Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Wong SW, Ting YW, Chan WK
    JGH Open, 2018 Oct;2(5):235-241.
    PMID: 30483595 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12070
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of liver pathology that is characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in the liver attributable to overnutrition and is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is the more severe form of NAFLD that is defined histologically by the presence of lobular inflammation and hepatocyte ballooning. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients have a greater tendency to develop advanced liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and HCC. This review focuses on the epidemiology of NAFLD-related HCC and its implications. NAFLD has been estimated to contribute to 10-12% of HCC cases in Western populations and 1-6% of HCC cases in Asian populations. NAFLD-related HCC is expected to increase in Asian populations, in line with the increased prevalence of NALFD similar to that of Western populations in recent years. The increasing burden of NAFLD-related HCC over time has been demonstrated in studies from both Western and Asian populations. Certain factors such as ethnicity, obesity, and diabetes mellitus appear to have an incremental effect on the risk of developing HCC among NAFLD patients. The difficulty in identifying NAFLD patients with cirrhosis and the possibility of HCC developing in noncirrhotic NAFLD patients are challenges that need to be addressed. Further understanding of these gaps may contribute to better surveillance strategies for the early detection of HCC in NAFLD patients to reduce the mortality and improve the survival of these patients.
  2. Wong Z, Mok CZ, Majid HA, Mahadeva S
    JGH Open, 2018 Oct;2(5):178-181.
    PMID: 30483586 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12069
    Background: The efficacy and acceptance of a low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet in Asian adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain uncertain. We aimed to describe our early experience in a single center with a dedicated gastroenterology dietetic service.

    Methods: Consecutive patients with IBS referred to our dedicated Dietetic Gastroenterology Clinic between February 2016 and May 2016 were screened. A low FODMAP diet was instituted as per standard protocol. Data on demographic and clinical variables were obtained from patients' records and prospective telephone interviews.

    Results: A total of 16 patients, with a median age of 67 ± 13.57 years; female gender n = 10 (62.5%); ethnicity: Chinese n = 8 (50%), Indian n = 5 (31.25%), and Malay n = 3 (18.75%) with IBS, were included in the study. Compliance with the low FODMAP diet was complete in 8 of 16 (50%) patients, partial in 4 of 16 (25%), and 4 of 16 (25%) could not comply with the diet at all. Improvement in symptoms were reported in 11 of 16 (68.8%) patients. Among patients who complied (complete/partial) with the low FODMAP diet, predominant symptom improvement was reported as follows: abdominal pain 3 of 5 (60%), abdominal bloating/distension 7 of 10 (70%), and flatulence 7 of 8 (87.5%). Patients with the IBS-D subtype appeared to have the greatest improvement in stool consistency (87.5% IBS-D vs 12.5% non-IBS-D, P = 0.009).

    Conclusion: Based on our pilot observational study of a relatively small sample of Asian IBS patients, compliance with a low FODMAP diet appears to be low. Further larger studies are required to verify our observation.

    Study site: Universiti Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
  3. Goh KL
    JGH Open, 2018 Dec;2(6):248.
    PMID: 30619932 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12127
  4. Goh LH, Mohd Said R, Goh KL
    JGH Open, 2018 Dec;2(6):307-310.
    PMID: 30619942 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12089
    Background and Aims: There have been few reports on lactase deficiency (LD) and lactose intolerance (LI) in Malaysia, which has a peculiar mix of three distinct major Asian races-Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LD and LI in a young multiethnic Malaysian population.

    Methods: Lactase activity was measured with a 13CO2 lactose breath test using an infrared spectrometer. Each subject took 25 g of lactose naturally enriched in 13CO2 together with 250 mL of water after an overnight fast. Breath samples were collected at baseline and at 15-min intervals for 180 min. Subjects were asked to report gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms following ingestion of the lactose test meal.

    Results: Of the 248 subjects tested, 216 (87.1%) were lactase deficient. We found no significant differences in the presentation of LD between gender and races. LD was found in 87.5% of males and 86.8% of females (P = 0.975) and in different races: Chinese (88.5%) versus Malay (83.1%) (P = 0.399), Indian (90.5%) versus Malay (P = 0.295), and Chinese versus Indian (P = 0.902). LI was diagnosed in only 49 (19.8%) subjects; 35 patients had diarrhea, while the remainder had at least two other GI symptoms after the lactose meal.

