Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Berahim Z, Moharamzadeh K, Jowett AK, Rawlinson A
    Int J Dent, 2015;2015:605813.
    PMID: 26633971 DOI: 10.1155/2015/605813
    The aim of this study was to develop a three-dimensional in vitro model of periodontium to investigate the osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation potential of the periodontal ligament fibroblast (PDLF) spheroids within a dentin-membrane complex. PDLFs were cultured in both spheroid forms and monolayers and were seeded onto two biological collagen-based and synthetic membranes. Cell-membrane composites were then transferred onto dentin slices with fibroblasts facing the dentin surface and further cultured for 20 days. The composites were then processed for histology and immunohistochemical analyses for osteocalcin, Runx2, periostin, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). Both membranes seeded with PDLF-derived cells adhered to dentin and fibroblasts were present at the dentin interface and spread within both membranes. All membrane-cell-dentine composites showed positive staining for osteocalcin, Runx2, and periostin. However, CAP was not expressed by any of the tissue composites. It can be concluded that PDLFs exhibited some osteogenic potential when cultured in a 3D matrix in the presence of dentin as shown by the expression of osteocalcin. However the interaction of cells and dentin in this study was unable to stimulate cementum formation. The type of membrane did not have a significant effect upon differentiation, but fibroblast seeded-PGA membrane demonstrated better attachment to dentin than the collagen membrane.
  2. Farah CS, Woo SB, Zain RB, Sklavounou A, McCullough MJ, Lingen M
    Int J Dent, 2014;2014:853479.
    PMID: 24891850 DOI: 10.1155/2014/853479
  3. Kallarakkal TG, Ramanathan A, Zain RB
    Int J Dent, 2013;2013:298249.
    PMID: 24223590 DOI: 10.1155/2013/298249
    Verrucous papillary lesions (VPLs) of oral cavity are diagnostically challenging as they include a spectrum of benign, potentially malignant, and frankly malignant lesions. A majority of the benign VPLs have viral aetiology and include commonly occurring squamous papilloma along with verruca vulgaris, focal epithelial hyperplasia, and condyloma. Current understanding of potentially malignant VPLs is perplexing and is primarily attributed to the use of confusing and unsatisfactory terminology. Clinically and histologically oral verrucous hyperplasia, a potentially malignant disorder, resembles oral verrucous carcinoma and may be indistinguishable from one another. The most reliable way to separate these entities on routine haematoxylin-eosin stained tissue sections is to recognize the exophytic growth patterns of oral verrucous hyperplasia from the combined exophytic and endophytic growth patterns associated with verrucous carcinoma. A review of the literature showed that there is a lot of confusion regarding the current clinical and histopathological guidelines to diagnose this potentially malignant entity. The criteria elaborated by different authors in establishing the diagnosis of oral verrucous hyperplasia are discussed in detail. A brief overview of the treatment modalities adopted is also discussed. The need for establishing a clear understanding of this potentially malignant entity is stressed as it may have far reaching implications on its management.
  4. Megat Abdul Wahab R, Md Dasor M, Senafi S, Abang Abdullah AA, Yamamoto Z, Jemain AA, et al.
    Int J Dent, 2013;2013:245818.
    PMID: 23737787 DOI: 10.1155/2013/245818
    Purpose. This study is aimed to compare the effects of two different orthodontic forces on crevicular alkaline phosphatase activity, rate of tooth movement, and root resorption. Materials and Methods. Twelve female subjects of class II division 1 malocclusion participated. Maxillary canines with bonded fixed appliances acted as the tested teeth, while their antagonists with no appliances acted as the controls. Canine retraction was performed using nickel titanium coil spring that delivered forces of 100 gm or 150 gm to either side. Crevicular fluid was analyzed for ALP activity, and study models were casted to measure tooth movements. Root resorption was assessed using periapical radiographs before and after the force application. Results. ALP activity at the mesial sites peaked at week 1 for 150 gm group with significant differences when compared with the 100 gm group. Cumulative canine movements were significantly greater in the 150 gm force (2.10 ± 0.50 mm) than in the 100 gm force (1.57 ± 0.44 mm). No root resorption was in the maxillary canines after retraction. Conclusions. A force of 150 gm produced faster tooth movements and higher ALP activity compared with the 100 gm group and had no detrimental effects such as root resorption.
