serum free medium, DFCM-DKSFM) and fibroblast-specific serum free medium (F12: DMEM nutrient mix, DFCM-FD) have been compared. Growth kinetics of keratinocytes in terms of efficiency of cell attachment, expansion index, apparent specific growth rate and growth potential at the end of culture was evaluated in culture supplemented with DFCM-DKSFM and DFCM-FD in comparison with control i.e. DKSFM only. Results indicated that supplementation of DFCM caused significant increase in keratinocyte attachment. Efficiency of keratinocyte attachment in culture supplemented with bFCM-DKSFM was significantly higher compared to those cultured in DFCM-FD and DKSFM. In addition, the expansion index of keratinocytes in cultures supplemented with DFCM-DKSFM and DFCM-FD were 3.7 and 2.2 times higher than that of control condition even though the apparent growth rate and proliferative potential was found significantly lower. These results suggested that supplementation of DFCM enhanced expansion of keratinocyte by increasing efficiency of cell attachment, and DFCM-DKSFM provided suitable condition for in vitro expansion of keratinocytes compared to DFCM-FD and control condition.
Despite being a complex degenerative joint disease, studies on osteoarthritis (OA) suggest that its progression can be reduced by the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The present study thus aims to examine the effects of MSC, HA and the combination of HA-MSC in treating OA in rat model. The histological observations using O'Driscoll score indicate that it is the use of HA and MSC independently and not their combination that delays the progression of OA. In conclusion, the preliminary study suggest that the use of either HA or MSCs effectively reduces OA progression better than their combined use.
A rapid antibody detection test is very useful for the detection of lymphatic filariasis, especially for certification and surveillance of post-mass drug administration. panLF Rapid kit is suitable for this purpose since it can detect all species of lymphatic filaria. It is based on the detection of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies that react with recombinant B. malayi antigens, BmR1 and BmSXP. There is an increase demand for the test due to its attributes of being rapid, sensitive and specific results, as well as its field-applicability. The main aim of this paper is to obtain high recovery and purity of recombinant antigen BmSXP via a modified method of immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The highest product yield of 11.82 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) was obtained when IMAC was performed using the optimized protocol of 10 mM imidazole concentration in lysis buffer, 30 mM imidazole concentration in wash buffer, and 10 column volume wash buffer containing 300 mM salt concentration. This gave a 54% protein recovery improvement over the manufacturer's protocol which recorded a product yield of only 7.68 mg/g DCW. The recovered BmSXP recombinant antigen showed good western blot reactivity, high sensitivity (31/32, 97%) and specificity (32/32, 100%) in ELISA, thus attesting to its good purity and quality.
Antioxidant and gastroprotective activities of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata leaves in rats have been reported. Sprague Dawley rats, 6 per group were used and rats in groups 1 to 6 were pretreated with (0.25% w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (negative control, 5 ml/kg), 20 mg/kg omeprazole (positive control), (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) of aqueous leaf extracts (APLAE) and (250 and 500 mg/kg) of ethanol leaf extracts (APLEE) respectively. Animals were orally administered with 95% ethanol (5 ml/kg) 60 min after their pretreatments. Rats were sacrificed 1 h after treatment and gastric contents were collected to measure pH and mucous weight. Stomach was analyzed for gross and histological changes. Ulcer control group showed extensive lesions of gastric mucosal layer, whereas rats pretreated with omeprazole, 250 and 500 mg/kg of APLAE showed significant and dose dependent reduction in gastric lesions with increased pH and mucus content of stomach. Rats pretreated with 250 or 500 mg/kg of APLEE showed significantly better inhibition of gastric mucosal lesions. Further, the in vitro antioxidant studies using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that ethanol extracts have superior free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value = 10.9 than aqueous extracts with IC50 value = 24.65. Results of this study showed that pretreatment with ethonolic extract of A. paniculata ethanolic provided significant protection against gastric ulcer by regulating of pH, mucous production and antioxidant property.
