Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Norfadzilah Ahmad, Nurul Hamidah Khairul Anwar
    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the perceptions of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Kuantan nursing students, clinical nurse instructors, and staff nurses of the support offered to student nurses during learning in a clinical setting.

    Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out on undergraduate nursing students (n=118), and clinical instructors (n=8) at the faculty or Kulliyyah of Nursing, IIUM, using the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES-T) survey. Descriptive analysis was used to investigate the sociodemographic data, and further statistical tests were conducted with regard to their levels of perception.

    Results: Overall, the participants perceived the clinical learning environment to be good. There was no difference in perception between nursing students and the clinical nurse instructors (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in terms of gender and levels of perception (p>0.05). This study did find a significant relationship between level of study and area of posting for students and perception levels (p
  2. Sinan Mohammed Abdullah Al-Mahmood, Ariefah Hanim Shamsuddin, Noor Amallina Mohd. Saufi, Noratikah Othman, Wisam Nabeel Ibrahim
    Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the association of parental obesity, food habits, and physical activity levels with body mass index status and sociodemographic factors among children in Kuantan, Pahang.

    Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 pupils in three primary schools in Kuantan. The three schools were representative of the three major ethnicities in Malaysia, Malays, Chinese, and Indians, and the children were aged 8 to 11 years. Self-developed questionnaires were used to record sociodemographic details and anthropometric measures of both parents and children, and physical activity and food habits were measured using a Children Physical Activity Questionnaire (C-PAQ) and the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire (HFFQ), respectively. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS 20.0, with a binary logistic regression model then used to represent the interactions among different factors in terms of predicting childhood obesity.

    Results: Binary logistic regression analysis shows that parental anthropometric measures, children’s ages, levels of physical activity, and food habits are signif-icant predictors for paediatric obesity. There is also a significant association between parents’ anthropo-metric measurements and childhood obesity. Significant correlation was found between fast food con-sumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity and body mass index in children (p˂0.05).

    Conclusion: The study provides evidence that parental obesity, fast food consumption, fruit and vegetables intakes, and physical activity levels have significant associations with children's body mass indices.
  3. Wisam Nabeel Ibrahim, Sufi Md Nawi, Sinan Mohammed Abdullah Al-Mahmood, Noratikah Othman
    Objective: The objective of this study is to identify stroke patients’ adherence toward nurses’ advice and quality of life.

    Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a medical ward in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Pahang; it used the Quality of Life Index Stroke Version-III and Medical Outcome Study Measure of Patient Adherence. The data were collected using the purposive sampling method and were analysed using SPSS version 19.

    Results: A total of 54 respondents, ranging in age from 50 to 80 years old, (46.3% male and 53.7% female) with 94.4% being Malays. Returned surveys indicated that 50% of the respondents have no formal education. A total of 64.8% patients adhered to the nurss’ advice and the remaining 35.2% were non-adherents. There is a positive correlation between adherence and the quality of life. Male patients demonstrated a better adherence level compared to women (p=0.019). However, there was no association between age, race and education level with adherence.

    Conclusion: Healthcare professionals, such as nurses, have substantial roles in ensuring stroke patients adhere to rehabilitation guidelines with a view to maximising quality of life.
  4. Salizar Mohamed Ludin
    Objective: International studies show that ICU outreach services help to improve patients' condition and reduce both the length of hospital stays and mortality rates. However, Malaysian nurses’ perceptions of ICU outreach services and their implementation have previously remained uninvestigated. This study thus aims to uncover Malaysian nurses’ perceptions of implementing Intensive Care Unit (ICU) outreach services.

    Method: An exploratory mixed method was used, focusing on 47 Malaysian hospital ICU nurses, using surveys and interviews over a 2-month period in 2015. All those who met the inclusion criteria were purposively recruited into the study.

    Results: A total of 47 respondents completed the questionnaires. The mean years of employment was 9.72 and mean age was 33.6 years. Only seven respondents had undertaken an intensive care course and had knowledge of ICU outreach services. Years of employment and highest education level were not significantly related to awareness of ICU outreach services. Major themes emerging from the interviews included ICU outreach service benefits, ICU readmission events, and nurses’ readiness for ICU outreach services. Interview data supported the survey results consistently.