  5. Tancawan AL, Pato MN, Abidin KZ, Asari AS, Thong TX, Kochhar P, et al.
    Int J Dent, 2015;2015:472470.
    PMID: 26300919 DOI: 10.1155/2015/472470
    Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n = 235) or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n = 237) for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required) at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7%) was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache) were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7%) in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217.
  6. Mohd Dom TN, Ayob R, Abd Muttalib K, Aljunid SM
    Int J Dent, 2016;2016:1891074.
    PMID: 27092180 DOI: 10.1155/2016/1891074
    Objectives. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden associated with the management of periodontitis in Malaysia from the societal perspective. Methods. We estimated the economic burden of periodontitis by combining the disease prevalence with its treatment costs. We estimated treatment costs (with 2012 value of Malaysian Ringgit) using the cost-of-illness approach and included both direct and indirect costs. We used the National Oral Health Survey for Adults (2010) data to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis and 2010 national census data to estimate the adult population at risk for periodontitis. Results. The economic burden of managing all cases of periodontitis at the national level from the societal perspective was approximately MYR 32.5 billion, accounting for 3.83% of the 2012 Gross Domestic Product of the country. It would cost the nation MYR 18.3 billion to treat patients with moderate periodontitis and MYR 13.7 billion to treat patients with severe periodontitis. Conclusion. The economic burden of periodontitis in Malaysia is substantial and comparable with that of other chronic diseases in the country. This is attributable to its high prevalence and high cost of treatment. Judicious application of promotive, preventive, and curative approaches to periodontitis management is decidedly warranted.
  7. Bhagavathula AS, Bin Zakaria N, Jamshed SQ
    Int J Dent, 2015;2015:218065.
    PMID: 26839548 DOI: 10.1155/2015/218065
    Objective. To assess knowledge and awareness of oral cancer in the early identification of risk factors among undergraduate dental students. Methods. A total of 162 undergraduate (third, fourth, and fifth year) dental students at International Islamic University, Malaysia, were approached to participate in the study, and those who agreed were administered. A 9-item pretested questionnaire contains questions on oral examination, oral cancer risk factors, and requests for further information. Descriptive statistics were conducted using chi-square testing. Results. The response rate of the study was 70.3% (114/162), with 26 (22.8%) males and 88 (77.2%) females. All undergraduate dental students were familiar with examining the oral mucosa of their patients and most were likely to advise patients about the risk factors for developing oral cancer (98.2%). Nearly one-third (32.4%) of students reported examining patients with oral lesions as early signs for oral cancer (P < 0.001) and nearly 70% agreed that they did not have sufficient knowledge regarding the prevention and detection of oral cancer (P < 0.001). In addition, more than 95.6% agreed that there is a need for additional information/teaching regarding oral cancer. Further, 61.3% and 14.1% identified tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol as major risk factors for developing oral cancer. Conclusion. This study demonstrated lack of awareness about risk factors among undergraduate dental students regarding oral cancer. Reinforcing awareness and enhancing the benefits of early detection on prevention of oral cancer should be done through training and/or educational intervention.
  8. Saran R, Upadhya NP, Ginjupalli K, Amalan A, Rao B, Kumar S
    Int J Dent, 2020;2020:8896225.
    PMID: 33061975 DOI: 10.1155/2020/8896225
    Introduction: Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are commonly used for cementation of indirect restorations. However, one of their main drawbacks is their inferior mechanical properties.

