De novo stress urinary incontinence (SUI) may occur in up to 80% of clinically continent women following genitourinary prolapse surgery. This had resulted in an increase in the rate of concurrent continence surgery during prolapse repair from 38% in 2001 to 47% in 2009 in the United States. To date, there is no local data available to estimate the prevalence of occult SUI (OSUI) among Malaysian women awaiting surgery. Therefore, this study was conducted to elicit the prevalence of occult SUI and its associated risks factors in patients awaiting prolapse surgery. We retrospectively studied the records of 296 consecutive women with significant pelvic organ prolapse awaiting reconstructive repair. All patients attended the Urogynaecology Unit in Hospital Kuala Lumpur Malaysia between October 2007 and September 2011. They had undergone standardized interviews, clinical examinations and urodynamic studies. During the urodynamic testings, all prolapses were reduced using ring pessaries to elicit OSUI. Primary outcome was the prevalence of OSUI with prolapse reduction to predict possibility of developing de novo SUI following prolapse surgery. Secondary outcome was the assessment of potential risk factors for OSUI. Among the 296 women studied, 121 (40.9%) were found to have OSUI. The risk factors associated with OSUI included age, BMI, numbers of SVD, recurrent UTI, reduction of urinary flow symptoms and grade 2 to 4 central compartment prolapses. We concluded that preoperative urodynamic testing with reduction of prolapse is useful to identify women with OSUI. This is important for preoperative counselling as well as planning for one step approach of prophylactic concomitant anti-incontinence procedures during prolapse surgery in order to avoid postoperative de novo SUI.
A surgeon’s experience plays an important role in breast conserving surgery (BCS). The common conception is that, the more junior is the operating surgeon, the surgical margin will be wider or closer to the tumour edge. Thus the aim of this study is to look into the adequacy of surgical margin performed by different level of surgeons’ experience in patients whom underwent wide local excision (WLE) and hook-wire localization (HWL) in our surgical unit. The surgical experience of the operating surgeon and their surgical margins will be analyzed. This is a retrospective study from January 2000 to December 2012. Eighty-eight patients with early breast cancer underwent WLE and HWL by 3 different groups of surgeons (breast surgeons, junior surgeons and surgical registrars) were included. The surgical margins were analyzed for involved-margin, closed-margin or excessed-margin.The incidence of involved-margin, closed-margin and excessed-margin is the lowest among breast surgeons compared to other groups. However, the results were not statistically significant. The incidence of involved surgical margin is significantly higher within junior surgeons for HWL compared to the breast surgeons. The incidence of involved, closed or excessed surgical margin were lowest when performed by breast surgeon but not significantly different between the three groups. However, for HWL the breast surgeons significantly better compared to the other groups.
Basal cell carcinoma is the commonest skin malignancy diagnosed in Malaysia. Surgery is the recommended treatment of choice with the lowest failure rate provided a clear margin is obtained. However, the defect may be too large to be repaired primarily. Formal reconstruction using grafts and flaps should be done to achieve the optimal aim of maintaining the integrity, function and cosmetic patient outcome. Three reconstructive methods are described in this series to restore the facial defect following the wide local excision. The procedures described were peri-alar crescentic advancement flap, nasolabial rotational flap and full thickness skin graft using supraclavicular skin. This series highlights the usage of the procedures based on solid foundation and principles, without compromising the desired outcomes for the patient.
Diabetic retinopathy is a disease involving microangiopathic changes in response to chronic hyperglycaemia and pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP) is currently the mainstay of treatment for proliferative retinopathy. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP) on retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This was a prospective longitudinal study. Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or very severe non-(N)PDR requiring laser treatment were included in the study. PRP was performed by a single trained personnel. Peripapillary RNFL located 3.4 mm around the optic disc was evaluated using time-domain OCT. Examination was performed before treatment, and 2 and 4 months after laser treatment. In total, 39 subjects (39 eyes) were recruited into this study. Twenty-nine patients had PDR and 10 had very severe NPDR. Mean age was 54.97 ± 8.38 years. Male and female genders were almost equally distributed with 18 males and 21 females. Median thickness of average RNFL at baseline was 108.8 um (interquartile range [IQR] 35.3). At two months post-procedure, average RNFL thickness significantly increased to 117.4 (IQR 28.6; P = 0.006). Although, other quadrants revealed a similar trend of increasing thickness at two months but it was not significant. At 4 months post-laser treatment, RNFL thickness in all quadrants reduced to baseline levels with insignificant changes of thickness compared to prior to laser treatment. There was also no significant association between changes in RNFL thickness and HbA1c levels (P = 0.77). In conclusion, PRP causes transient thickening of the RNFL which recovers within 4 months post-laser treatment. At the same time, poor sugar control has no direct influence on the RNFL changes after PRP.
