Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) frequently occurs in haemodialysis
(HD) patients undergoing recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO)
therapy and is commonly associated with rHuEPO hypo-responsiveness.
However, the conventional iron indices are inadequate to exhibit the status or
utilisation of iron during erythropoiesis. The aim of this study was to elucidate
the accuracy and usefulness of the reticulocyte haemoglobin (RET-He) test
for diagnosing IDA in HD patients undergoing rHuEPO therapy. Methods: In
this cross-sectional study, fifty-five blood samples of HD patients on rHuEPO
therapy were collected and analysed for haematological and biochemical
parameters. A receiver operating characteristics curve was also plotted for
sensitivity and specificity analysis. IDA detection rates by RET-He, soluble
transferrin receptor (sTfR) and serum ferritin were 63.64%, 3.64% and 0%,
respectively. RET-He level was significantly correlated with sTfR level, mean
cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin level and the transferrin receptor-ferritin
index. The sensitivity and specificity of RET-He in detecting IDA were 78.3%
and 92.0%, respectively, with an area under the curve of 0.864. IDA was more
frequently detected by RET-He than by ferritin or sTfR in HD patients
undergoing rHuEPO therapy. The RET-He level also showed higher sensitivity
and specificity for the iron status in these patients. Therefore, RET-He is a
useful biomarker for the detection of IDA in HD patients undergoing rHuEPO
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) has become as promising candidate for antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli (E.coli), commensal hospital- acquired infections (HAIs). This study investigates the antibacterial action of ZnO NPs in three difference shapes; nanorod, nanoflakes and nanospheres against E.coli ATCC 25922. The antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs was determine through two standard protocols known as Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) MO2-A11 under light conditions of 5.70 w/m2 and American standard test method (ASTM) E-2149. Preliminary screening shows ZnO NPs did not inhibit the growth of E.coli. Further analysis using ASTM E-2149 in dynamic conditions revealed antibacterial activity after 3 hours with 100% reduction for ZnO NPs nanoflakes and 6 hours with 94.63% reduction for ZnO nanospheres, respectively. It demonstrated the ZnO NPs in nanoflakes and nanospheres exerted higher antibacterial activity possibly through release of ios, free radicals, ROS generation and electrostatic collision which contribute to bacterial death. Further analysis is needed to investigate biocompatibility of these samples for future biomedical applications.
We report a case of dural carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) pose a diagnostic dilemma with initial symptoms of the arteriovenous shunt. A 56 year-old man presented with right eye diplopia, thensubsequently developed ptosis, congestion of conjunctiva, dilated episcleral vessels, and gradual rise in intraocular pressure. Initial diagnosis of pseudotumour was made based on negative finding of CCF by computed tomography angiography (CTA). In view of persistent clinical manifestations in spite of steroid therapy, and with the presence of new ocular signs; cock-screw conjunctival vessels, dilated retinal veins, and proptosis, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of dural CCF.The ocular symptoms resolved completely post embolization of the fistula.
Immunization has been introduced for decades to eradicate fatal infectious diseases by inoculating attenuated, killed or toxoid of microorganisms such as bacteria and virus. The triggering action to the immune system would not harm the host; despite can boost the immune responses to any infection. However, several cases of the eradicated infectious disease have re-emerged due to the existence of vaccine hesitancy group. Vaccine hesitancy has been observed emerging worldwide due to rejection in receiving vaccine. The main obstacle in vaccination program was identified according to the misconception that they received from internet or any mass media without boundaries. Various actions from the government have met the needs to enforce and educate the public especially the hesitant group towards better disease prevention with vaccination. The strategy would cover any interaction activities or programs with the public in transferring the information about the vaccination and its benefit to the health of herd community.
It has been recognized extensively that studies of pharmacogenetics provide massive examples of causal relationship between genotypes and drug effectiveness to account for interindividual phenotypic variations in drug therapy. In most cases, cytochrome P450 (CYP) polymorphisms are one of the major variables that affecting those drug plasma concentration, drug detoxification and drug activation in humans. Thus, understanding of CYP polymorphisms can be crucially valuable in order to allow early and more accurate drug dosage prediction and improve the drug response accordingly. Despite the high level of homologous amino acid sequences, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes are among the most important CYP genes which metabolize a wide range of clinically therapeutic drugs. Several critical reviews have been published relating to the aforementioned genes. However, this minireview aims to systematically merge reported studies on the SNPs frequencies of both genes concentrating only on Malaysian population. It is hoped that, the minireview can be an opener for new opportunities to reevaluate the evidence on the prevalence of CYP2C genes as a potential genetic factor influencing a particular drug efficacy and safety among Malaysian. Such evaluation can be developed to the next level of early prediction of better and specific drug treatment, thereby improving the drug response while helping the government in minimising the drug expenditures.
