In this study, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was used to treat domestic wastewater. Ten organic and inorganic parameters were monitored in three weeks for water purification. The six chemical, biological and physical parameters included Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and pH were compared with the Interim National Water Quality Standards, Malaysia River classification (INWQS) and Water Quality Index (WQI). Between 38% to 96% of reduction was observed and water quality has been improved from class III and IV to class II. Analyses for Electricity Conductivity (EC), Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Ammonium (NH4) were also investigated. In all parameters, removal efficiency was in range of 13-17th day (optimum 14th day) which was higher than 3 weeks except DO. It reveals the optimum growth rate of water hyacinth has great effect on waste water purification efficiency in continuous system and nutrient removal was successfully achieved.
Phytoremediation is an environment-friendly and cost-effective method to clean the environment of heavy metal contamination. A prolonged phytotoxicity test was conducted in a single exposure. Scirpus grossus plants were grown in sand to which the diluted Pb (NO3)2 was added, with the variation of concentration were 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/L. It was found that Scirpus grossus plants can tolerate Pb at concentrations of up to 400 mg/L. The withering was observed on day-7 for Pb concentrations of 400 mg/L and above. 100% of the plants withered with a Pb concentration of 600 mg/L on day 65. The Pb concentration in water medium decreased while in plant tissues increased. Adsorption of Pb solution ranged between 2 to 6% for concentrations of 100 to 800 mg/L. The Bioaccumulation Coefficient and Translocation Factor of Scirpus grossus were found greater than 1, indicating that this species is a hyperaccumulator plant.
Phytoremediation is a technology to clean the environment from heavy metals contamination. The objectives of this study are to threat Pb contaminated wastewater by using phytoremediation technology and to determine if the plant can be mention as hyperaccumulator. Fifty plants of Scirpus grossus were grown in sand medium and 600 L spiked water in various Pb concentration (10, 30 and 50 mg/L) was exposed. The experiment was conducted with single exposure method, sampling time on day-1, day-14, day-28, day-42, day-70, and day-98. The analysis of Pb concentration in water, sand medium and inside the plant tissue was conducted by ICP-OES. Water samples were filtered and Pb concentration were directly analyzed, Pb in sand samples were extracted by EDTA method before analyzed, and Pb in plant tissues were extracted by wet digestion method and analyzed. The results showed that on day-28, Pb concentration in water decreased 100%, 99.9%, 99.7%, and the highest Pb uptake by plant were 1343, 4909, 3236 mg/kg for the treatment of 10, 30, and 50 mg/L respectively. The highest BC and TF were 485,261 on day-42 and 2.5295 on day-70 of treatment 30 mg/L, it can be mentioned that Scirpus grossus is a hyperaccumulator.
Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) were analyzed to determine their effectiveness in aquaculture wastewater treatment in Malaysia. Wastewater from fish farm in Semanggol Perak, Malaysia was sampled and the parameters determined included, the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrite phosphate (PO4(3-)), nitrate (NO(3-)), nitrite (NO(-2)), ammonia (NH3), and total kjedahl nitrogen (TKN). Also, hydroponics system was set up and was added with fresh plants weights of 150 +/- 20 grams Eichhornia crassipes and 50 +/- 10 grams Pistia stratiotes during the 30 days experiment. The phytoremediation treatment with Eichhornia crassipes had pH ranging from 5.52 to 5.59 and from 4.45 to 5.5 while Pistia stratiotes had its pH value from 5.76 to 6.49 and from 6.24 to 7.07. Considerable percentage reduction was observed in all the parameters treated with the phytoremediators. Percentage reduction of turbidity for Eichhornia crassipes were 85.26% and 87.05% while Pistia stratiotes were 92.70% and 93.69% respectively. Similar reductions were observed in COD, TKN, NO(3-), NH3, and PO4(3-). The capability of these plants in removing nutrients was established from the study. Removal of aquatic macrophytes from water bodies is recommended for efficient water purification.
