Cognitive reactivity (CR) to the experimental induction of sad mood has been found to predict relapse in recovered depressed patients. The Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity Revised (LEIDS-R) is a self-report measure of CR. The aim of the present study was to establish the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the LEIDS-R. The participants were recovered depressed and non-depressed Iranian individuals (n = 833). The analyses included content validation, factor analysis, construct validity, and reliability testing. Preliminary construct validation analysis confirmed that factor analysis was appropriate for the Persian version of the LEIDS-R. Factor analysis displayed similar factor loadings to the original English version. The total internal consistency of the translated version, which was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, was equal to 0.90. The test-retest reliability of the total score was equal to that of the test-retest conducted after a two-week interval at 0.94. Content validity, face validity, and construct validity, as well as reliability analysis were all found to be satisfactory for the Persian version of the LEIDS-R. The Persian version of the LEIDS-R appears to be valid and reliable for use in future studies, and has properties comparable to the original version and to that obtained in previous studies.
While neurocognitive impairment (NCI) among people living with HIV (PLWH) who use drugs and its impact on HIV treatment outcomes continue to be widely investigated, there remains a critical gap in NCI assessment among HIV-infected people who use drugs (PWUD) in Malaysian context. The present study, therefore, sought to improve the utility of the existing Neuropsychological Impairment Scale (NIS) as a screening tool for assessing NCI by establishing its psychometric properties in the Malaysian context. The NIS is a brief, self-report measure originally designed to assess NCI by having individuals rate a range of items that may influence cognitive functioning. HIV-infected male prisoners (N=301) administered the full 95-item NIS. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using principal axis factoring and orthogonal varimax rotation. Reliability was measured using Cronbach's alpha. The EFA resulted in an abbreviated, psychometrically sound, eight-factor structure (54-item) revised NIS - now referred to as the Brief Inventory of Neuro-cognitive Impairment-Malaysia (BINI-M). It is better designed to detect NCI in PLWH, ranging from generalized neurocognitive symptoms to more specific forms of impairment with excellent to average reliability. The BINI-M may serve as a useful tool for clinicians and researchers to assess NCI in PLWH and can inform enhanced treatment strategies in the Malaysian context.