AIM: To determine the risk factors of clinically significant macular edema (CSME) in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) in a multi-ethnics Malaysian population.
METHODS: We performed a case control study in which 150 patients with bilateral NPDR and CSME in either eye were compared to 150 patients with bilateral NPDR and no CSME in both eyes. CSME and NPDR were graded according to Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria. Student's t-test, odds ratio and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to analyze the duration of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure(BP), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, full blood count, serum creatinine and proteinuria between the two groups.
RESULTS: Both groups were matched in terms of age, gender and ethnicity. Duration of diabetes, total serum cholesterol, serum LDL, FBG, HbA1c and serum creatinine were significantly higher in the CSME group (P<0.05). The hemoglobin, packed cell volume were significantly lower in the CSME group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference for serum HDL, TG, BMI, systolic and diastolic BP. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that total serum cholesterol and HbA1c had significantly high odds of developing CSME.
CONCLUSION: HbA1c and total cholesterol are the two most important risk factors associated with CSME in patients with NPDR.
KEYWORDS: clinically significant macular edema; diabetes; risk factors
Study site: Ophthalmology clinic, Hospital Melaka, Malaysia
AIM: To study the success and outcome of trabeculectomy in Hospital Melaka.
METHODS: Medical records of all patients who underwent trabeculectomy between January 1, 2007 and October 31, 2010 whom were followed up for at least 6 months postoperatively in Hospital Melaka were retrospectively reviewed.
RESULTS: A total number of 117 eyes of 91 patients with the age range between 12 to 84 years underwent primary trabeculectomy (n=20, 17.1%), combine trabeculectomy with cataract surgery (n=90, 76.9%), repeat trabeculectomy (n=5, 4.3%), and combine repeat trabeculectomy with cataract surgery (n=2, 1.7%). The disease spectrum includes primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) (54 patients, 59.3%), priamry angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) (14 patients, 15.4%), secondary glaucomas (19 patients, 20.9%) and juvenile glaucomas (4 patients, 4.4%). Preoperative mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was (24.69±8.67)mmHg as compared to postoperative mean IOP of (15.81±6.66)mmHg, (15.07±4.72)mmHg and (15.68 ±3.65)mmHg at 6-month, 12-month and 24-month respectively. Eighty-two point one percent of eyes (n=96) achieved complete success (CS), 12.8% (n=15) with qualified success (QS) and only 5.1% (n=6) failed at 6 month with two of them warrant other filtering surgery. At twelve months, trabeculectomy with CS was 71.6% (n=63), QS in 22.7% (n=20) and failure in 5.7% (n=5). Sixty-seven point five percent (n=27) attained CS, 20.0% (n=8) with QS while 12.5% (n=5) failed at 24 month postoperative.
CONCLUSION: As the understanding of the lower the IOP, the better the patients retaining the visual function, trabeculectomy is significantly a choice of treatment in uncontrolled glaucoma. This study concluded that trabeculectomy performed in Hospital Melaka has produced significant success as compared to other studies.
KEYWORDS: glaucoma; success rate; trabeculectomy
AIM: To report maternal and fetal adverse outcomes, in spite of appropriate treatment and regular follow up, in diabetic pregnant women with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
METHODS: Case series of four young pregnant diabetics aged between 20 and 25 years with type I diabetes mellitus and proliferative diabetic retrinopathy.
RESULTS: The maternal adverse outcomes were abortion in one patient, pre-eclampsia and preterm delivery in one patient, and renal failure requiring dialysis in one patient. The fetal adverse outcomes were neonatal death in one case and premature baby in another case.
CONCLUSION: These cases highlight the fact that diabetic pregnant women should be closely followed up by the obstetricians and physicians when they have proliferative retinopathy. The proliferative diabetic retinopathy should be considered as a part of the assessment when counseling a diabetic woman in antenatal check up and also in the follow up visits during pregnancy.
KEYWORDS: pregnancy; proliferative diabetic retinopathy; type I diabetes mellitus; vitreous haemorrhage
Study site: Eye clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
AIM: To assess the awareness of eye complications and the prevalence of retinopathy, in the first visit to eye clinic, among type 2 diabetic patients attending a tertiary medical centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
METHODS: An investigator-administered questionnaire was given to 137 patients with diabetes undergoing first time eye screening in the eye clinic. This was followed by a detailed fundus examination by a senior ophthalmologist to assess for presence of retinopathy.