    Aim: Compositional modification of conventional glass ionomer luting cements by incorporating two types of all-ceramic powders in varying concentrations and evaluation of their film thickness, setting time, and strength. Material & Methods. Experimental GICs were prepared by adding different concentrations of two all-ceramic powders (5%, 10, and 15% by weight) to the powder of the glass ionomer luting cements, and their setting time, film thickness, and compressive strength were determined. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry analysis was done to evaluate the kinetics of the setting reaction of the samples. The average particle size of the all-ceramic and glass ionomer powders was determined with the help of a particle size analyzer.

    Results: A significant increase in strength was observed in experimental GICs containing 10% all-ceramic powders. The experimental GICs with 5% all-ceramic powders showed no improvement in strength, whereas those containing 15% all-ceramic powders exhibited a marked decrease in strength. Setting time of all experimental GICs progressively increased with increasing concentration of all-ceramic powders. Film thickness of all experimental GICs was much higher than the recommended value for clinical application.

    Conclusion: 10% concentration of the two all-ceramic powders can be regarded as the optimal concentration for enhancing the glass ionomer luting cements' strength. There was a significant increase in the setting time at this concentration, but it was within the limit specified by ISO 9917-1:2007 specifications for powder/liquid acid-base dental cements. Reducing the particle size of the all-ceramic powders may help in decreasing the film thickness, which is an essential parameter for the clinical performance of any luting cement.

  9. Raja KK, Hari P, Chin MQK, Singbal K, Fareez IM
    Int J Dent, 2019;2019:9753431.
    PMID: 31191655 DOI: 10.1155/2019/9753431
    Objective: To evaluate the color stability of a new organic rice husk nanocomposite as compared to four conventional composites after exposure to commonly consumed beverages in Malaysia.

    Methods: One hundred and twenty-five disk samples were prepared from a new rice husk-based composite and four other conventional methacrylate-based light-cured composites of shade A2. The samples were immersed in four commonly consumed beverages: coco-based drink, kopi, Chinese tea, and teh tarik for four weeks. The color measurements were carried out every week using the reflectance spectrophotometer according to the CIE L



    color system. Color changes of samples (ΔE) in each week were calculated. Statistical analysis was carried out by performing a mixed ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test in order to analyse the differences in ΔE.

    Results: The findings revealed a statistically significant difference of ΔE reading (p < 0.05) among all composites immersed in all four beverages after four weeks. Rice husk composites exhibited lesser color stability as compared to Ceram.X One Universal (p < 0.001) and G-aenial Universal Flo (p < 0.001) but showed higher color stability compared to Solare-X (p < 0.001) and Neofil (p < 0.001). Coffee and Chinese tea had the most significant impact on color changes (p < 0.05) observed in all composites over four weeks of study.

    Conclusion: Rice husk composite showed acceptable color stability. It can be considered as an alternative to conventional composites due to its eco-friendly properties.

  10. Karobari MI, Parveen A, Mirza MB, Makandar SD, Nik Abdul Ghani NR, Noorani TY, et al.
    Int J Dent, 2021;2021:6682189.
    PMID: 33679981 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6682189
    Introduction: While there are many root morphology classification systems with their own distinct advantages, there are many shortcomings that come along with each system.

    Objectives: The aim of this review was to compare the various root and root canal morphology classifications, their advantages, limitations, and clinical and research implications. Data Sources and Selection. An extensive literature search was conducted on PubMed and Scopus to identify the published data on root and root canal classification systems published until 1 May 2020 using keywords, root canal classification system, classification systems for root canals, and root morphology. The related literature was reviewed and then summarized. Data Synthesis. Several studies have analysed and detailed root and root canal classifications and further added new subsystems, works of Weine et al. (1969) and Vertucci et al. (1974). Besides, Sert and Bayirli (2004) added supplementary types to Vertucci's classification system. A new classification was most recently introduced by Ahmed et al. (2017) involving the use of codes for tooth numbering, number of roots, and canal configuration.

    Conclusions: Weine et al. classified only single-rooted teeth, without considering multirooted teeth and complex configurations. Vertucci's classification included complex configurations, with Sert and Bayirli adding further complex supplemental types. Ahmed et al.'s classification simplifies classifying root and canal morphology while overcoming the limitations of several previous classification systems making it beneficial for implementation in dental schools.

  11. Pateel DGS, Gunjal S, Fong LF, Hanapi NSM
    Int J Dent, 2021;2021:1982083.
    PMID: 33688346 DOI: 10.1155/2021/1982083
    Background: Saliva, as a complex biofluid, plays a pivotal role in maintaining oral health and tooth integrity. There has been inconsistent data available on the relationship between salivary parameters and oral health. This study aims to investigate the association between salivary statherin, acidic proline-rich proteins (aPRP), and calcium with oral hygiene status.

    Methods: One hundred and eighty-eight healthy subjects aged between 18 and 50 years with varying oral hygiene status who gave consent to participate were included in this cross-sectional study. The subjects were recruited from primary oral health care of MAHSA University. Oral hygiene of all the participants was measured using Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S). Stimulated saliva collected using paraffin wax was analyzed for salivary statherin, aPRP, and calcium. The relationship between salivary statherin, aPRP, and calcium levels with OHI-S was assessed using Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient; the strength of relationship was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis.