Terrestrial plants as potential phytoremediators for remediation of surface soil contaminated with toxic metals have gained attention in clean-up technologies. The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to offer a cost-effective mechanism to remediate Fe and As from landfill leachate-contaminated soil was investigated. Pot experiment employing soil polluted with treatments of Jeram landfill leachate was conducted for 120 days. Plants were harvested after 8th, 12th, and 16th weeks of growth. Accumulation of Fe and As was assessed based on Bioconcentration Factor and Translocation Factor. Results showed sequestration of 0.06-0.58 mg As and 66.82-461.71 mg Fe per g plant dry weight in kenaf root, which implies that kenaf root can be an bioavailable sink for toxic metals. Insignificant amount of Fe and As was observed in the aerial plant parts (< 12% of total bioavailable metals). The ability of kenaf to tolerate these metals and avoid phytotoxicity could be attributed to the stabilization of the metals in the roots and hence reduction of toxic metal mobility (TF < 1). With the application of leachate, kenaf was also found to have higher biomass and subsequently recorded 11% higher bioaccumulation capacity, indicating its suitability for phytoextraction of leachate contaminated sites.
This study investigates the toxicity of bare iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and surface functionalization iron oxide nanoparticles (SF-IONPs) to the growth of freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. This study is important due to the increased interest on the application of the magnetic responsive IONPs in various fields, such as biomedical, wastewater treatment, and microalgae harvesting. This study demonstrated that the toxicity of IONPs was mainly contributed by the indirect light shading effect from the suspending nanoparticles which is nanoparticles concentration-dependent, direct light shading effect caused by the attachment of IONPs on cell and the cell aggregation, and the oxidative stress from the internalization of IONPs into the cells. The results showed that the layer of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) tended to mask the IONPs and hence eliminated oxidative stress toward the protein yield but it in turn tended to enhance the toxicity of IONPs by enabling the IONPs to attach on cell surfaces and cause cell aggregation. Therefore, the choice of the polymer that used for surface functionalize the IONPs is the key factor to determine the toxicity of the IONPs.
The accumulation and removal efficiency of Fe by Centella asiatica was carried out at various Fe concentrations in soil treatments (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg Fe/kg soil). Iron accumulation in different parts of C. asiatica (leaf, stem and root) was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Factorial experiment with a completely randomized design and Duncan's test were used for data analyses. The results revealed that C. asiatica have the ability to uptake and accumulate Fe significantly (p 1 and <1, respectively, further supporting its metal hyperaccumulator properties.
Two constructed wetlands, one with Azolla pinnata plant (CW1) and the other without (CW2) for treating domestic wastewaters were developed. Fifteen water parameters which include: Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3N), Turbidity, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), and heavy metals such as Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. The experiments were conducted in two (dry and wet) seasons simultaneously. Results showed considerable reductions in all parameters and metals including Zn in CW1 compared with CW2 in the two seasons considered while Pb and Mn were not detected throughout the study. Zn concentration levels reduced significantly in both seasons just as removal efficiencies of 70.03% and 64.51% were recorded for CW1 while 35.17% and 33.45% were recorded for CW2 in both seasons. There were no significant differences in the removal efficiencies of Fe in both seasons as 99.55%, 59.09%, 88.89%, and 53.56% were recorded in CW1 and CW2 respectively. Azolla pinnata has proved effective in domestic wastewater phytoremediation studies.
Conocarpus lancifolius is a fast-growing and drought tolerant tree species with phytoremediation potential in arid environments. The present study was conducted to evaluate the phytoaccumulation potential under wastewater treatment. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse where 3-month-old seedlings were irrigated with industrial wastewater and growth, biomass and physiological parameters were measured. Concentrations of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in leaves, shoots, and roots along with translocation and tolerance index were also determined. The results showed that under wastewater treatment total biomass increased from 24.2 to 31.5 g, net CO2 assimilation rate increased from 9.93 to 13.3 μmol m-2 s-1, and water use efficiency increased from 1.7 to 2.42. Similarly, heavy metals (Zn, Pb, and Cd) accumulation in stem, leaves, and roots increased significantly under wastewater treatment where the highest concentration of Zn, Pb and Cd was found in roots followed by leaves and stem, respectively. Tolerance index was found >1, and translocation factor of all heavy metals was found >1. The study revealed that phytoaccumulation potential of C. lancifolius was mainly driven by improved net CO2 assimilation rate and water use efficiency.
