Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

  1. Lee CK, Chang CC, Johor A, Othman P, Baba R
    Int J Dermatol, 2015 Jul;54(7):765-70.
    PMID: 25427962 DOI: 10.1111/ijd.12451
    Hand dermatitis associated fingerprint changes is a significant problem and affects fingerprint verification processes. This study was done to develop a clinically useful prediction model for fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis.
  2. Kwan Z, Che Ismail RB, Wong SM, Tan LL, Robinson S, Lim KS
    Int J Dermatol, 2014 Oct;53(10):e477-9.
    PMID: 25209632 DOI: 10.1111/ijd.12579
  3. Choon SE, Lai NM, Mohammad NA, Nanu NM, Tey KE, Chew SF
    Int J Dermatol, 2014 Jun;53(6):676-84.
    PMID: 23967807 DOI: 10.1111/ijd.12070
    BACKGROUND: Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a severe but rare variant of psoriasis. Our objective is to review the clinical profile, comorbidities, and outcome of patients with GPP.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective note review of all patients with adult-onset GPP.
    RESULTS: A total of 102 patients with adult-onset GPP were diagnosed between 1989 and November 2011, with a female to male ratio of 2 : 1. The mean age at onset of GPP was 40.9 years (range: 21-81 years). Acute GPP was the most common variant seen (95 cases), followed by four localized variants of GPP and three with annular pustular psoriasis. Fever and painful skin were present in 89% of patients, arthritis in 34.7%, and leukocytosis in 78.4%. Common triggers were systemic steroids (45 cases), pregnancy (17 cases), and upper respiratory tract infections (16 cases). A positive family history of psoriasis and GPP was present in 29% and 11%, respectively. Comorbidities included obesity (42.9%), hypertension (25.7%), hyperlipidemia (25.7%), and diabetes mellitus (23.7%). The mean duration of admission and pustular flare for acute GPP was 10.3 days (range: 3-44 days) and 16 days (range: 7-60 days), respectively. Fifty-four patients responded to systemic retinoid, 21 to methotrexate, eight to cyclosporine, and one to adalimumab, but recurrences were common.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the poor response of GPP to currently available anti-psoriatic agents, with frequent flare-ups. There is a need for a more effective targeted therapy for this condition.
  4. Tang MM, Tang JJ, Gill P, Chang CC, Baba R
    Int J Dermatol, 2012 Jun;51(6):702-8.
    PMID: 22607289 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05229.x
    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous fungal infection caused by a thermally dimorphic aerobic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii. It results from traumatic inoculation or contact with animals. Most cases were reported mainly in the tropics and subtropics.
  5. Jalalonmuhali M, Lee YY, Lee CK, Ismail R, Chandran PA
    Int J Dermatol, 2014 Feb;53(2):234-7.
    PMID: 22913324 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05463.x
  6. Wong SM, Baba R
    Int J Dermatol, 2012 Feb;51(2):158-61.
    PMID: 22250623 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.04932.x
    Vitiligo is a chronic disease and can have significant impairment on patients' quality of life (QoL). Studies have shown that limitations in QoL are similar in magnitude to patients with other chronic skin diseases like psoriasis. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) of patients with vitiligo attending the dermatology clinic of a tertiary hospital in Malaysia.
    Study site: Dermatology clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  7. Chang CC, Too CL, Murad S, Hussein SH
    Int J Dermatol, 2011 Feb;50(2):221-4.
    PMID: 21244392 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2010.04745.x
    BACKGROUND: Carbamazepine (CBZ), a frequently used anticonvulsant drug, is one of the most common causes of life-threatening cutaneous adverse drug reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Recent studies have revealed a strong association between HLA-B*1502 and CBZ-induced TEN/SJS in the Taiwan Han Chinese population.
    OBJECTIVES: This study is aimed to investigate the association between human leucocyte antigens (HLA) and CBZ-induced TEN/SJS in the multi-ethnic Malaysian population.
    METHODS: A sample of 21 unrelated patients with CBZ-induced TEN/SJS and 300 race-matched, healthy controls were genotyped for HLA-A, -B and -DR using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Allele frequencies were compared.
    RESULTS: HLA-B*1502 was present in 75.0% (12/16) of Malay patients with CBZ-induced TEN/SJS but in only 15.7% (47/300) of normal controls (odds ratio 16.15, 95% confidence interval 4.57-62.4; corrected P-value  = 7.87 × 10(-6) ), which suggests a strong association between HLA and CBZ-induced TEN/SJS. Additionally, HLA-B*1502 was found in all three Chinese and two Indian patients. Existing data show that frequencies of the HLA-B*1502 allele are generally much higher in Asian populations than in White European populations, which explains the higher incidences of SJS and TEN in Asian countries.
    CONCLUSIONS: HLA-B*1502 is strongly associated with CBZ-induced TEN/SJS in the Malay population in Malaysia, as has been seen in Han Chinese in Taiwan. This indicates that the genetic association apparent in the incidence of CBZ-induced TEN/SJS is linked with the presence of HLA-B*1502, irrespective of racial origin. Screening of patients for this genetic marker can help to prevent the occurrence of TEN/SJS.
  8. Ding WY, Lee CK, Choon SE
    Int J Dermatol, 2010 Jul;49(7):834-41.
    PMID: 20618508 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2010.04481.x
    BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions are most commonly cutaneous in nature. Patterns of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and their causative drugs vary among the different populations previously studied.
    OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to determine the clinical pattern of drug eruptions and the common drugs implicated, particularly in severe cutaneous ADRs in our population.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was done by analyzing the database established for all adverse cutaneous drug reactions seen from January 2001 until December 2008.
    RESULTS: A total of 281 cutaneous ADRs were seen in 280 patients. The most common reaction pattern was maculopapular eruption (111 cases, 39.5%) followed by Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS: 79 cases, 28.1%), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS: 19 cases, 6.8%), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN: 16 cases, 5.7 %), urticaria/angioedema (15 cases, 5.3%) and fixed drug eruptions (15 cases, 5.3%). Antibiotics (38.8%) and anticonvulsants (23.8%) accounted for 62.6% of the 281 cutaneous ADRs seen. Allopurinol was implicated in 39 (13.9%), carbamazepine in 29 (10.3%), phenytoin in 27 (9.6%) and cotrimoxazole in 26 (9.3%) cases. Carbamazepine, allopurinol and cotrimoxazole were the three main causative drugs of SJS/TEN accounting for 24.0%, 18.8% and 12.5% respectively of the 96 cases seen whereas DRESS was mainly caused by allopurinol (10 cases, 52.6%) and phenytoin (3 cases, 15.8%).
    DISCUSSION: The reaction patterns and drugs causing cutaneous ADRs in our population are similar to those seen in other countries although we have a much higher proportion of severe cutaneous ADRs probably due to referral bias, different prescribing habit and a higher prevalence of HLA-B*1502 and HLA-B*5801 which are genetic markers for carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN and allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN/DRESS respectively.
    CONCLUSION: The most common reaction pattern seen in our study population was maculopapular eruptions. Antibiotics, anticonvulsants and NSAIDs were the most frequently implicated drug groups. Carbamazepine and allopurinol were the two main causative drugs of severe ADRs in our population.
  9. Yap FBB
    Int J Dermatol, 2010 Feb;49(2):176-9.
    PMID: 20465642 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.04342.x
    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer among Orientals. Data on this malignancy is lacking in Malaysia, prompting a retrospective study to determine the clinical characteristics in the skin clinic, Sarawak General Hospital between 2000 and 2008.
    METHODS: Demographic data and clinical features of 64 histopathologically proven BCC from 43 patients were retrieved. Statistical analysis was performed comparing the clinical characteristics based on the region of involvement and gender.
    RESULTS: The mean age of presentation was 60.9 years. Male to female ratio was 1.05. Majority of the patients were Chinese (44.2%) followed by Malays (32.6%), Bidayuhs (14.0%) and Ibans (6.9%). Nodular BCC accounted for 95.3% of cases while 4.7% were superficial BCC. All the nodular BCC were pigmented. Ulceration was noted in 18%. There were 82.8% of BCC on the head and neck region and 17.2% on the trunk and limb region. BCC on the latter region were larger (mean 35.0 cf. 14.4 mm, p < 0.001) and ulcerated (45.5% cf. 11.3%, p = 0.01). Superficial BCC were also more frequently encountered in this region (18.2% cf. 1.9%, p = 0.02). Compared to women, men had larger BCC (mean 21.1 cf. 13.3 mm, p = 0.03) and kept them for a longer duration (mean 21.6 cf. 13.3 months, p = 0.04).
    CONCLUSION: Clinical characteristics of BCC in Sarawak were similar to other Asian studies. Additionally, BCC on the trunk and limbs and in men were larger, ulcerative and long standing warranting better efforts for earlier detection.
    Study site: Skin clinic, Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
  10. Choon SE, Tey KE
    Int J Dermatol, 2009 Sep;48(9):984-8.
    PMID: 19702985 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.04078.x
    Lucio's phenomenon is a rare and aggressive necrotising variant of erythema nodosum leprosum that classically occur in patients with undiagnosed, diffuse non-nodular lepromatous leprosy. It is a potentially fatal leprosy reaction characterised by extensive, bizarrely-shaped, painful purpuric skin lesions and ulcerations. Lucio's phenomenon is very rarely reported outside of Mexico and Costa Rica.
  11. Ng LC, Lee YY, Lee CK, Wong SM
    Int J Dermatol, 2013 Jan;52(1):102-5.
    PMID: 23278617 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05436.x
    BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX) is a common and efficacious systemic agent used for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis. Nevertheless, its use is associated with the risk of hepatotoxicity. This study was performed to study the association of MTX dose with regards to hepatotoxicity as evidenced by deranged transaminases.
    METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients with psoriasis on MTX from 2000 to 2009 at the outpatient dermatology clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). We analyzed patients' demography, serial laboratory investigations, liver ultrasounds, and liver biopsies of patients on MTX.
    RESULTS: Sixty-six of 710 (9.30%) patients with psoriasis were prescribed MTX throughout the 10-year period. Among them 57.6% developed deranged transaminases, with six requiring MTX withdrawal due to hepatotoxicity. The mean cumulative dose of MTX at the detection of liver enzyme derangement was 552.3 ± 596.1 mg.
    CONCLUSION: A high proportion of patients on MTX had deranged transaminases. However, the number of serious events was low. We concluded from this study that the use of MTX is relatively safe in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.