    Results: The study found a weak positive correlation (r = 0.179, p = 0.014) between salivary statherin and OHI-S; weak negative correlation (r = -0.187, p = 0.010) between salivary aPRP and OHI-S; and moderate negative correlation between salivary statherin and salivary aPRP levels (r = -0.50, p 

  12. Karobari MI, Assiry AA, Mirza MB, Sayed FR, Shaik S, Marya A, et al.
    Int J Dent, 2021;2021:6625126.
    PMID: 33747083 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6625126
    Introduction: Patients experience various levels of discomfort during orthodontic treatment, i.e., after placement of separators, orthodontic implant placement, and archwire placement and during debonding. Various pain control methods have been developed to relive pain during debonding, i.e., finger pressure (FP), elastomeric wafer (EW), and stress relief (SR).

    Aim: To analyse various pain scales commonly used to determine the effect of different pain control methods during debonding of orthodontic brackets. Study Design. A comparative cross-sectional study performed on a sample of 60 patients (n = 60) including 14 males and 46 females who were ready for debonding and who were divided into three groups, i.e., finger pressure (FP), elastomeric wafer (EW), and stress relief (SR).

    Materials and Methods: A 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to record the pain intensity for each tooth. Another scale known as Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was used to evaluate the patient's general attitude towards pain perception. The armamentarium and operator were kept same for all the patients. Statistical analysis used was the Kruskal-Wallis test, used for intergroup and intragroup comparison of pain scores.

    Results: Lowest total pain score was recorded in the FP group (P=0.043) on intergroup comparison, while on intragroup comparison, higher pain scores were recorded in lower anterior region (P=0.02) in all three groups. There was no significant difference between the pain scores reported by the male and female subjects.

    Conclusion: FP is an effective method of pain control. And teeth in the anterior region of lower and upper arches are more sensitive to pain. In terms of cognitive-affective constructs, although the VAS has been widely used in previous studies, the PCS has been detailed to show the most reliable association with physical discomfort and emotional distress.

  13. Khandagale PD, Shetty PP, Makandar SD, Bapna PA, Karobari MI, Marya A, et al.
    Int J Dent, 2021;2021:7402658.
    PMID: 34367289 DOI: 10.1155/2021/7402658
    Introduction: The main aims of root canal instrumentation are to provide an environment that will lead to healing and to provide a root canal shape that is comfortable to clean and seal. When working with rotary endodontic instruments, the most significant concerns are that the instrument might fracture in the root canal, thus affecting the treatment outcome. Hence, it is of immense importance to know which file systems have more cyclic fatigue resistance. Methodology. This study evaluated the effect of the curved segment length of the artificial canal (the arch), and the number of cycles necessary in fracture of Hyflex EDM, Twisted files, and ProTaper Gold were recorded. Sixty NiTi rotary instruments of 25 mm length (Hyflex EDM (20), Twisted files (20), and ProTaper Gold (20)) were tested in a metal block with simulated canal having 90° angle of curvature. The study was performed with a specific radius and degree of curvature, i.e., 8 mm radius and 90⁰ angle of curvature, and data obtained were subsequently subjected to statistical evaluation using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test.

    Result: The Hyflex EDM (774.29) exhibited the maximum cyclic fatigue resistance compared to Twisted files (654.875) and ProTaper Gold (375.575). A statistically significant difference was observed between the tested groups.

    Conclusion: The Hyflex EDM files showed the highest cyclic fatigue resistance, followed by Twisted files and ProTaper Gold files.

  14. Mahdi SS, Ahmed Z, Allana R, Amenta F, Agha D, Latif MW, et al.
    Int J Dent, 2021;2021:5574536.
    PMID: 34221016 DOI: 10.1155/2021/5574536
    Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out. A 27-item prepilot tested close-ended questionnaire was designed and administered online to collect data on knowledge of asepsis, sterilization, instrument handling, disinfection, hand-hygiene practices, dental practice, age, education, and experience level from March 2020 to June 2020.

    Results: Out of 70 dental assistants, the majority were aged between 21 and 29 years (44.30%), more than two-thirds (85.41%) of the dental assistants were working in a hospital, while 14.29% were working in private clinics, only 7.1% had a diploma in the dental assistant program, and 74% had more than 2 years of experience in practice. Dental assistants working in private practice (76.30) had a higher mean knowledge scores compared to those working in hospital (74.25), while those with less than 2 years of experience (75.61) had a higher scores compared to those with 2-5 years of experience (73.96).

