METHODS: One hundred and fifty periodontitis cases and 150 healthy controls, all Yemeni adults 30-60 years old, were recruited. Sociodemographic data and history of oral hygiene practices and oral habits were obtained. Plaque index (PI) was measured on index teeth. Periodontal health status was assessed using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL) according to WHO. Periodontitis was defined as having one or more sextants with a CPI score ≥ 3. Multiple logistic regression modelling was employed to identify distal, intermediate and proximal determinants of periodontitis, while ordinal regression was used to identify those of CAL scores.
RESULTS: In logistic regression, PI score was associated with the highest odds of periodontitis (OR = 82.9) followed by cigarette smoking (OR = 12.8), water pipe smoking (OR = 10.2), male gender (OR = 3.4) and age (OR = 1.19); on the other hand, regular visits to the dentist (OR = 0.05), higher level of education (OR = 0.37) and daily dental flossing (OR = 0.95) were associated with lower odds. Somewhat similar associations were seen for CAL scores (ordinal regression); however, qat chewing was identified as an additional determinant (OR = 4.69).
CONCLUSION: Water pipe smoking is identified as a risk factor of periodontitis in this cohort in addition to globally known risk factors. Adjusted effect of qat chewing is limited to CAL scores, suggestive of association with recession.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire (content- and face-validated) survey was undertaken, classroom style, amongst final-year nursing students from selected Malaysian (n = 122, Response rate=97.6%) and Australian (n = 299, Response rate=54.7%) institutions. Quantitative data were analysed via Statistical Package for Social Science software (Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, p ≤ 0.01).
RESULTS: Significantly more Malaysian nursing students, compared to those in Australia, reported having encountered patients with OH issues (98.4% vs. 82.9%), namely halitosis (87.7% vs. 62.2%), oral ulcers (63.1% vs. 41.1%), oral/dental trauma (36.9% vs. 21.1%) and caries in children (28.7% vs. 7.7%). Less than half of Malaysian and Australian nursing students reported that they received adequate OH training (48.4% vs. 36.6%, p ≤ 0.01), especially in detecting oral cancer (18.0.0% vs. 22.6%, p ≤ 0.01) and preventing oral diseases (46.7% vs. 41.7%, p ≤ 0.01). Students in both countries demonstrated positive attitudes and believed in their role in OH care. Most students agreed that they should receive training in OH, especially in smoking cessation and providing OH care for patients with special needs. They also opined that a standardized evidence-based oral hygiene protocol is needed.
CONCLUSION: Support for education and practice in this area of patient care suggested positive implications for further development of nurses' roles in OH promotion and management.
METHODS: Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with Form 2 (14-years-old) and Form 4 (16-years-old) students from selected secondary schools in Selangor using a semi-structured topic guide until data saturation was reached. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework method analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 10 FGDs were conducted involving 77 adolescents. The motivators for good oral hygiene self-care were appearance, fear of oral disease, consequences of oral disease and past toothache experience. The barriers for oral hygiene self-care were poor attitude towards oral care, lack of confidence in toothbrushing skills, snacking habit and the taste of toothpaste.
CONCLUSION: Understanding the motivators and barriers to adolescents' oral hygiene self-care is the first step in designing effective oral health education messages. The findings from this study can be used as a guide for oral health education programmes and development of materials that fulfil the needs of the adolescent population.
METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to public dental therapists who were selected using a stratified random sampling technique. Questions included items on social structure, job satisfaction and motivation (based on the Warr-Cook-Wall scale), turnover intention (based on four cognitive processes) and perceived future roles. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the predictors of dental therapists' turnover intention.
RESULTS: Overall, a majority (>90%) of the participants had high job satisfaction and job motivation, with total mean scores of 45.70 ± 6.86 and 21.16 ± 2.63, respectively. A total of 8.3% intended to leave the public sector to work in a different organization. Of those who chose to remain as a dental therapist in the next five years, only 7% considered working in the private sector. The significant predictors for turnover intention were educational attainment, years of working experience, job satisfaction level and future preferred working sector.
CONCLUSION: Although the newly introduced Dental Act allows dental therapists to expand their roles to the private setting, very few intended to do so. This could be related to them having a high level of job satisfaction and job motivation while serving in the public sector.