OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was the quantitative analysis of the alkaloid content of areca chewable products from different countries and regions using HPLC-UV, as well as the benefit of their safety evaluation products.
METHOD: An HPLC-UV method was established for qualitative and quantitative analyses of 65 batches of areca chewable products from different countries and regions. Additionally, similarity evaluation of chromatographic fingerprints was applied for data analysis.
RESULTS: These results reveal a significant variation in the levels of areca alkaloids among tested products, specifically guvacoline (0.060-1.216 mg/g), arecoline (0.376-3.592 mg/g), guvacine (0.028-1.184 mg/g), and arecaidine (0.184-1.291 mg/g). There were significant differences in the alkaloid content of areca chewable products from different producing areas.
CONCLUSIONS: The method will be useful in the safety evaluation of different areca chewable products.
HIGHLIGHTS: The established HPLC-UV method can be adopted for safety evaluation of areca chewable products from different countries and regions due to its general applicability.
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we report a rapid method for the residue analysis of IND and its metabolites, viz., IND-carboxylic acid, diaminotriazine, and triazine indanone in a wide range of palm oil matrices using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
METHOD: The optimized sample preparation workflows included two options: (1) acetonitrile extraction (QuEChERS workflow), followed by freezing at -80°C and (2) acetonitrile extraction, followed by cleanup through a C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The optimized LC runtime was 7 min. All these analytes were estimated by LC-MS/MS multiple reaction monitoring.
RESULTS: Both sample preparation methods provided similar method performance and acceptable results. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of IND, IND-carboxylic acid, and triazine indanone was 0.001 mg/kg. For diaminotriazine, the LOQ was 0.005 mg/kg. The method accuracy and precision complied with the SANTE/12682/2019 guidelines of analytical quality control.
CONCLUSIONS: The potentiality of the method lies in a high throughput analysis of IND and its metabolites in a single chromatographic run with high selectivity and sensitivity. Considering its fit-for-purpose performance, the method can be implemented in regulatory testing of IND residues in a wide range of palm oil matrices that are consumed and traded worldwide.
HIGHLIGHTS: This work has provided a validated method for simultaneous residue analysis of indaziflam and its metabolites in crude palm oil and its derived matrices with high sensitivity, selectivity, and throughput.
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we endeavored to develop a rapid method for multiresidue analysis of glyphosate (+aminomethylphosphonic acid) and glufosinate (+3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid and N-acetyl-glufosinate) in refined and crude palm oil matrices using liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).
METHOD: The optimized sample preparation workflow included extraction of refined or crude palm oil (10 g) with acidified water (0.1 M HCl), cleanup by phase separation with dichloromethane, and analysis by LC-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring.
RESULTS: The use of a Torus-DEA LC column ensured simultaneous analysis of these compounds within a runtime of 10 min. The LOQ of these analytes was 0.01 mg/kg, except that of aminomethylphosphonic acid which was 0.02 mg/kg. The method sensitivity complied with the national maximum residue limits of Malaysia and the European Union. Also, the method selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision were aligned with the SANTE/12682/2019 guidelines of analytical quality control.
CONCLUSIONS: The potentiality of the optimized method lies in a high throughput direct analysis of glyphosate and glufosinate with their metabolites in a single chromatographic run. The method is fit for purpose for regulatory testing of these residues in a broad range of palm oil matrices.
HIGHLIGHTS: The study reports for the first time a validated method for simultaneous analysis of glyphosate, glufosinate, and their metabolites in a range of palm oil products. The method did not require a derivatization step and provided a high throughput analysis of these compounds with satisfactory selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision.
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