Conventional anticoagulant therapy is the mainstay of medical treatment for deep vein thrombosis disorders. However,there are many complications associated with these agents such as bleeding. Hence, the search for novel anticoagulant derived from natural substances such as plants origin is in high demand nowadays. Ocimum sanctum(O.sanctum) also known as Ocimum tenuiform (OT), tulsi or holy basil from the family of Lamiaceae has been widely used for thousands of years in Ayurveda and Unani systems to cure or prevent a number of illnessessuch as headache, malaria, ulcers, bronchitis, cough, flu, sore throat and asthma. The objective is to investigate theeffect ofO. sanctum(Tulsi) aqueous leaf extract on prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) in human plasma. Coagulation activity of O. sanctum was measured via PT, APTT and TT assay in citrated plasma collected from thirty-six healthy regular blood donors. The plasma was tested against different concentrations of O. sanctum aqueous extract as follows: 0.1mg/ml, 0.5 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml. Result shows the aqueous extract of O. sanctum prolonged the PT and APTT assays (p0.05). The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis had identified the linolenic acid at 1-10% of ethanol and aqueousconcentration at different retention time which was responsible for the coagulation activities of O. sanctumin human plasma. This study suggests that O. sanctum does affect coagulation activity in human plasma and can be potentially used as naturally derived anticoagulant products in the future.
nfectious endophthalmitis is a devastating and potentially sight-threatening condition.The objective is toanalyse the microbiological profile and visual outcome of culture positive endophthalmitis seen in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. All patients with endophthalmitis admitted to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over a 7-year period from January 2007 until December 2013 were recruited into this study. Retrospective review of medical and microbiology records was conducted among patients clinically diagnosed with endophthalmitis in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2007 until December 2013. Sixteen patients were admitted with endophthalmitis during this study period. Seven (43%) were culture-positive, in which five (71%) cases were from vitreous culture and two (29%) from blood specimens. The mean age for culture positive patients of presentation was44 years. The most common bacterial isolate was Pseudomonas spp., while the most common fungus was Candida spp. Other organisms isolated were Fusariumsp., Aspergillus sp., Staphylococcus sp.and Enterococcus sp. The risk factors for culture-positive cases were ocular trauma, corneal keratitis, ocular chemical injury, severe urinary tract infection and retropharyngeal abscess. Only three of the affected eyes could be salvaged. The final visual acuity waspoor in all the culture-positive eyes. Two cases underwent evisceration while one case underwent enucleation. As a conclusion,Culture-positive endophthalmitis in this study were mainly attributed to Pseudomonas spp. and Candida spp. The visual outcome of culture-positive endophthalmitis was poor.
Medicinal plants have healing properties and are able to synthesize various chemical compounds. These chemicals (also known as phytochemical compounds) play vital roles in determining the pharmacological properties existing in certain plants. The phytochemical compounds present in plants are associated with primary and secondary constituents. Most of the time, the secondary constituents exhibit the bioactivities in plants such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Some common medicinal plants that have been used in curing various diseases by traditional practitioners in Malaysia are Ficus deltoidea Jack, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa, Clinacanthus nutans and Eurycoma longifolia Jack. This review discusses the morphology, phytochemical compounds and phytochemical properties of selected medicinal plants in Malaysia. The plants of focus have been found to possess anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects. This review, it is hoped will enable Malaysian researchers to explore further on the potential of these plants in investigating new and novel drugs in the future.
Charged particle therapy with carbon ions has advantages over conventional radiotherapy using x-ray beams. The application of charged particle therapy has rapidly increased over the last decades. This is due to its characteristic Bragg peak which has relatively low entrance doses and favourable doses distribution. In this research work, Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulation (MC) method has been used to calculate the radiation transportation and dose distributions in tissue-like media. The main objective of the work was to compare the Geant4 simulated depth dose distributions with experimental measurements and verify the capability of the geant4 simulation toolkit. The carbon ion beams for the therapeutic energy of 350 MeV/u and 400 MeV/u respectively were simulated, with the same settings as the experimental work carried out at the treatment room at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The simulation results were verified with measurements data. The work was to measure the accuracy and quality of the dose distributions by Geant4 MC methods. The results show that the Bragg peak and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) distributions in simulation has fairly good agreement with measurements.