    Conclusion: Nurses are aware of the advantages of ICU outreach services for both nurses and patients, despite the fact that there is no official implementation of such services in Malaysia. Their appreciation of the importance of ICU outreach services, and enthusiasm to participate in a new program to improve ICU survivors’ condition and care in general wards, indicates the potential for better care in the future.
  5. Sowtali Siti Noorkhairina, Ghazali Norhasyimah, Ishak Nur 'Ain, Draman Che Rosle, Shah Mohd Azarisman
    Chronic kidney disease is among the top ten causes of mortality in Malaysia. An increase in the pattern of dialysis recipients has been observed, rising from 325 per million population in 2001 to 762 per million population in 2010. Chronic kidney disease is characterised by irreversible loss of renal function for at least three months, and the risk factors for chronic kidney disease include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidaemia, and lifestyle risk factors such as poor dietary patterns, lack of exercise or physical activity, smoking, and increased alcohol intake. Thus, appropriate educational needs assessment is required to begin modifying these risk factors via educational intervention to delay disease progress and to prevent patients reaching end stage renal failure. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the existing literature on the chronic kidney disease process, based on recommended primary and secondary management from both medical aspects and lifestyle modification requirements, highlighting the importance of patient education.
  6. Muhammad Lokman Md Isa, Anis Amira Aznan, Afzan Mat Yusof, Nakisah Mat Amin
    Objective: The present study is designed to investigate the occurrence of Acanthamoeba in air ventilation and air-conditioning systems in selected buildings in Kuantan.

    Methods: Acanthamoeba was isolated from dust samples taken from filters of air ventilation systems in selected buildings in Kuantan. The dusts were collected by using sterile cotton swabs, cultured in a xenic culture medium on non-nutrient agar (NNA) plates and incubated at 37º C. The plates were examined daily for any presence of Acanthamoeba cysts up to 7 days of incubation.

    Results: Based on the results obtained, there were no cysts or trophozoites of Acanthamoeba successfully isolated from all 75 dust samples. After three days of incubation, all culture plates examined show negative findings.

    Conclusions: The negative findings of this study were probably due to the limitations of the sampling method. It is recommended that future studies use the method proposed by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for indoor air quality monitoring.
  7. Salizar Mohamed Ludin
    Objective: In 2014, Malaysia suffered a severe flood disaster and many people lost their home and belongings. Despite regular flooding in this area, the status of community disaster resilience (CDR) is unknown. This paper thus aims to assess the association between demographic characteristics and community disaster resilience factors.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was completed using the Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure (CCRAM28) questionnaire six months after the flood event occurred. All selected respondents who met the inclusion criteria were recruited, and IBM SPSS software was used to undertake descriptive and inferential analysis.

    Results: A total of 386 respondents completed the questionnaires. Respondents were mostly female (57%); married (83.9%); with children under 17 years old (58.8%); from villages or rural area (97.2%); living in basic housing (95.6%); of average income; Muslim (97.5%); educated to primary or secondary level (81.1%); and not involved with any community organizations (95.1%), including volunteering, emergency teams, or military service. The mean age was 49 years, and length of time living in the area ranged from 1 to 85 years. CDR scores ranged between medium (2.34- 3.66) and high (3.67- 5.00). An analysis of the results showed that only gender (p = 0.003) and education (p = 0.001) were significantly related to CDR level. Positive and strong correlations were seen between resilience factors, however, particularly leadership (p = 0.001), collective efficacy (p = 0.001); preparedness (p = 0.001); place attachment (p = 0.001); and social trust (p = 0.001).

    Conclusion: The study provides a timely insight into the impact of demographic characteristics and resilience factors in Kelantan, developing the knowledge base needed to create comprehensive, improved community-relevant strategies for the future. This assessment enables top-down initiatives to better understand resilience levels, and this could act as tool to enable the government to prepare communities for future disasters or emergency events.
  8. Sharifah Munirah Syed Elias
    Objective: The aim of this paper was to review prevalence rates of loneliness, anxiety, and depression among older people living in long-term care settings such as residential aged care facilities, nursing homes and assisted living facilities.

    Method: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using several electronic databases including Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library.

    Results: In total, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. The results indicated that the prevalence rates of loneliness (56% to 95.5%), anxiety (3.6% to 38%), and depression (11% to 85.5%) in older people living in long-term care settings are generally high.