    Conclusion: Better compliance with recommended infection control and waste management practices is needed for all dental assistants. Continuing education programs targeting such awareness are vital to improve the management of hazardous waste practices among dental assistants.

  15. Yue Yi EK, Siew Ying AL, Mohan M, Menon RK
    Int J Dent, 2021;2021:6664311.
    PMID: 34211554 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6664311
    The aim of the study was to identify the postoperative infection rates after tooth extraction in a university dental clinic and to identify the factors associated with an increased risk for postoperative infection. A retrospective study of case records of patients who underwent tooth extractions at the International Medical University's Oral Health Centre (IMU-OHC) over a span of 6 years was conducted. Data on demography, patient-related factors, and treatment-related factors were extracted from the case records. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the odds ratio of a patient having a postoperative infection or not, comparing it with each variable. A total of 1821 extractions, including simple and complex extractions, were performed over 6 years. Only 25 (1.4%) of the cases were reported to have a postoperative infection. The complexity of the extraction was the only variable that significantly affected the occurrence of postoperative infection after extraction; more complex extractions were reported with higher rates of infection (binary logistic regression, OR = 2.03, p = 0.004). None of the other factors, including antibiotic prescription, had a significant influence on the occurrence of postoperative infection. The prevalence of postoperative infection after dental extractions was low in IMU-OHC, and prescribing antibiotics had no added advantage in the prevention of postoperative infection.
  16. Mohan M, Lin KH, Parolia A, Pau A
    Int J Dent, 2021;2021:4573459.
    PMID: 34608391 DOI: 10.1155/2021/4573459
    Objectives: The research aimed to investigate if emotional intelligence (EI) scores of dental undergraduates influenced their patients' satisfaction with the treatment received.

    Methods: A 33-item EI questionnaire was completed by 46 dental undergraduates in a cross-sectional study. Responses, measured on a five-point Likert scale, were summed to yield EI scores. Patients treated by the same undergraduates were invited to complete a patient satisfaction (PS) questionnaire. EI and PS scores were calculated and compared by undergraduates' gender and the patients' age and education status. The four EI factors (optimism/mood regulation, appraisal of emotions, utilization of emotions, and social skills of students) were correlated with PS using Spearman's correlation test with a significance level set at p < 0.05.

    Results: EI scores did not differ significantly between male (N = 23) and female (N = 23) undergraduates (p=0.218). PS was not associated with patients' gender, but those educated to the secondary school level were more likely to be satisfied compared to those educated to the college/university level (p=0.022). Of the four EI factors, optimism/mood regulation was positively correlated with PS (p=0.049).

    Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that the EI of the students can influence PS. Practical Implications. Interventions to enhance EI can be developed to improve the patient experience.

  17. Safii SH, Tompkins GR, Duncan WJ
    Int J Dent, 2017;2017:9874535.
    PMID: 28392803 DOI: 10.1155/2017/9874535
    Background. Topical application of manuka honey is effective in the treatment of burns and soft-tissue infections. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial activity of manuka honey against plaque-associated bacteria in vitro in order to evaluate the potential application as an adjunct to periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods. The minimum bacteriostatic and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of manuka honey were compared to those of white clover honey against a variety of plaque-associated bacteria, at the natural and neutral pH. Dissolved calcium was measured following incubation of honeys with hydroxyapatite (HA) beads to assess their potential to demineralise oral hard tissues. Results. Both honeys inhibited most tested oral bacteria at similar MIC/MBC, but Streptococcus mutans was comparatively resistant. The honeys at pH neutral had little effect on antimicrobial activity. Incubation of HA beads in honey solutions resulted in pH-dependent calcium dissolution, and inoculation with S. mutans promoted further demineralisation by both types of honey. Conclusion. Manuka honey is antimicrobial towards representative oral bacteria. However, the relative resistance of S. mutans in association with the high concentrations of fermentable carbohydrates in honey and the direct demineralising effect at natural pH mitigate against the application of honey as an adjunct in the treatment of periodontal disease.
  18. Pateel DGS, Gunjal S, Math SY, Murugeshappa DG, Nair SM
    Int J Dent, 2017;2017:2857629.
    PMID: 28572822 DOI: 10.1155/2017/2857629
    BACKGROUND: Salivary constituents have a wide range of functions including oral calcium homeostasis. Salivary proteins such as statherin inhibit crystal growth of calcium phosphate in supersaturated solutions and interact with several oral bacteria to adsorb on hydroxyapatite. Concurrently, saliva, which is supersaturated with respect to calcium phosphates, is the driving force for plaque mineralization and formation of calculus. Thus, the aim of the present study was to estimate and correlate salivary statherin and calcium concentration to the dental calculus formation.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the relationship between salivary statherin, calcium, and dental calculus among 70 subjects, aged 20-55 years. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on the calculus scores as interpreted by Calculus Index which was followed by collection of whole saliva using Super•SAL™. Salivary calcium levels were assessed by calorimetric method using Calcium Assay kit (Cayman Chemical, Michigan, USA) and statherin levels by using ELISA Kit (Cusabio Biotech).