Pyogenic granuloma of the eyes usually occurs after ocular surgery or inflammation related to the eyes, itself. This lesion is commonly related to procedures associated with chalazia, strabismus, or even enucleation. However, the incidence of pyogenic granuloma that arises directly from the lower canaliculi of the nasolacrimal system is rare and not being extensively reported. We report a case of an elderly lady who presented with pyogenic granuloma post EDCR with silicone stenting for left nasolacrimal duct obstruction. She presented with persistent left eye epiphora following procedure. The unusual site for pyogenic granuloma and it occurrence after EDCR raise the possibility that the condition is related to previous procedure and the material being used.
Frontal mucocele is not commonly masked as upper lid abscess.A 72-year-old Chinese man with underlying hyperthyroidism complained of left upper eyelid swelling of 6 months duration. The swelling had persisted and worsen when intravenous antibiotic was changed oral type. Visual acuity on presentation was hand motion and reverse relative afferent pupillary defect was present. Because the swelling was large and resulted in mechanical ptosis and ophthalmoplegia, a CT imaging was performed, which showed huge left frontal mucocele eroding the supereromedial orbital rim. The left globe was displaced inferolaterally but there was no extension into brain parenchyma. Fundus examination showed pale optic disc with dull macula. Old laser marks were seen at peripheral fundus. Referral to ortholaryngologist was made and endoscopic sinus surgery and evacuation of mucopyocoele was done. Culture and sensitivity of the fluid showed no organism. He recovered well postoperatively with additional two weeks of antibiotics. We highlight the necessity of surgical drainage of mucocele, following a course of antibiotic.
Mediastinal mature cycstic teratomas are rare germ cell tumors most commonly found in the anterior mediastinum, and constitute about 3-12% of all mediastinal tumors. They grow slowly and are usually diagnosed incidentally. This is a rare presentation of a young lady with mediastinal mature cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst) presenting with chronic cough and haemoptysis.
The incidence of varicose veins and the need for treatment has shown a tremendous increase over the years. Debilitating venous ulcers and dragging edemas of the lower limb with overall improvement in cosmetic results and availability of endovenous procedures has brought many patients forward for treatment. Continuous-wave handheld Doppler usage is limited by its diagnostic capabilities, thus the need to determine its real effectiveness. Benefits of using hand-held dopplers lies in its rapidity in assessment of patients, it's low running cost and short learning curve. This is important as duplex ultrasounds are not readily available in district hospitals. This study aims to determine the clinical effectiveness of hand-held continuous wave dopplers in the local setting especially in primary uncomplicated varicose articles veins. All electively referred patients with primary uncomplicated varicose veins who were referred to the Varicose Vein Clinic were evaluated with continuous-wave handheld Doppler (CWD) and duplex ultrasound (DUS) examination. The study duration was from the 1st of July to 31st of August 2013 (2 months). All patients in the study were independently evaluated with CWD and DUS in the clinic on the same day after adequate rest time. DUS was taken as the gold standard for evaluation of CWD specificity and sensitivity. The Chi-square and T-test was used to test for statistical significance. A total of 41 patients were evaluated in this study. The specificity of CWD when compared to DUS for diagnosing Sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ) was 100% and at the Sapheno-popliteal junction (SPJ) was 87%. Meanwhile sensitivity of CWD for SFJ was 75% and SPJ was 60%. The examination time with CWD was significantly faster than when compared with DUS examination with significant faster tracing times that can be achieved with CWD. CWD also significantly shorter reflux times when compared to DUS. Continuous-wave handheld doppler proves to be an indispensable clinical tool in the evaluation of SFJ and SPJ reflux in varicose veins. CWD assessment in this study was shown to be equal if not better for evaluating reflux when compared to DUS assessment for SFJ reflux. Main advantages for CWD also lie in its low running cost, rapidity in assessment and short learning curve when compared to duplex ultrasound examinations.
We report the case of a rare, benign mesenchymal tumour arising from the cervix. A 53-year-old post-menopausal woman presented with mass per vagina. Examination revealed stage 2 utero-vaginal prolapse and multiple elongated polyps seen at the cervix. She underwent local excision. Histopathological examination findings and the immunohistochemical studies were consistent with Angiomyofibroblastoma.
Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare disease seen during pregnancy. Rupture of renal angiomyolipoma could be catastrophic and might result in maternal and even perinatal mortality. Management includes conservative vs surgical approach. A 29-year-old woman Para 2 with history of bleeding renal angiomyolipoma in her first pregnancy at 11 weeks treated with selective arterial embolisation. The pregnancy was terminated. Even though having small residual tumour, her subsequent pregnancy progressed well with conservative management. Intervention is advisable in the presence of large or symptomatic renal angiomyolipoma prior to pregnancy in order to minimise potential life-threatening haemorrhage during pregnancy. For those with small tumour of less than 4cm, perhaps conservative approaches i.e. frequent follow-up and close monitoring would assist in early identification of any rupture or bleeding.
Ocular inflammation from various causes may have similar clinical presentation thus careful clinical evaluations are mandatory particularly when the disease appear to be resistant to treatment. This paper reports a case of ocular lymphoma which was initially treated as Vogt Koyanagi Harada disease at a different centre. A 65-year-old Sudanese man complained of gradual worsening left eye vision. Careful ocular and slit lamp examination revealed a conjunctival lesion with choroidal infiltration as well as exudative retinal detachment. Computed tomography scan (CT scan) showed left eye axial proptosis, and a homogenous enhancing mass at the posterior coat of the globe. Tissue biopsy of the conjunctival lesion revealed marginal Zone B cell (MALT type), low grade, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. AS the ocular signs and symptoms progressed, chemotherapy was initiated. The proptosis, exudative retinal detachment, disc hyperemia and swelling improved after chemotherapy. The post treatment CT scan showed reduction of the posterior ocular coat mass. The possibility of malignant lymphoma should be considered in patients with resistant uveitis despite administration of corticosteroid. Ocular lymphoma is an indolent tumour with good prognosis. Careful ocular examination, adequate imaging studies followed by early surgical biopsy will contribute to early diagnosis.
This was a case of a young lady presenting with 10 year history of a mass in the right eye. It was found to be an adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland from histopathological biopsy. She underwent wide excision, orbital exenteration and reconstruction with a free rectus abdominis flap. Unfortunately, she had a tumour recurrence which was not controlled by radiotherapy and a second excision. The behavior of the tumour was aggressive, resulting in widespread metastases. She passed away within a year of her presentation. Of note, the histopathology report from the second excision turned out to be sarcomatoid carcinoma. This is described in the literature as dedifferentiation, or high grade transformation (HGT). Occurrence of dedifferentiation in salivary gland tumours is well-established, but not as well-described in lacrimal gland tumours. In this case, there was a severely delayed presentation of a lacrimal gland adenocarcinoma in a young person, which underwent dedifferentiation into a sarcomatoid carcinoma. This phenomena is associated with aggressive tumour biology behavior and poor prognosis, despite surgery and radiotherapy.
This was a 28-year-old mentally-challenged girl with underlying congenital Rubella syndrome. She was bilaterally aphakic after congenital cataract surgery. She then developed bilateral aphakic glaucoma and had to undergo multiple glaucoma filtering surgeries. The most recent procedure she had undergone for her left eye was a second Ahmed valve implantation with an overlying sclera patch. Postoperatively, intraocular pressure was well controlled. However, nine months later, slit lamp examination revealed the tube was adherent to the overlying cornea with surrounding deep and superficial cornea vascularization. Siedel test was negative and intraocular pressure was normal. Subsequently the tube was removed but the plate was left in situ.
We report a case of rare, Mullerian vaginal cyst with intracystic haemorrhage in the absence of endometrial components. To date, this is the second case reported in the literature. A 51-year-old post-menopausal woman with history of anterior vaginal wall cyst was misdiagnosed to have cystocele. The cyst was excised and the content was old blood mixed with mucous. Histopathological examination revealed a Mullerian vaginal cyst without endometrial component. Thus, diagnosis and management of vaginal cyst was revisited and discussed.
We report the case of a 34-year-old Malay, admitted for constipation and abdominal pain at 35 weeks of gestation. Initially, she was diagnosed to have paralytic ileus and was managed conservatively. As her condition did not improve, emergency laparotomy was performed for suspected intestinal obstruction. She delivered a baby boy weighing 2.84kg with good Apgar score through a caesarean section. Intra-operatively, she was noted to have sigmoid volvulus and sigmoidopexy was performed. Post-partum, colonoscopy and bowel decompression was performed. She recovered well and was discharged on day 5. This case illustrates the need to diagnose or suspect volvulus in pregnant woman presenting with severe constipation as early surgical intervention can reduce morbidity to both mother and fetus.