Mucuna pruriens has been used by native Nigerians as a prophylactic for snakebite. The protective effects of M. pruriens seed extract (MPE) were investigated against the pharmacological actions of N. sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom in rats. The results showed that MPE-pretreatment protected against cardiorespiratory and, to a lesser extent, neuromuscular depressant effects of N. sputatrix venom. These may be explained at least in part by the neutralisation of the cobra venom toxins by anti-MPE antibodies elicited by the MPE pretreatment.
Effects of topical application of Bis[benzyl N'-(indol-3-ylmethylene)-hydrazinecarbodithioato]-zinc(II) (BHCZ) on wound healing and histology of healed wound were assessed. Sprague Dawley rats were experimentally induced wound in the posterior neck area. Tween 20 (0.2 ml of 10%) was applied to rats in Group 1 (negative control). Intrasite gel (0.2 ml) was applied topically to rats in Group 2 as reference. BHCZ at the concentrations 0.2 ml of 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml were applied to Group 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Wound dressed with BHCZ significantly healed earlier than those treated with 10% Tween 20. Also wound dressed with 100 mg/ml BHCZ accelerated the rate of wound healing compared to those dressed with intrasite gel and, 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml BHCZ. Histological analysis of healed wound with BHCZ showed comparatively less scar width at wound enclosure and the healed wound contained less macrophages and large amount of collagen with angiogenesis compared to wounds dressed with 10% Tween 20. Results of this study showed that wounds dressed with 100 mg/ml of BHCZ significantly enhanced acceleration of the rate of wound healing enclosure, and histology of healed wounds showed comparatively less macrophages and more collagen with angiogenesis.
With a view to examine the effect of chronic maternal stress on cognitive function in the offspring during young age, pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to restraint stress from embryonic day 11 till delivery. Male and female pups born to these stressed rats were subjected to passive avoidance test on postnatal day 30 and 31. Results were compared with rats of the same age and sex born to control mothers, which were not stressed. The results showed that prenatal maternal restraint stress impairs the memory retention during young age in both sexes. The memory retention deficit induced by maternal restraint stress was evident in the decreased latency to enter the dark compartment of passive avoidance apparatus by the rats born to stressed mothers. The observed behavioral deficit may be due to the insult of stress on the developing hippocampus, a structure of the brain concerned with learning and memory. The results suggest that prolonged prenatal stress leads to long lasting malfunction in the behavioral development during young age in both male and female young rats. However when compared to their respective stress naïve controls, it seems evident that prenatal restraint stress has a less effect on females which could be due to their oesterogenic effects. These data reinforce the view that prenatal stress affects cognitive development in a sex-specific manner.
Ethanol intoxication resulted in high extent of lipid peroxidation, and reduction in antioxidant defenses (decreased GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio, and catalase, SOD and GPx activities) and (Na+/K+)-ATPase activity in kidney. Alpha-tocopherol treatment effectively protected kidney from ethanol induced oxidative challenge and improved renal (Na+/K+)-ATPase activity. Ethanol induced oxidative stress in the kidney and decreased (Na+/K+)-ATPase activity could be reversed by treatment with ascorbic acid.
Three basal plant tissue culture media, namely, N6, MS, and modified Y3, were compared to optimize micropropagation protocol for E. guineensis. Full strength media were used separately to regenerate plantlets directly using immature zygotic embryos (IZEs), and through somatic embryogenesis of calli obtained from IZEs. The plantlets regenerated by direct regeneration on three media were examined for shoot length and rooting percentage. For the induction of callus, somatic embryogenesis, and rooting modified Y3 medium was the most effective. In conclusion, the results indicate that modified Y3 medium is the most suitable for direct regeneration, callus induction and somatic embryogenesis in E. guineensis.
The present study was aimed to find out whether a change in the alignment of the pyramid from the north-south axis causes any variation in the effects produced by it on plasma cortisol levels and markers of oxidative stress in erythrocytes of adult-female Wistar rats. Plasma cortisol and erythrocyte TBARS levels were significantly lower whereas erythrocyte GSH was significantly higher in rats kept in pyramid that was aligned on the four cardinal points--north, east, south and west, as compared to normal control rats. Although there was a significant difference in the plasma cortisol level between normal control group and the group of rats kept in randomly aligned pyramid, there was no significant difference between these two groups for the other parameters. Erythrocyte TBARS levels in the group of rats kept in the randomly aligned pyramid was significantly higher than that in the group kept in the magnetically aligned pyramid. The results suggest that the north-south alignment of the pyramid is crucial for its expected effects.