RESULTS: Almost 86% of respondents were aware of diabetic eye complications, especially in patients who had achieved tertiary educational level (96.3%). The majority of the patients (78.8%) were referred by their physicians and only 20.4% came on their own initiative. Many of the patients (43.8%) did not know how frequent they should go for an eye check-up and 72.3% did not know what treatments were available. Lack of understanding on diabetic eye diseases (68.6%) was the main barrier for most patients for not coming for eye screening earlier. Despite a high level of awareness, only 21.9% had recorded HbA1c level of <6.5% while 31.4% were under the erroneous assumption of having a good blood sugar control. A total of 29.2% had diabetic retinopathy in their first visit eye testing.
CONCLUSION: In the present study, 29.2% of type 2 diabetic patients had retinopathy in their first time eye testing. Although the awareness of diabetic eye complications was high among first time eye screening patients, the appropriate eye care-seeking behavior was comparatively less and should be rectified to prevent the rise of this sight threatening eye disease.
KEYWORDS: awa-reness; diabetic retinopathy; eye complications; eye screening
Study site: Eye clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
A 60 year-old man presented with acute on set of left eye proptosis and ptosis. It was associated with poor vision, eye pain and restriction of eye movement of the same eye after 5 hours post left upper molar tooth extraction. The visual acuity in the left eye was hand movement. There was severe ptosis and proptosis of the left eye. The conjunctiva was chemotic with quite anterior chamber. The pupil was mid dilated and sluggished to light. The ocular movement was restricted in all directions. Fundoscopy of the left eye revealed features of central retinal artery occlusion with hyperaemic disc and subretinal exudates at posterior pole. The right eye appeared normal. Urgent MRI brain and orbit revealed severe left paranasal sinusitis with anterior displacement of the left globe and presence orbital abscess. Patient was managed with Otorhinolaryngology and Neurosurgery teams. He underwent emergency transnasal drainage of abscess. Histopathological examination of unhealthy sinus mucosa showed evidence of fungal infection. However, the culture and sensitivity result was inconclusive. Patient was treated with amphotericin B, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin clavulanate and metronidazole. Patient was detected to have high blood sugar level and was managed accordingly. The proptosis improved with treatment. However, his vision, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia remained static. Assessing the immunocompromised status is important for the management of patient presented as acute orbital apex syndrome to avoid fatal outcome.
AIM: To study the association of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) with diabetic retinopathy.
METHODS: Serum IGF-1 levels were measured in 25 pregnant diabetic patients and 25 pregnant non-diabetic patients who were matched for age, ethnicity, parity and period of gestation. Fundus examination was performed in both groups at 28, 32 and 36 weeks of gestation.
RESULTS: The serum IGF-I level was significantly elevated in pregnant diabetics compared to pregnant non-diabetics (366±199μg/L vs 184±89μg/L, (P=0.0001) at 24 weeks, 535±251μg/L vs 356±89μg/L, (P=0.007) at 32 weeks and 404±166μg/L vs 264±113μg/L, (P=0.003) at 36 weeks of gestation). The pregnant diabetics with established diabetes had significantly higher IGF-1 level than gestational diabetes at 28, 32 and 36 weeks of gestation. The serum IGF-I level in pregnant diabetics with retinopathy was significantly higher than that in those without retinopathy at all periods of gestation.
CONCLUSION: Increased serum IGF-1 in pregnancy may increase the risks for retinopathy.
KEYWORDS: diabetic retinopathy; pregnancy; serum IGF-1 level
A case of retained intralenticular iron piece with signs of mild anterior uveitis at the time of presentation is reported in a 45 year-old man. His vision improved with topical cycloplegics and corticosteroids. After six months, his vision deteriorated grossly due to cataract formation. He regained good vision following removal of foreign body, extracapsular extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. This case highlights the conservative management of the condition till the patient develops cataract resulting in visual disability; and good visual recovery following cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation.
A rare case of bilateral scleromalacia perforans, bilateral peripheral corneal thinning (contact lens cornea) and unilateral orbital inflammatory disease in a 50 year old female patient with an indolent form Wegener's granulomatosis(WG) involving lungs and sinuses is reported. The patient survived for 12 years after the initial diagnosis of systemic disease. There was perforation of left globe following trauma and no perforation of the right globe till the last follow up of the patient.
To compare corneal endothelial structure and central corneal thickness (CCT) between type II diabetics and non-diabetic control patients. To look for correlations between diabetic status and corneal findings.
To evaluate the clinical presentations of traumatic optic neuropathy and to assess the visual outcome of three groups of patients managed differently (conservative, intravenous corticosteroids only and combination of intravenous and oral corticosteroids) at an academic tertiary care referral centre.