    Study site: outpatient dermatology clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC
  12. Tang MM, Chang CC, Chan LC, Heng A
    Int J Dermatol, 2013 Mar;52(3):314-22.
    PMID: 23414155 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05340.x
    BACKGROUND:Psoriasis is an immune-mediated, chronic, inflammatory skin disease which affects approximately 2% of the world's population. It has a major impact on the patient's quality of life (QoL), influencing career, social activities, family relationships, and all other aspects of life. Many studies have described the various ways in which psoriasis can affect a patient's life. Very little is known, however, about the impact of psoriasis on the QoL of patients treated in Malaysia and the cost of illness in this region.
    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe the extent to which psoriasis affects the QoL of patients treated in government-run dermatology clinics in Malaysia and to estimate the cost of illness.
    METHODS: A total of 250 psoriasis patients treated at eight dermatology clinics in government-run hospitals in Malaysia were studied. The severity of psoriasis was assessed by dermatologists. Quality of life was evaluated using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Version 2 of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12v2). Scores on the SF-12v2 of healthy subjects and of patients with other medical conditions, such as depression, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease, were also assessed for comparison. The costs of dermatology outpatient consultant fees, medications, investigations, procedures, transportation, over-the-counter medications, and hospitalization were retrospectively estimated using questionnaires.
    RESULTS: The cohort studied had a median Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score of 9.9 and a median DLQI score of 10.0. The average SF-12v2 scores were 43.68 (standard deviation [SD] 9.23) and 42.25 (SD 10.7) on the Physical Health Summary and Mental Health Summary, respectively. The impact of disease on QoL was found to be greater in those with more extensive psoriatic lesion involvement, in younger patients, and in those with psoriatic arthropathy. Psoriasis was found to affect QoL in both genders equally. Body mass index had no effect on the severity of psoriasis or QoL. Patients with psoriasis had a significantly lower SF-12v2 score than healthy subjects. Comparisons with data for patients with other chronic medical conditions demonstrated that psoriasis has a negative effect on health-related QoL similar to the impact of other chronic conditions. The estimated cost of illness for psoriasis in the current cohort was ringgit Malaysia (RM) 1307.47 per person per year excluding costs of hospitalization. Patients were noted to spend a large amount of money on over-the-counter products obtained without doctors' prescriptions.
    CONCLUSIONS: The QoL of patients with psoriasis was significantly impaired compared with that of healthy subjects and was comparable with that of patients with other chronic medical illnesses. The estimated cost of illness of psoriasis in the current study was lower than in other countries, mainly because healthcare costs in public hospitals are heavily subsidized by government and because usage of newer but more expensive treatment options is low in Malaysia.
  13. Veraldi S, Persico MC, Francia C, Nazzaro G, Gianotti R
    Int J Dermatol, 2013 Mar;52(3):327-30.
    PMID: 23414157 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05723.x
    Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is characterized clinically by erythematous and slightly raised tracks, located especially on the feet. These tracks may be single or multiple, linear or serpiginous, more or less ramified and intertwined. The length is variable (up to many cm); the width ranges from 1 mm to 4 mm. Tracks are often accompanied by severe pruritus.
  14. Syed Nong Chek SR, Robinson S, Mohd Affandi A, Baharum N
    Int J Dermatol, 2016 Oct;55(10):1092-5.
    PMID: 27061170 DOI: 10.1111/ijd.13307
    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis involving the face is visible and can cause considerable emotional distress to patients. Its presence may also confer a poorer prognosis for the patient. This study sought to evaluate the characteristics of facial psoriasis in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted using data from the Malaysian Psoriasis Registry from 2007 to 2011. Specific risk factors, i.e., age, age of onset, gender, duration of disease, obesity group, body surface area, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), family history of psoriasis, nail involvement, psoriatic arthritis, phototherapy, systemic therapy, clinic visit, days of work/school, and hospital admission due to psoriasis in the last 6 months were analyzed.