To assess the tolerance, the rye-grass L. grown on soil amended with petroleum wastewater (PWW) containing four metals lead, zinc, nickel and mercury. The PWW (25 to 50%) showed remarkable increase in length and biomass. Chlorophyll 'a and b' increased with an increase of PWW from 25-50% while such contents decreased on increasing the 75-100% compared to control. The mass balance performed on the system showed the removal of 90-97.6% lead, 85.5-92.9% zinc, 78.9-85.5% nickle and 47.6-27.5% mercury. The model for the maximum metal reduction rate (Rmax) was much better for Pb (89.5) and Zn (72.1) with respect to Ni (57.3) and Hg (32.4). Survival of rye-grass (30-days, statics, and renewal exposures) was increased by 50% as compared to control. The toxicity index Y of PWW showed 0-25% deficiency level, 25-50% tolerance level, 50-90% toxic level and 90-100% lethal level. The experimental data showing high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.98).
Palm oil mill effluent (POME) has high chemical oxygen demand (COD), thus requires effective treatments to environmentally benign levels before discharge. In this study, immobilized microalgae cells are used for removing pollutants in treated palm oil mill effluent (TPOME). Different ratios of microalgae beads to TPOME concentration were examined at 1:2.5, 1:5, and 1:10. The biomass concentration and COD removal were measured through a standard method. The color of the cultivated microalgae beads changed from light green to darker green after the POME treatment for 9 days, hence demonstrating that microalgae cells were successfully grown inside the beads with pH up to 9.84. The immobilized cells cultivated in the POME at 1:10 achieved a higher biomass concentration of 1.268 g/L and a COD removal percentage of 72% than other treatment ratios. The increment of the ratio of microalgae cells beads to POME concentration did not cause any improvement in COD removal efficiency. This was due to the inhibitory effect of self-shading resulting in the slow growth rate of microalgae cells which responsible for low COD removal. Therefore, this system could be a viable technology for simultaneous biomass production and POME treatment. This will contribute to research efforts toward the development of new and improved technologies in treating POME.
The feasibility for the removal of Acid Blue25 (AB25) by Bengal gram fruit shell (BGFS), an agricultural by-product, has been investigated as an alternative for high-cost adsorbents. The impact of various experimental parameters such as dose, different dye concentration, solution pH, and temperature on the removal of Acid Blue25 (AB25) has been studied under the batch mode of operation. pH is a significant impact on the sorption of AB25 onto BGFS. The maximum removal of AB25 was achieved at a pH of 2 (83.84%). The optimum dose of biosorbent was selected as 200 mg for the removal of AB25 onto BGFS. Kinetic studies reveal that equilibrium reached within 180 minutes. Biosorption kinetics has been described by Lagergren equation and biosorption isotherms by classical Langmuir and Freundlich models. Equilibrium data were found to fit well with the Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the maximum monolayer biosorption capacity was 29.41 mg g(-1) of AB25 onto BGFS. The kinetic studies indicated that the pseudo-second-order (PSO) model fitted the experimental data well. In addition, thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. The biosorption process was spontaneous and exothermic in nature with negative values of ΔG° (-1.6031 to -0.1089 kJ mol(-1)) and ΔH° (-16.7920 kJ mol(-1)). The negative ΔG° indicates the feasibility of physical biosorption process. The results indicate that BGFS could be used as an eco-friendly and cost-effective biosorbent for the removal of AB25 from aqueous solution.