It is important to study optimism as it is negatively correlated with anxiety and depressive and positively correlated with quality of life in cancer patients. This study translated and investigated the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) among Malaysian cancer patients. The validated Malay version of the LOT-R will be used for assessing level of optimism among Malaysian cancer patients in future studies and determine factors associated with it in order to design effective psychosocial intervention which will enhance level of optimism in cancer patients. Concurrent translation and back translation of original English version of the LOT-R to Malay was performed and the Malay version was administered to 195 cancer patients of different cancer diagnoses at baseline assessment and repeated 2 months later at follow up. Reliability was assessed with internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient), validity was assessed with face, content, convergent, and discriminant validities. Construct validity was examined with exploratory factor analysis. Two third of the participants (n = 129/195; 66%) were of middle age, three forth were females (n = 142/195; 72.8%) and eight tenth were Malays (n = 160/195; 82.1%). The LOT-R (Malay) total score (Cronbach’s α = 0.58; ICC = 0.62) and its domains (Cronbach’s α [Optimism) = 0.60; Cronbach’s α[Pessimism) = 0.42; ICC[Optimism] = 0.61; ICC[Pessimism] = 0.59) demonstrated questionable internal consistencies but acceptable test-retest reliability. Convergent and discriminant validities were achieved by the LOT-R (Malay). Construct validity was also demonstrated by the LOT-R (Malay) as exploratory factor analysis showed that all the items had factor loadings > 0.4.
The LOT-R (Malay) has acceptable psychometric properties and suitable to assess optimism in Malaysian cancer patients. It should be validated for use in other Malaysian populations.
Opioids are opium-like drugs which are commonly used as analgesics to treat moderate to severe pain. Apoptosis is a type of programmed cell death to remove unnecessary or damaged cells in an organism. Recently, the ability of opioids to induce apoptosis especially in cancer cell lines hasgained the interest of many researchers. This fascinating finding hasled to more testing of different kindsof opioids against different kindsof cancer cell lines in the course to search for the potential anticancer drugs. This review provides current information about opioids and apoptosis, and more importantly the compilations of researches over the years on how opioids are related to apoptotic cells death.
Trisomy 8 is a condition where every cell of an individual presents with an extra copy (three copies of chromosome 8. This disorder occurs when a pair of chromosomes fails to divide evenly, which results in cells containing more than two of this chromosome. Here, we report a case of mosaic trisomy 8 in a Malaysian Malay boy.Although patient in this case confirmed with T8M, he exhibited few of the characteristic features that previously were reported to be associated with T8M. However, the patient’s very young age might explain the lack of clinical presentation of these features.
The repair process of airway epithelium involves cell migration, spreading, proliferation and re-differentiation. Objective: Cellular and molecular responses to tracheal brush induced injury were investigated using a rabbit model. Methods: Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were divided into uninjured and injured groups. After tracheal brushing, the animals were maintained in the laboratory before being sacrificed at given time points (1, 12 hours, 3, 7, and 21 days). The trachea of each rabbit was retrieved and preserved before being subjected to haematoxylin and eosin staining and real time PCR. Results: After injury, the remained epithelial cells underwent an instant response by proliferating and migrating into the damaged site. This finding was in accordance with the proliferative and migration activity-related gene expression results (MMP-9, TIMP1, vimentin, and ß-integrin). The increased activity of these genes was crucial at the early time points, as it encouraged the remaining cells to repopulate the damaged area. Conclusions: Continuous regulation of MMP-9, vimentin and ß-integrin plays important roles in promoting cellular homing especially the cells bordering the lesion to migrate and repair of the damaged ECM. Thus, this activation enhanced regeneration and repair of the damaged tracheal epithelium as early as 1 h and complete at 21 d following injury.
We report a case of cavernous sinus thrombosis in a post-splenectomy male with underlying Haemoglobin E Thalassemia major. A 35-year-old man presented with a first episode of sudden onset of diplopia on lateral gaze for 1 week. He had no other ocular and systemic symptoms. There was no history of trauma or recent infection. However, he admitted that he was not compliant to his oral penicillin V and aspirin, which was prescribed to all post splenectomy patients. Unaided visual acuity in both eyes was 6/6. On examination, there was limited abduction over the left eye, suggestive of left lateral rectus palsy. Full blood count revealed leucocytosis with thrombocytosis. Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography and magnetic resonance venography of the brain showed bulging of the left cavernous sinus, with a persistent focal filling defect, in keeping with left cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST). He was diagnosed with left isolated sixth nerve palsy secondary to aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis with pro-thrombotic state post-splenectomy. He was started on subcutaneous fondaparinux and oral warfarin. His diplopia fully resolved after 1 month of treatment with complete resolution of CST on computed tomography venogram.
Introduction: Methylation of promoter region of p16 leading to gene silencing has been implicated ina wide range of malignancies including lymphomas. In diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) particularly, a varying percentage of epigenetic inactivation of p16 promoter region was observed ranging from 16 -54%. However, quantitative analysis of p16 promoter methylation in DLBCL has not been extensively studied in Malaysia. Objective: This study aims to quantitatively analyse p16 methylation in DLBCL samples using pyrosequencing technique. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from 16 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lymphoma tissue blocks from patients diagnosed with DLBCL. Samples were retrieved from Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Pahang and Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. Primers were designed to amplify bisulfite-treated DNA targeting p16 promoter region. Methylation status of 7 CpG sites was determined by pyrosequencing. Results: All the 16 samples studied showed promoter methylation of p16. The range of mean methylation percentage was between 18 to 81%. Conclusion: The present study has successfully measured the level of methylation of p16 in all 7 CpG sites despite the limitation in sample size. Since p16 methylation is a common event in our series of DLBCL cases, it is worth including a larger sample size in future studies to increase the chance of finding a significant correlation with clinical parameters.