    RESULTS: Statherin levels showed a weak negative correlation with the calcium levels and with calculus formation. The mean salivary statherin and calcium concentration were found to be 0.96 μg/ml and 3.87 mg/ml, respectively. Salivary statherin levels differed significantly among the three groups (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data indicates that statherin could possibly play a role in the formation of dental calculus.

  19. Kohli S, Wui Vun AL, Daryl Philip C, Muhammad Aadil C, Ramalingam M
    Int J Dent, 2018;2018:7127209.
    PMID: 30034470 DOI: 10.1155/2018/7127209
    Purpose: Falls occur commonly in geriatric populations and undesirably influence their life, morbidity, and mortality. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the number of teeth present among the elderly population and covariates in relation to the risk of falls.

    Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at various old age homes in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia involving the geriatric population aged 60 years and above. A detailed questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic data including sex, age, household income, and dental variables such as the number of teeth and chewing difficulty was obtained. The Tinetti test (TT) was used to evaluate the patients' ability to walk, to maintain postural balance, and to determine their risk of falling. The short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale was used to assess depression among the participants, and the Barthel Scale was used to analyze the subject's ability to perform the activities of daily living (ADL).

    Results: Statistically significant association was observed in relation to the number of teeth present and risk of falls (p < 0.05). Subjects who had 19 teeth or less in total had moderate to highest risk of falls (p=0.001) in comparison with subjects who had 20 teeth or more. Those aged 70 years and above showed the highest risk of falls (p=0.001) in comparison with the subjects aged between 60 and 69 years. Subjects with depression (p=0.03) and presence of illness related to fall showed statistically significant difference (p=0.001) in comparison with those who did not suffer from the same. Compromised ADL (p=0.001) (which included ability to perform several tasks like indoor mobility, climbing stairs, toilet use, and feeding) and low monthly income (p=0.03) was also observed among subjects who had higher risk of falls.

    Conclusion: According to the results achieved, there was a high statistically significant association observed between the number of teeth present, age, depression, ADL, and presence of illness in relation to the risk of falling among the geriatric population. Henceforth, oral rehabilitation of elderly patients with less number of teeth may reduce their risk of falls.

  20. Gunjal S, Pateel DG, Parkar S
    Int J Dent, 2017;2017:4762576.
    PMID: 28348593 DOI: 10.1155/2017/4762576
    Aim. To assess the dental anxiety level among dental, medical, and pharmacy students of MAHSA University, Malaysia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 1500 undergraduate students of MAHSA University. The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) was used to measure dental anxiety among the study population. The responses were assessed by 5-point likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. The level of anxiety was categorized into lowly anxious (5-11), moderately anxious (12-18), and severely anxious ≥19. Out of 1500 students enrolled, 1024 students (342 males and 682 females) completed and returned the questionnaire having response rate of 68.26%. Results. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) when the mean dental anxiety scores were compared among the three faculties and dental students had lowest mean score (11.95 ± 4.21). The fifth year (senior) dental students scored significantly (P = 0.02) lower mean anxiety score as compared to the first dental students (junior). The students were anxious mostly about tooth drilling and local anesthetic injection. Conclusions. Dental students have a significantly low level of dental anxiety as compared with medical and pharmacy students. Incorporation of dental health education in preuniversity and other nondental university curriculums may reduce dental anxiety among the students.
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