    RESULTS: A total of 48.4% of patients had facial psoriasis. Variables significantly associated with facial psoriasis are younger age, younger age of onset of psoriasis of ≤ 40 years, male, severity of psoriasis involving >10% of the body surface area, higher DLQI of >10, nail involvement, and history of hospitalization due to psoriasis.

    CONCLUSION: This study found that facial psoriasis is not as rare as previously thought. Ambient ultraviolet light, sebum, and contact with chemicals from facial products may reduce the severity of facial psoriasis, but these factors do not reduce the prevalence of facial psoriasis. The association with younger age, younger age of onset, higher percentage of body surface area involvement, higher DLQI of > 10, nail involvement, and hospitalization due to psoriasis support the notion that facial psoriasis is a marker of severe disease.

  15. Ch'ng CC, Johar A
    Int J Dermatol, 2016 Jan;55(1):30-5.
    PMID: 26275796 DOI: 10.1111/ijd.12850
    Cellulitis commonly involved lower limbs. This study was carried out to determine the demography, clinical characteristics, risk factors, microbiological aspects, and antibiotics usage in this group of patients in Hospital Kuala Lumpur.
  16. Jing W, Ismail R
    Int J Dermatol, 1999 Jun;38(6):457-63.
    PMID: 10397587
    BACKGROUND: Mucocutaneous lesions directly related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection usually present as initial manifestations of immune deficiency. The most common mucocutaneous lesions are Kaposi's sarcoma, histoplasmosis, oro-esophageal candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, and, in Asia, Penicillium marneffei infection. Non-HIV-related skin lesions, such as psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, and nodular prurigo, may be the initial presentation among HIV infected patients attending outpatient clinics.

    METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 145 HIV-positive Malaysians of Chinese descent from two centers at the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur (UHKL) and the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur (GHKL) from March 1997 to February 1998. Demographic data and clinical data were analyzed.

    RESULTS: The analysis showed that 104 out of 145 patients had mucocutaneous disorders (71.7%). In the study, there were 100 men (96.2%) and four women (3.8%). The majority of patients were in the age group 20-50 years. The patients who presented with mucocutaneous disease also had low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and most had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illness. The number of cases with generalized hyperpigmentation was very high in the group (35.9%), followed by nodular prurigo (29.7%) and xerosis (27.6%). Seborrheic dermatitis was seen in 20.7% of cases, with psoriasis in 8.3%. The most common infections were oral candidiasis (35.9%), tinea corporis and onychomycosis (9.7%), and herpes infection (5.5%); however, mucocutaneous manifestations of Kaposi's sarcoma were rare.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that mucocutaneous findings are useful clinical predictors of HIV infection or signs of the presence of advanced HIV infection.

  17. Adam BA
    Int J Dermatol, 1992 Jan;31(1):42-5.
    PMID: 1737688
    The characteristics of three primary bullous diseases, pemphigus, pemphigoid, and dermatitis herpetiformis, seen in this country, probably reflecting this region, are discussed and compared to those reported in the literature in the West. One hundred and forty-eight patients with bullous diseases were seen over a period of 15 years. The criteria for confirmation of clinical diagnosis were the findings of the direct immunofluorescent test. Pemphigus vulgaris was the commonest bullous disease. The incidence of bullous pemphigoid was highest in the Indians of Malaysian origin, and they are also more likely to develop pemphigus vulgaris than any other ethnic group. Linear IgA type formed the entire group of dermatitis herpetiformis. The granular type was not seen at all. The patients were treated with prednisolone alone or together with methotrexate or azathioprine. Dapsone alone controlled the dermatitis herpetiformis. The known association between pemphigus and other diseases with immunologic disturbances was not found in this study. The natural history of the bullous disease as seen in the follow-up patients is described. Deaths in pemphigus and pemphigoid were more due to either complications of steroid therapy or unassociated diseases than the primary disease itself. Introduction of immunofluorescence as a diagnostic tool in pemphigus and extension of this facility to other bullous diseases has led to detailed characterization of these diseases as seen in the West; however, publications in English dealing with epidemiologic aspects of bullous diseases in this region are rare.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
  18. Chow KW, Ting HC, Yap YP, Yee KC, Purushotaman A, Subramanian S, et al.
    Int J Dermatol, 1998 Jun;37(6):446-8.
    PMID: 9646134
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