Contribution and role of a pyramid/square box on the wound healing suppressant effect of dexamethasone was studied in rats of either sex using excision wound model to record the wound contraction rate and epithelization period. The results showed enhanced wound contraction rate and decreased epithelization period in the pyramid-exposed rats as compared to controls. Thus, it appears that pyramid environment facilitates the process of wound healing. Also, the wound healing suppressant effects of dexamethasone were significantly reduced.
Microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along East Coast of India viz. Chidambram (Tamil Nadu), Nellore (Andhra Pradesh) and Balasore (Orissa), revealed presence of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in Penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. Infection trials using filtered tissue extracts by oral and injection method induced mortality in healthy P. monodon with all samples and 100% mortality was noted by the end of 7 day post-inoculation. Histopathological analysis demonstrated degenerated cells characterized by hypertrophied nuclei in gills, hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ with presence of intranuclear basophilic or eosino-basophilic bodies in tubular cells and intercellular spaces. Analysis of samples using 3 different primer sets as used by other for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) generated 643, 1447 and 520bp amplified DNA products in all samples except in one instance. Variable size virions with mean size in the range of 110 x 320 +/- 20 nm were observed under electron microscope. It could be concluded that the viral isolates in India involved with white spot syndrome in cultured shrimp are similar to RV-PJ and SEMBV in Japan, WSBV in Taiwan and WSSV in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China and Japan.
Effect of two calcium channel blockers (CCBs) nifedipine and amlodipine, was studied on normal and steroid depressed wound healing in albino rats, using the dead space wound model. The drugs enhanced normal healing as evidenced by increase in tensile strength of 10 days old granulation tissue. There was neither a significant change in the hydroxyproline level (or collagen) nor a change in the glycosaminoglycan content in granulation tissue. However, lysyloxidase level was increased significantly. The increase in tensile strength could thus be attributed to better cross-linking and maturation of collagen rather than collagen synthesis per se. The drugs were also able to overcome steroid depressed wound healing. It is likely that the prohealing effects may be related to the improved antioxidant status too, since superoxide dismutase levels were observed to be higher in the CCB- treated animals.
Brown algae of genus Sargassum are known to produce relatively higher amount of alginic acid. Optimal extraction of this algalcolloid for local consumption requires in-depth studies on post-harvest treatment of the algal fronds. Present investigation endeavors to establish the dynamics and inter-relationship of moisture content and bacteria found on the surface of the alga and alginic acid content during post-harvest desiccation of Sargassum stolonifolium Phang et Yoshida. Harvested fronds were subjected to desiccation for 31 days and bacterial dynamics were monitored with relation to moisture content and water activity index (a(w)). There was 85% decrease in moisture content, however, a(w) showed a more gradual decrease. Total bacterial count increased during the first week and attained maximal value on day 7. Thereafter, a drastic decrease was seen until day 14, followed by a gradual decline. Six species of bacteria were isolated and identified, i.e. Azomonas punctata, Azomonas sp., Escherichia coli, Micrococcus sp., Proteus vulgaris and Vibrio alginolyticus. Calculated ratios for increase in alginic acid content and decrease in moisture content were almost the same throughout the desiccation process, implying that extracellular alginase-producing bacteria did not use the alginic acid produced by the algae as its carbon source. It became apparent that drastic decrease in bacterial count after day 7 could not be attributed to salinity, moisture content, a(w) or lack of carbon source for the bacteria. The possible exposure of these bacteria to algal cell sap which is formed due to the rupture of algal cells was seen as the most likely reason for the drop in bacterial population. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph taken on day 10 of desiccation showed the presence of cracks and localities where bacteria were exposed to algal cell sap. In vitro antibacterial tests were carried out to verify the effect of algal extracts. Separation and purification of crude algal extracts via bioassay guided separation methodology revealed the identity of active compounds (i.e. gylcolipids and free fatty acids) involved in this inherently available antibacterial defense mechanism during algal desiccation.