    Conclusion: The prevalence of LD was high in all three major ethnic groups-Malays, Chinese, and Indians. Ironically, the prevalence of LI was low overall.

  5. Thalha AM, Mahadeva S, Boon Tan AT, Mun KS
    JGH Open, 2018 Oct;2(5):242-245.
    PMID: 30483596 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12083
    A 33-year-old man was referred with hyperosmotic symptoms of 4 weeks. Clinical examination showed palpable hepatomegaly and no stigmata of liver disease. Findings were random glucose 16.6 mmol/L, HbA1c 12.4%, triglyceride 6.2 mmol/L, normal LFTs and ultrasound liver: increased echogenicity. Management consisted of dietician referral and commencement of metformin 500 mg bd, diamicron MR 60 mg od, and fenofibrate 145 mg od. He was non-compliant, complaining of "heaviness of head" after consuming oral diabetic agents, without symptoms of hypoglycemia. Treatment was switched to Kombiglyze XR (saxaglipitin 5 mg + metformin 1000 mg) and empagliflozin 25 mg od. He presented 1 week later with generalised pruritus with ALT 307 IU/L and serum GGT 808 IU/L. Following this, a percutaneous liver biopsy was performed, revealing steatohepatitis and marked intra-hepatic cholestasis. Kombiglyze XR was withheld, with resolution of LFTs to baseline. Phenotypes of liver injury are categorised according to R value, defined as ratio ALT/ULN:ALP/ULN. R value of ≥5:hepatocellular injury, ≤2:cholestatic injury, 2-5:mixed-type injury. Here, R value points toward mixed type (R = 3.203). Hepatotoxicity in patients with NASH is difficult to diagnose, based on laboratory parameters. Liver histology was useful in indicating additional changes apart from NASH, causing liver derangement. The Rousal Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is a scoring method to determine the probability of drug induced liver injury. RUCAM score for this case was 6 (probable adverse drug reaction). Hepatotoxicity from saxagliptin not been reported prior. Clinicians need to be more vigilant, particularly in patients with NASH.
  6. Goh KL
    JGH Open, 2017 Nov;1(3):81.
    PMID: 30483540 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12030
  7. Goh KL
    JGH Open, 2018 Apr;2(2):33.
    PMID: 30483560 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12050
  8. Rajaram R, Subramani B, Abdullah BJJ, Mahadeva S
    JGH Open, 2017 Dec;1(4):153-155.
    PMID: 30483553 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12027
    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplant may offer an alternative to liver transplantation in patients with end-stage liver disease. However, its efficacy remains uncertain. MSC was performed on a 50-year-old male with decompensated (Child-Turcotte-Pugh grade C) alcoholic liver cirrhosis due to an absence of donors for adult-deceased and living-related liver transplantation. Autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs were harvested from the patient and cultured using standard protocols. The MSCs were subsequently re-administrated into the liver via hepatic intra-arterial infusion on two separate occasions. After infusion, there was an improvement in biochemical parameters (serum total bilirubin, serum albumin), and a reduction of diuretic use for ascites for up to 8 weeks. However, all biochemical and clinical parameters deteriorated on long-term follow-up without any further infusions. The patient eventually succumbed to his disease. MSC transplantation may have a clinical benefit on adult patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis, but this appears to be transitory.
  9. Goh KL
    JGH Open, 2018 Aug;2(4):113.
    PMID: 30483573 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12080
  10. Goh KL
    JGH Open, 2018 Jun;2(3):79.
    PMID: 30483567 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12066
  11. Goh KL
    JGH Open, 2018 Oct;2(5):171.
    PMID: 30483584 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12107
  12. Zhang Y, Ma ZF, Zhang H, Pan B, Li Y, Majid HA, et al.
    JGH Open, 2019 Apr;3(2):173-178.
    PMID: 31061894 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12125
    Functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are a chronic condition that can significantly reduce patients' quality of life. Therefore, this paper will review the roles of a low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polypols (FODMAP) diet in treating IBS, particularly in an Asian setting. About 20% of the general population is diagnosed with IBS. However, there are limited effective medical therapies available for treating IBS. Therefore, IBS presents a major challenge to the health-care providers. Recently, there is an increasing interest in the use of a diet low in FODMAP for the treatment of IBS. A low FODMAP diet can decrease the delivery of readily fermentable substrates to the small intestine and colon, thereby improving functional gastrointestinal symptoms.
  13. Tan EC, Tai MS, Chan WK, Mahadeva S
    JGH Open, 2019 Apr;3(2):117-125.
    PMID: 31061886 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12114
    Background and Aim: There is not much data on the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and advanced fibrosis assessed using Fibroscan with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in the general population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between NAFLD and advanced fibrosis, as diagnosed by Fibroscan, with an increased CIMT in the Malaysian population.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study of government officers and their family members attending a health screening at a public healthcare facility was conducted. All subjects underwent clinical evaluation, biochemical testing, anthropometry, ultrasound carotid Doppler, and Fibroscan examination.

