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  1. Mongkhon P, Dilokthornsakul P, Tepwang K, Tapanya K, Sopitprasan C, Chaliawsin P, et al.
    Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc, 2017 Jun;15:9-14.
    PMID: 28616566 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcha.2017.03.003
    BACKGROUND: Accessibility of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in primary care settings is limited. Referring patients to PCI-capable hospitals might increase cardiac events. Hence, fibrinolytic injection before referring patients to PCI-capable settings decreases cardiac events, however, the effect of fibrinolytic injection before the referral has not been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to systematically review the effect of fibrinolytic injection before referring patients with STEMI to PCI-capable settings.

    METHODS: A systematic search with Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, Google scholar, and PubMed was conducted. Studies conducted in patients with STEMI presented to non PCI-capable settings and compared fibrinolytic injection with no injection before referring patients to PCI-capable settings were included. The primary outcome was the composite outcomes of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at 30 days. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effect model.

    RESULTS: Of 912 articles, three RCTs and three non-RCTs were included. Based on RCTs, fibrinolytic injection before the referral has failed to decrease MACEs compared to non-fibrinolytic injection [relative risk (RR) 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.57, p = 0.237]. Fibrinolytic injection has also failed to decrease mortality, re-infarction, and ischemic stroke. On the other hand, fibrinolytic injection was associated with a higher risk of major bleeding.

    CONCLUSIONS: In non PCI-capable settings, fibrinolytic injection before referring patients with STEMI to PCI-capable settings has no clinical benefit but could increase risk of major bleeding. Clinicians might more carefully consider whether fibrinolytic injection should be used in patients with STEMI before the referral.

  2. Phillips KP, Santoso T, Sanders P, Alison J, Chan JLK, Pak HN, et al.
    Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc, 2019 Jun;23:100358.
    PMID: 31008181 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcha.2019.100358
    Background: Left atrial appendage closure is a non-pharmacological alternative for stroke prevention in high-risk non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients, but has not been widely studied in Asian patients. The prospective WASP registry assessed real-world outcomes for patients undergoing WATCHMAN implant in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Methods: Data were collected from consecutive patients across 9 centres. Major endpoints included procedural success, safety and long-term outcomes including occurrence of bleeding, stroke/transient ischaemic attack/systemic embolism and all-cause mortality.

    Results: Subjects (n = 201) had a mean age of 70.8 ± 9.4 years, high stroke risk (CHA2DS2-VASc: 3.9 ± 1.7), elevated bleeding risk (HAS-BLED: 2.1 ± 1.2) with 53% patients from Asian countries. Successful implantation occurred in 98.5% of patients; 7-day device/procedure-related SAE rate was 3.0%. After 2 years of follow-up, the rates of ischaemic stroke/TIA/SE and major bleeding were 1.9 and 2.2 per 100-PY, respectively, representing relative reductions of 77% and 49% versus expected rates per risk scores. The relative risk reductions versus expected rates were more pronounced in Asians vs. Non-Asians (89% vs 62%; 77% vs 14%). Other significant findings included larger mean LAA ostium diameter for Asians vs. Non-Asians (23.4 ± 4.1 mm vs. 21.2 ± 3.2 mm, p 

  3. Chen M, Arcari L, Engel J, Freiwald T, Platschek S, Zhou H, et al.
    Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc, 2019 Sep;24:100389.
    PMID: 31304234 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcha.2019.100389
    Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have considerable cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk and related to left ventricular remodeling and heart failure. Myocardial fibrosis is the pathophysiological hallmark of the failing heart.

    Methods and results: An observational study of consecutive CKD patients (n = 276) undergoing comprehensive clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between aortic stiffness, myocardial fibrosis, left ventricular remodeling and the severity of chronic kidney disease was examined. Compared to age-gender matched controls with no known kidney disease (n = 242), CKD patients had considerably higher myocardial native T1 and central aortic PWV (p ≪ 0.001), as well as abnormal diastolic relaxation by E/e' (mean) by echocardiography (p ≪ 0.01). A third of all patients had LGE, with similar proportions for the presence and the (ischaemic and non-ischaemic) pattern between the groups. PWV was strongly associated with and age, NT-proBNP and native T1 in both groups, but not with LGE presence or type; the associations were amplified in severe CKD stages. In multivariate analyses, PWV was independently associated with native T1 in both groups (p ≪ 0.01) with near two-fold increase in adjusted R2 in the presence of CKD (native T1 (10 ms) R2, B(95%CI) CKD vs. non-CKD 0.28, 0.2(0.15-0.25) vs. 0.18, 0.1(0.06-0.15), p ≪ 0.01).

    Conclusions: Aortic stiffness and interstitial myocardial fibrosis are interrelated; this association is accelerated in the presence of CKD, but independent of LGE. Our findings reiterate the significant contribution of CKD-related factors to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular remodeling.

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