    Conclusion: Further research on effective methods of reducing these symptoms is recommended.
  9. Nurasikin Mohamad Shariff, Lee, Siew Pien
    People with mental health problem in Malaysia require access to spiritual care from their mental health services. However, the literature, which is dominated by Western scholars, brings the broad conception of spirituality into debate, which does not fit the paradigm of the religious worldview in countries such as Malaysia. This paper provides a narrative overview of the tensions inherent in the concept of spirituality as delivered in the literature. It begins a discussion on the place of spirituality in mental health care while highlighting the problematic concept of spirituality currently seen in the literature. This paper thus provides recommendations for future research on the need for particularising the concept of spirituality within mental healthcare in Malaysia.
  10. Aung,Khin Thandar, Fatin Izzati Saiful Bahri
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of the public on the services provided in the Emergency Department (ED) of Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA). Methods: An exploratory, descriptive design was used to understand public experiences on the services in the ED. Ten respondents who fit the inclusion criteria were selected using purposive sampling method during their visit to the ED. They were interviewed for 30 to 45 minutes and were audio-recorded with the permission of the participants. The general meaning and the tone conveyed by the respondents were determined through coding, descriptions, and the themes that emerged. Results: Four major themes emerged from the study including waiting time, ED staff, information regarding the ED, and expectation on the ED services. Conclusion: As a result, there is a need to improve the practices in the ED and a need for an awareness program on the real functions and services of the ED
  11. Azlina Daud, Fatimah Mohamad, Siti Noorkhairina Sowtali
    Objective: This study aims to determine the incidence rate of phlebitis among patients with peripheral intravenous catheter. Methods: An observational study was conducted in one of the hospitals in East Coast Malaysia. There were 321 data collected among patients who had peripheral intravenous catheter in medical, gynecology and orthopedic wards. The incidence of phlebitis was evaluated using modified Visual Infusion Phlebitis score checklist. Results: The incidence of phlebitis, was found out to be 36.1% (n=116/321). Most patients who developed phlebitis had visual infusion phlebitis, with a score of two (34.9%) and the rest developed phlebitis with a score of three (1.2%). Conclusion: This high incidence of phlebitis indicated a worrying outcome. Therefore, the study findings suggested that a specific guideline on post insertion management of peripheral intravenous catheter should be revised which may help in reducing more incidence of phlebitis, subsequently reduce infection in ward, and provide more safety environment in hospital and reducing cost in managing infection control.
  12. Al-Mahmood SMA, Rahim H, Othman N, Ibrahim WN
    Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and its association with perceived stress levels among nursing students at the International Islamic University Malaysia.
    Methods: A cross-sectional design was used in this study. A three-part questionnaire was used to gather data on stress levels and IBS symptoms. Part A posed questions on socio-demographic aspects. In part B, a Perceived Stress Scale was used to measure individuals’ perceived stress. Part C used a questionnaire developed by the World Gastroenterology Organisation (WGO) with the support of Danone.
    Results: The response rate was 85.5%: out of 200 students, 171 completed the questionnaires. According to the results, there is a significant relationship between stress levels and IBS (p = 0.006), where students who experienced moderate stress (151, 88.3%) were more exposed to IBS (60, 39.7%). There is no association between the characteristics of subjects with IBS and their level of stress (P > 0.05).
    Conclusion: The prevalence of IBS among the students in this study was roughly moderate. The frequency of moderate stress levels was high and there was a significant association with IBS. On the other hand, subject characteristics, e.g. smoking habits, were insignificantly associated with IBS and stress level (SL).
  13. Salizar Mohamed Ludin, Rusila Ruslan
    Objective: This paper reports the medical record analysis findings to identify nurses and junior doctors risk assessment and response to the incidence of deteriorating patient in general ward. Methods: A medical records analysis was conducted at a medical ward in one Malaysian hospital. Patients that were admitted for more than 24 hours and scored at least 3 points on the Modified Early Warning Sign (MEWS) assessment with their last 24 hours parameters calculated and nurses and junior doctor’s responses were analysed retrospectively. Results: Out of 200 records obtained, only 10 patients’ medical records met the study inclusion criteria. Three main themes were evident in the study, namely ‘track and trigger’, ‘hierarchical intervening’ and ‘attitude’. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that some nurses and junior doctors experience difficulties in effectively responding to patient deterioration which often occurs at a critical juncture. This study highlights factors which need to be addressed to increase patient safety and improve medical outcomes during hospitalization.
  14. Siti Roshaidai Mohd Arifin
    The protection of human subjects through the application of appropriate ethical principles is important in all research study. In a qualitative study, ethical considerations have a particular resonance due to the indepth nature of the study process. The existing ethical guidance for undertaking qualitative research often provide general guidelines rather than focusing on how to apply it in practice, particularly when interviewing vulnerable group of women. The aim of this paper is to present my own experience of conducting 33 individual face to face interviews on the women’s experience of postnatal depression across three different cultural backgrounds in Malaysia. This paper reflects on the strategies that can be adopted by a qualitative researcher to ensure that their participants’ identity is protected throughout recruitment and dissemination process, to deal with participants from different cultural backgrounds, and to handle and manage distress during interview. The consideration of ethical issues is crucial throughout all stages of qualitative study to keep the balance between the potential risks of research and the likely benefits of the research.