    Results: Data for 251 subjects were analyzed (mean age 47.1 ± 12.4 years, 74.1% male). Prevalence of NAFLD and advanced fibrosis were 57.4 and 17.5%, respectively. Independent factors associated with NAFLD were waist circumference (odds ratio [OR] = 1.077, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.038-1.118, P < 0.001) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (OR = 1.039, 95% CI 1.005-1.074, P = 0.024). Independent factors associated with advanced fibrosis were male gender (OR = 4.847, 95% CI 1.369-17.155, P = 0.014) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (OR = 1.057, 95% CI 1.003-1.113, P = 0.036). Prevalence of increased CIMT was 29.0%. Independent factor associated with increased CIMT was older age (OR = 1.146, 95% CI 1.067-1.231, P < 0.001). Of the subjects, 34.5% with NAFLD had increased CIMT compared to 19.1% of the subjects without NAFLD (P = 0.063). Advanced fibrosis was not associated with increased CIMT.

    Conclusions: Prevalence of NAFLD, advanced liver fibrosis, and increased CIMT were high. NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis appeared not to be associated with increased CIMT. However, a larger sample size is needed to demonstrate whether there is any association.

  14. Goh KL
    JGH Open, 2019 Apr;3(2):99.
    PMID: 31061882 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12188
  15. Goh KL
    JGH Open, 2019 Jun;3(3):189.
    PMID: 31276033 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12214
  16. Goh KL
    JGH Open, 2019 Aug;3(4):273.
    PMID: 31406917 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12237
  17. Kamarajah SK, Khoo S, Chan WK, Sthaneshwar P, Nik Mustapha NR, Mahadeva S
    JGH Open, 2019 Oct;3(5):417-424.
    PMID: 31633048 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12178
    Background and Aim: To date, there are limited data on the applicability of cathepsin D for the diagnosis and monitoring of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

    Methods: This study included patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosed between November 2012 and October 2015. Serum cathepsin D levels were measured using the CatD enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (USCN Life Science, Wuhan, China) using stored samples collected on the same day of the liver biopsy procedure. The performance of cathepsin D in the diagnosis and monitoring of NASH was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis.

    Results: Data for 216 liver biopsies and 34 healthy controls were analyzed. The mean cathepsin D level was not significantly different between NAFLD patients and controls; between NASH and non-NASH patients; and across the different steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocyte ballooning grades. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of cathepsin D for the diagnosis of NAFLD and NASH was 0.62 and 0.52, respectively. The AUROC of cathepsin D for the diagnosis of the different steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocyte ballooning grades ranged from 0.51 to 0.58. Of the 216 liver biopsies, 152 were paired liver biopsies from 76 patients who had a repeat liver biopsy after 48 weeks. There was no significant change in the cathepsin D level at follow-up compared to baseline in patients who had histological improvement or worsening for steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocyte ballooning grades. Cathepsin D was poor for predicting improvement or worsening of steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning, with AUROC ranging from 0.47 to 0.54. It was fair for predicting worsening (AUROC 0.73) but poor for predicting improvement (AUROC 0.54) of lobular inflammation.

    Conclusion: Cathepsin D was a poor biomarker for the diagnosis and monitoring of NASH in our cohort of Asian patients, somewhat inconsistent with previous observations in Caucasian patients. Further studies in different cohorts are needed to verify our observation.

  18. Goh KL
    JGH Open, 2019 Dec;3(6):449.
    PMID: 31832542 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12282
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