Materials and methods: Seventy-five enterococci isolates recovered from different clinical sources were re-identified by subculturing on selective medium, Gram staining, biochemical profiling (API 20 Strep), and 16s rRNA sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion, E-test, and broth microdilution methods. PCR amplification was used to detect the presence of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AME) genes [aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia, aph(2")-Ib, aph(2")-Ic, aph(2")-Id, aph(3')-IIIa]. Descriptive data analysis was used to analyze the antibiotic susceptibility profiles and the distribution of HLAR genes.
Results: The majority of the isolates recovered from the clinical samples are E. faecalis (66.7%), with the highest recovery from the pus. The prevalence of HLGR (51%) is higher when compared to HLSR (45-49%). Analysis of the resistance genes showed that bifunctional genes aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa contributed to the HLAR E. faecalis and E. faecium. The other AME genes [aph(2")-Ib, aph(2")-Ic, aph(2")-Id] were not detected in this study.
Conclusion: This study provides the first prevalence data on HLAR and the distribution of the AME genes among E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates from Malaysia. These highlight the need for continued antibiotic surveillance to minimize its emergence and further dissemination.
Materials and methods: Gastric biopsies from antrum (n=288) and corpus (n=283) were obtained from 288 patients who underwent endoscopy at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Antibiotic susceptibility to six classes of antibiotics was determined by the E-test. Mutations conferring in resistance in functional genes were identified by PCR and sequencing.
Results: Overall resistance rates to metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin were 59.3% (35/59), 35.6% (21/59) and 25.4% (15/59), respectively. Secondary isolates showed significantly higher resistance rates to clarithromycin compared to the primary isolates. Mixed infection with susceptible and resistant isolates was observed in 16.2% (6/37) of cases, of which 83.3% (n=5) had infection with the same strain. 41% (18/44) of isolates were resistant to more than one class of antibiotics of which 50% (9/18) were multidrug-resistant, two being primary and seven being secondary isolates. Mutations in rdxA, 23S rRNA and gyrA genes were associated with resistance to metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin, respectively.
Conclusion: The high level of resistance to metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin seen in H. pylori isolates in our setting warrants the need for continuous surveillance and highlights caution in use of antibiotics generally used as first-line therapy in H. pylori eradication regimen.
Patients and methods: S. suis positive cases were derived from those with positive S. suis isolates from microbiological culture results and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF). Potential risk factors of mortality were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression.
Results: Of 133 patients with culture-proven S. suis infection identified, there were 92 males and 41 females. The mean age was 56.47 years. Septicemia (55.64%) was the most common clinical manifestation followed by meningitis (37.59%) and infective endocarditis (25.56%). Alcohol drinking and raw pork consumption were documented in 66 (49.62%) and 49 (36.84%) cases respectively. The overall mortality rate was 12.03% (n=16). According to the multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for mortality were prolonged bacteremia ≥ 6 days (OR = 43.57, 95% CI = 2.46-772.80, P =0.010), septic shock (OR = 13.34, 95% CI = 1.63-109.03, P =0.016), and direct bilirubin > 1.5 mg/dL (OR = 12.86, 95% CI = 1.91-86.59, P =0.009).
Conclusion: S. suis is not infrequent in Northern Thailand, where the cultural food habit of raw pork eating is still practiced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest series focusing on risk factors of S. suis mortality which has been conducted in Thailand. Prolonged bacteremia ≥ 6 days, septic shock, and direct bilirubin > 1.5 mg/dL were strong predictors associated with S. suis mortality. The mortality risk factors identified may be further utilized in clinical practice and future research to improve patient outcomes.
Aim: This study was aimed to determine rational use of antibiotic therapy in ICU patients and its impact on clinical outcomes and mortality rate.
Methods: This was a retrospective, longitudinal (cohort) study including 100 patients in the ICU of the largest tertiary care hospital of the capital city of Pakistan.
Results: It was observed that empiric antibiotic therapy was initiated in 68% of patients, while culture sensitivity test was conducted for only 19% of patients. Thirty-percent of patients developed nosocomial infections and empiric antibiotic therapy was not initiated for those patients (P<0.05). Irrational antibiotic prescribing was observed in 86% of patients, and among them, 96.5% mortality was observed (P<0.05). The overall mortality rate was 83%; even higher mortality rates were observed in patients on a ventilator, patients with serious drug-drug interactions, and patients prescribed with irrational antibiotics or nephrotoxic drugs. Adverse clinical outcomes leading to death were observed to be significantly associated (P<0.05) with irrational antibiotic prescribing, nonadjustment of doses of nephrotoxic drugs, use of steroids, and major drug-drug interactions.