  15. Siti Mariam Muda, Nurul Akma Jamil
    In Malaysia, breastfeeding was dominantly practiced among Malay whose deeply believe in Islam and any decision should abide by Islamic teachings. Existing literature appear to have limited evidence on Malay mothers’ interpretation and construction of this practice. The decision to breastfeed was believed to be influenced by social and cultural context. Therefore, in order to explore life experience of breastfeeding mothers on their beliefs related to religious and sociocultural, qualitative study design was used. A minimal guidance of phenomenological approach adopted as the methodological framework. Semi structured interviews were carried out among 15 mothers whose were recruited from four Maternal and Child Health Clinic in Kuantan using purposive sampling. The experience of researchers thorough out their journey will be shared in terms of challenges; barriers and solution to overcome the concerned that exist while conducting in-depth interview session.
  16. Salizar M. Ludin, Che Azunie Che Abdullah, Kahairi Abdullah
    Objective: This study aimed to determine the association of socio-demographic factors and quality of life (QOL) of HNC survivors before and after treatment in Malaysia. Methods: 40 HNC patients were recruited, and assessed for their with QOL with Life Cancer Survivor (QLQ-CS) Head & Neck 35 (QLQ-H&N35) questionnaire pre-treatment and six months post-treatment. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t-test were done to analyse the data. Results: The result shows that the QOL of HNC patients were at medium level (total mean score M= 6.22) before treatment, and reduced (total mean score M= 4.84) at 6 months after treatment) . Only health history was seen significantly associated with QOL of HNC patients, both pre and post-treatment. Post treatment showed only marital status factor associated with QOL of HNC patients. The paired sample t-test result shows that the symptoms /problem pre- treatment (M = 255.10, SD = 20.405 )was lower than post treatment (M = 201.80, SD = 22.025)(t (49) = 9.337; p =0.001). Conclusions: The present research suggested that the patients’ QOL is reduced after treatment (medium level). This could be due to the advancement of the cancer and evidence when the health history and symptoms found significantly associated with the QOL. Thus, socio-demographic factors is very crucial factors that must be considered during patients’ assessment in improving patients’ care and optimum QOL pre and post treatment.
  17. Wisam Nabeel Ibrahim, Ain Nadiah Mazlan, Noratikah Othman, Sinan Mohammed Abdullah Al-Mahmood
    Objective: this study aims to assess the knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B and its associated factors among students of medical colleges at Kuantan Campus, the International Islamic University Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used, and data collection was carried out using a selfstructured close-ended questionnaire. Descriptive and analytic statistics were performed with independent t-test, One Way ANOVA and a correlation analysis determine any significant differences between the groups with p < 0.05 significance value Results: According to the results, there was a significant (p < 0.001) association between the type of Faculty with knowledge and awareness about hepatitis B. In addition, the results showed an association between year of study with the knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was an association between duration of clinical experience with knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B (p < 0.001). The results showed that there was no association between gender with knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B (p > 0.05). Conclusion: levels of knowledge showed a strong correlation with levels of awareness, meaning that students with high knowledge also had high awareness of hepatitis B. On the whole, students were aware of and knowledgeable about hepatitis B.
  18. Lee, Siew Pien, Nurasikin Mohamad Shariff
    This article attempts to provide an overview of issues related to children’s participation in decisions relating to health care. It sets the discussion in the context of current debate about children’s participation in health care decisions and explores the extent to which children want to participate in the decision. This article concludes that children mostly occupy a minimal role in communication and decisions regarding their care. The patterns of participation of children in communication and decisions are differing and fluctuate between the children and within the same child throughout their hospitalisation, depending on the participating child, their preferences, and requirements at a particular time.
  19. Jamaludin TSS, Zakaria MA, Saidi S, Chong MC
    Objective: As the incidence of emergencies has steadily increased in recent years, it is important to en-sure that individuals, including university students, are adequately trained to deal with such events. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge and awareness of, and attitudes towards, first aid among IIUM Kuantan campus students.

    Method: A quantitative cross-sectional survey with stratified random sam-pling study was conducted among 348 students at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Kuantan. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire which was adapted from Hong Kong Red Cross. The questionnaire was available in both English and the Malay language.

    Results: A total of 42.8% participants had a moderate level of first aid knowledge. However, 90.8% participants had aware-ness of and a positive attitude towards first aid knowledge. On the other hand, 55.4% of study participants had not experienced taking first aid courses and they had little knowledge of this. There were significant associations between gender, Kulliyyah or faculty, year of study, and first aid training experience, and the level of first aid knowledge based on a one-way ANOVA test with p-values of < 0.05 representing statistical significance.

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that most health sciences university students have good awareness and attitudes towards first aid. Nevertheless, implementation of regular educational programs with structured modules may be able to improve their knowledge of first aid practices and skills.
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