This study was undertaken to analyze the efficiency of Botryococcus sp. in the phycoremediation of domestic wastewater and to determine the variety of hydrocarbons derived from microalgal oil after phycoremediation. The study showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of pollutant loads of up to 93.9% chemical oxygen demand, 69.1% biochemical oxygen demand, 59.9% total nitrogen, 54.5% total organic carbon, and 36.8% phosphate. The average dry weight biomass produce was 0.1 g/L of wastewater. In addition, the dry weight biomass of Botryococcus sp. was found to contain 72.5% of crude oil. The composition analysis using Gas Chromatogram - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) found that phthalic acid, 2-ethylhexyltridecyl ester (C29H48O4), contributed the highest percentage (71.6%) of the total hydrocarbon compounds to the extracted algae oil. The result of the study suggests that Botryococcus sp. can be used for effective phycoremediation, as well as to provide a sustainable hydrocarbon source as a value-added chemical for the bio-based plastic industry.
Fennel seed spent (FSS)-an inexpensive nutraceutical industrial spent has been used as an efficient biosorbent for the removal of Congo red (CR) from aqueous media. Results show that the conditions for maximum adsorption would be pH 2-4 and 30°C were ideal for maximum adsorption. Based on regression fitting of the data, it was determined that the Sips isotherm (R2 = 0.994, χ2 = 0.5) adequately described the mechanism of adsorption, suggesting that the adsorption occurs homogeneously with favorable interaction between layers with favorable interaction between layers. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption is favorable (negative values for ΔG°) and endothermic (ΔH° = 12-20 kJ mol-1) for initial dye concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 ppm. The low ΔH° value indicates that the adsorption is a physical process involving weak chemical interactions like hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. The kinetics revealed that the adsorption process showed pseudo-second-order tendencies with the equal influence of intraparticle as well as film diffusion. The scanning electron microscopy images of FSS show a highly fibrous matrix with a hierarchical porous structure. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of the spent confirmed the presence of cellulosic and lignocellulosic matter, giving it both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. The investigations indicate that FSS is a cost-effective and efficient biosorbent for the remediation of toxic CR dye.
The objective of this study is to determine the reduction efficiency of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) as well as the removal of color and Amaranth dye metabolites by the Aerobic-anaerobic Baffled Constructed Wetland Reactor (ABCW). The ABCW reactor was planted with common reed (Phragmite australis) where the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was set to 1 day and was fed with synthetic wastewater with the addition of Amaranth dye. Supplementary aeration was supplied in designated compartments of the ABCW reactor to control the aerobic and anaerobic zones. After Amaranth dye addition the COD reduction efficiency dropped from 98 to 91% while the color removal efficiency was 100%. Degradation of azo bond in Amaranth dye is shown by the UV-Vis spectrum analysis which demonstrates partial degradation of Amaranth dye metabolites. The performance of the baffled unit is due to the longer pathway as there is the up-flow and down-flow condition sequentially, thus allowing more contact of the wastewater with the rhizomes and micro-aerobic zones.
In this study, the removal of arsenic (As) by plant, Ludwigia octovalvis, in a pilot reed bed was optimized. A Box-Behnken design was employed including a comparative analysis of both Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for the prediction of maximum arsenic removal. The predicted optimum condition using the desirability function of both models was 39 mg kg-1 for the arsenic concentration in soil, an elapsed time of 42 days (the sampling day) and an aeration rate of 0.22 L/min, with the predicted values of arsenic removal by RSM and ANN being 72.6% and 71.4%, respectively. The validation of the predicted optimum point showed an actual arsenic removal of 70.6%. This was achieved with the deviation between the validation value and the predicted values being within 3.49% (RSM) and 1.87% (ANN). The performance evaluation of the RSM and ANN models showed that ANN performs better than RSM with a higher R2 (0.97) close to 1.0 and very small Average Absolute Deviation (AAD) (0.02) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) (0.004) values close to zero. Both models were appropriate for the optimization of arsenic removal with ANN demonstrating significantly higher predictive and fitting ability than RSM.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used to solve the problems because of their reliable, robust, and salient characteristics in capturing the nonlinear relationships between variables in complex systems. In this study, ANN was applied for modeling of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and biodegradable organic matter (BOD) removal from palm oil mill secondary effluent (POMSE) by vetiver system. The independent variable, including POMSE concentration, vetiver slips density, and removal time, has been considered as input parameters to optimize the network, while the removal percentage of COD and BOD were selected as output. To determine the number of hidden layer nodes, the root mean squared error of testing set was minimized, and the topologies of the algorithms were compared by coefficient of determination and absolute average deviation. The comparison indicated that the quick propagation (QP) algorithm had minimum root mean squared error and absolute average deviation, and maximum coefficient of determination. The importance values of the variables was included vetiver slips density with 42.41%, time with 29.8%, and the POMSE concentration with 27.79%, which showed none of them, is negligible. Results show that the ANN has great potential ability in prediction of COD and BOD removal from POMSE with residual standard error (RSE) of less than 0.45%.