A 37-year-old Malay woman presented with progressive deterioration in vision and was diagnosed with advanced proliferative diabetic retinopathy with neovascular glaucoma. Intravitreal ranibizumab injection (an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor) was administered prior to vitrectomy. Slit lamp assessment 2 days post-injection revealed significant regression of both iris and retinal neovascularisation. This resulted in adequate reduction of intra-ocular pressure prior to surgery. In addition, the regression of retinal vessels reduced the risk of intra-operative haemorrhage, thus aiding the surgical excision of the fibrovascular membranes. Periodic post-operative assessment in the first 3 weeks showed minimal inflammation and no recurrence of vitreous haemorrhage. This case illustrates that intravitreal ranibizumab has a role as an adjunct therapy prior to diabetic vitrectomy to significantly reduce the risk of intra-ocular haemorrhage.
Supraglottic airway devices have been used as safe alternatives to endotracheal intubation in appropriate types of surgery. This was a prospective, randomised, single blind study comparing the use of LMA™ and SLIPA™ in terms of ease of insertion, haemodynamic changes and occurrence of adverse effects (e.g. blood stains on the device upon removal and sore throat). A total of 62 ASA I or II patients, aged between 18 to 70 years were recruited for this study. Patients were randomised into two groups; LMA™ and SLIPA™ group. Following induction of anaesthesia, an appropriate sized LMA™ or SLIPA™ was inserted after ensuring adequate depth of anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was maintained with oxygen, nitrous oxide and sevoflurane. The ease of insertion was graded and haemodynamic changes were recorded at 2 minute intervals up to 10 minutes after insertion of the airway devices. The presence of blood stains upon airway device removal at the end of surgery and incidence of sore throat was also recorded. No difficult insertion was experienced in either of these devices. Insertion was either easy [LMA™ 87.1% versus SLIPA™ 80.6% (p = 0.49)] or moderate [LMA™ 12.9% versus SLIPA™ 19.4% (p = 0.16)]. Throughout the study period, the haemodynamic changes that occurred in both groups were not statistically different. Traces of blood were noted on the surface of the device in 9.7% of patients in the SLIPA™ group versus 6.5% of patients in the LMA™ group. The incidence of sore throat was recorded in 12.9% versus 19.4% of patients in the SLIPA™ and the LMA™ groups respectively. These findings were not statistically significant. In conclusion, this study showed no significant differences between the use of LMA™ and SLIPA™ in terms of ease of insertion, haemodynamic changes and adverse effects in patients undergoing minor surgical procedures.
This retrospective study is aimed at evaluating the role of CT scan in predicting parametrium involvement in early stage of cervical carcinoma. It was conducted in a Gynaecologic Oncology Centre, Hospital Alor Star from January 2004 till December 2008. All patients with operable stage I and II cervical cancer had pelvic CT scan for evaluation of parametrium involvement before undergoing radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Parametrial streakiness or presence of infiltration suggested local invasion. Following radical hysterectomy, the specimens sent for histological confirmation and the correlation between the CT scan finding and the histopathology result was studied. The result revealed a total of 104 patients with operable stage cervical carcinoma had pelvic CT scan. The sensitivity and the specificity of CT scan in assessing parametrial involvement was 33.3% and 84.8%, respectively. In conclusion, CT scan had high specificity but low sensitivity in determining parametrial involvement in early stage of cervical cancer. Hence, routine preoperative pelvic CT scan has a limited role in assessing parametrial involvement in early stage cervical carcinoma.
Morbidly adherent placenta with spontaneous rupture of membrane at extreme prematurity poses poor pregnancy outcome. Various issues on different management modalities still remain perplexed and individual consideration is vital. Two cases of morbidly adherent placenta with symptomatic per vaginal bleeding and spontaneous rupture of membrane at severe prematurity were reviewed and discussed. We found that, active intervention by termination of pregnancy and methotrexate therapy at early gestation can prevent the need of hysterectomy following major obstetrics haemorrhage.
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common differential diagnoses for acute abdominal pain made by emergency doctors. Suspected cases require surgical referral for observation or definitive intervention to prevent complications. A high index of suspicion and good clinical skills with the aid of scoring systems allows early decision making, which includes optimal pain control. The objective of this study was to identify the pain score and is relationship to the cut-off points of the Alvarado scoring system so that justifies early surgical referral or discharge for suspected acute appendicitis from the Emergency Department of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). This was a cross sectional study of acute abdominal pain from June 2007 to September 2008. All patients who fulfilled the criteria and consented to the study were assessed for Alvarado score, verbal numerical pain score (VNRS) and their subsequent management. Patients with an Alvarado score of ≥7 were likely to have acute appendicitis (80.1% sensitivity and 52.63% specificity) and those with the score of ≤3 were unlikely to have acute appendicitis. The median pain score was 7.00 (IQR: 5.00-8.50) but 72.5% did not receive any analgesia. There was no direct relationship between the pain score with Alvarado score. Oligoanalgesia in patients with acute appendicitis still exist in Emergency Department of UKMMC.