Conclusion: It was concluded that empiric antibiotic therapy is beneficial in patients and leads to a reduction in the mortality rate. Factors including irrational antibiotic selection, prescribing contraindicated drug combinations, and use of nephrotoxic drugs were associated with high mortality rate and poor clinical outcomes.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed from January to April 2020 among students at Jahangirnagar University (JU), Bangladesh. Purposive sampling was conducted through an in-person interview using a structured questionnaire. Students from the faculties of biological sciences and non-biology background were included. The univariate ordinal regression technique was used to analyze the relationship between predictors and good knowledge about the antibiotics. A two-tailed p-value was calculated to determine statistical association.
Results: Out of 205 study participants, 92 and 113 responders were from biological science faculty and non-biology disciplines, respectively. Less than half of the students (42.4%) showed a good knowledge level (scores higher than 80%). Biology-background students possess better knowledge than non-biology students [odds ratio (OR) = 4.44, 95% confidence level (CL) (2.56, 7.70), p < 0.001]. A better attitude was noticed among all students. The self-medication rate was quite low, and more than 90% of students were found to consume antibiotics according to the physician's prescription. Lack of treatment adherence was recorded, and students admitted to stop-taking antibiotics when symptoms disappeared (48.67% biology and 36.26% non-biology). Multivariate regression analysis was unable to detect any significant association between self-medication and gender, student category or the level of knowledge about antibiotics.
Conclusion: Students of biological science background possessed better knowledge indicating the importance of appropriate curriculum imparted in knowledge buildup. Introducing a short course about the risk and development of antibiotic resistance will grow the students' awareness to avoid the resistance phenomenon.
Methods: This study analyzed all suspected ADEs related to favipiravir reported from 2015. The reports were analyzed based on age, gender, and seriousness of ADEs at the System Organ Classification (SOC) level and the individual Preferred Term (PT) level.
Results: This study is based on 194 ADEs reported from 93 patients. Most frequent ADEs suspected to be caused by the favipiravir included increased hepatic enzymes, nausea and vomiting, tachycardia, and diarrhea. Severe and fatal ADEs occurred more frequently in men and those over the age of 64 years. Blood and lymphatic disorders, cardiac disorders, hepatobiliary disorders, injury poisoning, and procedural complications were more common manifestations of severe ADEs.
Conclusion: This study revealed that favipiravir appears to be a relatively safe drug. An undiscovered anti-inflammatory activity of favipiravir may explain the improvement in critically ill patients and reduce inflammatory markers. Currently, the data is based on very few patients. A more detailed assessment of the uncommon ADEs needs to be analyzed when more information will be available.
Methods: This research investigated the blaKPC, and MBL genes, namely, blaIMP, blaVIM, and blaNDM-1 and their phenotypic resistance to K. pneumoniae isolated from urinary tract infections (UTI) in Bangladesh. Isolated UTI K. pneumoniae were identified by API-20E and 16s rDNA gene analysis. Their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance was examined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, followed by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. blaKPC, blaIMP, blaNDM-1, and blaVIM genes were evaluated by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and confirmed by sequencing.
Results: Fifty-eight K. pneumoniae were identified from 142 acute UTI cases. Their phenotypic resistance to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, cephalexin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and imipenem were 98.3%, 100%, 96.5%, 91.4%, 75.1%, respectively. Over half (31/58) of the isolates contained either blaKPC or one of the MBL genes. Individual prevalence of blaKPC, blaIMP, blaNDM-1, and blaVIM were 15.5% (9), 10.3% (6), 22.4% (13), and 19% (11), respectively. Of these, eight isolates (25.8%, 8/31) were found to have two genes in four different combinations. The co-existence of the ESBL genes generated more resistance than each one individually. Some isolates appeared phenotypically susceptible to imipenem in the presence of blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, and blaNDM-1 genes, singly or in combination.
Conclusion: The discrepancy of genotype and phenotype resistance has significant consequences for clinical bacteriology, precision in diagnosis, the prudent selection of antimicrobials, and rational prescribing. Heterogeneous phenotypes of antimicrobial susceptibility testing should be taken seriously to avoid inappropriate diagnostic and therapeutic decisions.