Dye pollutants from research laboratories are one of the major sources for environmental contamination. In the present study, a nutraceutical industrial fennel seed spent (NIFSS) was explored as potential adsorbent for removal of ethidium bromide (EtBr) from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Through batch experiments, the operating variables like initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, temperature, contact time, and pH were optimized. Equilibrium data were analyzed using three number of two-parameter and six number of three-parameter isotherm models. The adsorption kinetics was studied using pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order. The diffusion effects were studied by film diffusion, Webber-Morris, and Dumwald-Wagner diffusion models. The thermodynamic parameters; change in enthalpy (ΔHº), entropy (ΔSº), and Gibbs free energy (ΔGº) of adsorption system were also determined and evaluated.
Various amendments are used to reduce the phytoavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils, but recently the use of biochar is receiving serious attention. In this study, two particle sizes of an oil palm empty fruit bunch biochar (EFBB); <50 µm (F-EFBB) and >2 mm (C-EFBB) were applied at either 0, 0.5, or 1% (w/w) to soils contaminated with either Cd or Pb and the phytoavailability of these metals by mustard plants grown on the soils was evaluated. Results revealed that the application of EFBB at 1% significantly increased plant growth parameters as compared with the control in Cd-soil. However, there was no significant effect of EFBB application rate on plant growth parameters in Pb-soil. There was a significant difference in the concentrations of Cd and Pb in the plant root and shoot between soils receiving different particle sizes of EFBB. The treatment of 1% F-EFBB gave the lowest concentration of the Cd concentration in the shoot (115.200 mgkg-1) and Pb concentration in the root and shoot (4196.000 and 78.467 mgkg-1, respectively) as compared with the other treatments. Therefore, F-EFBB application at high rates can be recommended for reducing the phytoavailability of Cd and Pb in contaminated soils.
One of the challenges of integrating phytoremediation into a waste treatment system is the sensitivity of plant species to fluctuations in environmental conditions and the difficulty in estimating subsequent changes to their rates of uptake. In this study, we examine a method using the exponential decay equation to approximate the median uptake rate (MUR) of nutrients for three aquatic macrophyte species, Salvinia molesta, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Lemna minor. These MUR values were then used to directly evaluate the phytoremediation performance between species and at varying levels of salinity stress. The results of this study indicate that an exponential decay relationship produced the most accurate models of the nutrient uptake profile for each species, with highest correlation values in 74.1% of tests for the three species at increasing salinity over a period of 14 d. S. polyrhiza and L. minor began to show significant reductions in nutrient uptake and growth at salinity concentration above 10 g/L. Using MUR, direct comparisons can be made between species in a time and mass-independent manner, allowing for the rapid assessment of phytoremediation performance under conditions of increasing salinity stress. Novelty statementIn this study, we propose the use of an exponential decay model and the use of median uptake rate (MUR) obtained from the model coefficients as a method for directly comparing species performance under different conditions. Subsequently, we show how the use of MUR values obtained from three species of aquatic macrophytes allows for the direct comparison of species performance under increasing salinity stress. The method proposed in this study would improve the ability for easy comparison between species performance under varying environmental conditions. Future works could further build on the parameters proposed in this study and optimize the performance of phytoremediation systems developed for nutrient-affected wastewater management. This study is especially beneficial to phytoremediation researchers and environmental engineers who are implementing or designing macrophyte phytoremediation systems.