Thisstudy aim tocharacterize melt-derivedbioactive glass and to determinethe bioactive glass (BG) suitability for dental usagethrough proliferative activity assessment of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED)when exposed to bioactive glass conditioned medium. Bioglass 45S5 in mole percentages (46.13% SiO2, 26.91% CaO, 24.35% Na2O and 2.60% P2O5)was synthesizedthrough melt-derived and characterized usingX-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)to confirm and identify its properties.SHEDwere used to evaluate the biocompatibility of 45S5 by exposing the cells to various concentration of BG-conditioned medium (1-10 mg/ml) using alamarBlue assay. The BG produced has an amorphous structureas shown by XRD analysis. TheSi-O-Si bending, asymmetric Si-O stretching and asymmetricSi-O-Si stretchingbands were observed in the BG structure supporting the presenceof silicate network. For alamarBlue assay, SHED cultured in BG-conditioned medium showed high proliferation rate when subjected to minimal powder content in the DMEM cell culture medium.Hence, it can be concluded that SHED cultured in lower powder content of the BG-conditioned media showedhigh proliferative activity suggesting the potential of the BG for dental usage.
We describe the first clinical case of contact lens related corneal ulcer caused by Elizabethkingia meningosepticaregistered in Southeast Asia. A 20-year-old female student who wasa regular soft contact lens wearer, presented with pain, photophobia and blurring of vision of the right eye for 3 days. On slit lamp examination, there was a small paracentral anterior stromal infiltrate with an overlying epithelial defect. Microbiological cultures from corneal scrapings, contact lens and its casing were positive for E.meningoseptica. Due to high likelihood of contact lens contamination causing keratitis, topical fortified gentamicin0.9% and ceftazidime 5% were administered empirically. Topical vancomycin 5% was later added tailoring to the culture and sensitivity of the organism. After 8 weeks of treatment, the keratitis subsided and corneal epithelial defect completely healed with residual corneal opacity. Even though uncommon, contact lens related E.meningosepticakeratitis can occur in healthy immunocompetent individuals with no ocular comorbidities.
Glaucoma is a chronic disease that could affect the quality of life and is a potential stressor for patients. Visual field assessment is important in monitoring disease progression among glaucoma patients. Stress could influence the performance of patients in visual field test that may affect the reliability of the test. Our objective in this study was to determine the association between stress score using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) questionnaire and reliability indices of Humphrey visual field analysis (HFA). A total of 155 primary and secondary glaucoma patients were recruited in the study. Face to face interview using stress component of DASS questionnaire was conducted after automated HFA test. Reliability indices; i.e. fixation loss, false positive, and false negative error, were used to determine the accuracy of HFA result. Only 12 patients (7.7%) were found to have elevated stress score. No significant correlation was found between DASS stress score and the reliability indices of HFA. There was 0.2 folds (95% confidence interval (CI) [-2.35, -0.06], p = 0.039) reduction of fixation loss for every number of HFA done. For every one year increase in age, there was 0.2 folds (95% CI [-0.38, -0.07], p = 0.006) reduction in false positive error in HFA.
Minimal stress may not affect the reliability of HFA assessment. Minimising stress among glaucoma patients is important not only for assessment of visual field but also for improvement of quality of life.
Early detection and prompt treatment of eye diseases can prevent visual disability. To our knowledge, there is no published data on factors associated with delayed presentation of eye diseases in Malaysia. Our objective is to determine the proportion of patients with eye disease who had a delayed presentation to an ophthalmologist after an initial screening, as well as the factors associated with delay in seeking treatment. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with eye diseases detected during a Community Eye Survey (CES) program from September 2004 to December 2012 who were referred to the ophthalmologist in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). Delayed presentation of eye disease was defined as patients who came to the eye clinic more than six months after eye screening. Multiple logistic regression was used for analyses. A total of 434 patients who were referred to Hospital USM, Kubang Kerian were included in the study. Their mean (standard deviation) age was 55.65 (21.62) years. The majority of patients (76%) had delayed presentation of eye disease post screening. Type of ocular diseases was not associated with delayed presentation. The factors associated with delayed presentation were unemployment (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.51, 95% CI (1.36, 4.64), p
Study site: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
Thalassaemia screening programme was conducted to reduce the burden of the disease . Here, we describe one unexpected discovery in a 33-year-old gentleman and also the importance of DNA analysis in detecting the globin gene mutation.