We report a rare case of altered mental status in a young patient with immature ovarian teratoma. A 22-year-old woman presented with seizures, hallucination, amnesia and orofacial dyskinesia. Examination and investigation revealed an ovarian massand asalphing-oophorectomy was performed. The histopathological examination result showed an immature teratoma grade 2 with thepresence of immature primitive glial tissue. Her CSF N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptor (Anti-NMDAR) antibodytest was positive. N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptor antibody associated limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune antibody-mediated neuropsychiatric disorder. Resection of the tumour and immunotherapy resulted in full recovery.
A 47-year-old lady, presented with progressive proptosis of left eye with deterioration of vision. She had a history of left solitary fibrous tumour and had undergone left frontal craniotomy and orbitotomy in 2004. Surveillance Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) six years later showed tumour recurrence with intracranial extension. However, she did not follow-up and only presented again 3 years, later. Tumour resection and left exenteration was performed. Histology showed ‘patternless’ pattern of neoplastic cells, and CD34 staining was diffusely positive. Diagnosis of recurrent solitary fibrous tumour with intracranial extension was made.
We report a case of a 7-year-old girl who initially presented with painless right eyelid swelling with full extra-ocular movement (EOM). She was treated with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics for preseptal cellulitis but her condition worsened. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and orbit showed orbital abscess, subperiosteal abscess in the medial orbital wall and evidence of sinusitis in the anterior ethmoidal air cells. She underwent Endoscopic Orbital Decompression (EOD) surgery on day 4 of presentation and her condition improved remarkably. We report a case of orbital abscess with subperiosteal abscess in the medial orbital wall. This case highlights the possibility of progression of orbital cellulitis despite administration of a broad-spectrum antibiotic.
A 21-year-old Chinese gentleman with no known medical illness, presented with a history of right painless blurring of vision with central scotoma of two weeks duration. He also had a history of multiple episodes of seizures prior to presentation. Visual acuity was 1/60 with unremarkable anterior segment findings and no relative afferent pupillary defect. Fundus examination of the right eye revealed dilated and tortuous retinal veins with multiple retinal capillary hemangiomas and sub retinal hard exudates at the macula with edema. A diagnosis of Von Hippel Lindau disease was made when a posterior fossa mass suggestive of hemangioblastoma with obstructive hydrocephalus was seen on computed tomography of the brain. Craniotomy with nodule excision was performed. The retinal capillary hemangiomas were treated with the combination of laser photocoagulation and intravitreal Ranibizumab injections. Visual acuity subsequently improved to 6/36.
Fulminant haemorrhage in cervical cancer leads to severe anaemia and haemodynamic instability. Palliative management includes vaginal packing as temporary measure, radiotherapy and other invasive surgical procedures. High dose emergency chemotherapy is not commonly implemented particularly when complicated with anaemia and renal impairment. We discuss three case series on the usefulness of high dose chemotherapy to combat bleeding from cervical cancer as an emergency treatment. The first case was clinically staged as operable 2A disease with severe anaemia due to bleeding from the tumour mass. The haemoglobin was corrected by blood transfusion while the bleeding was being arrested by high dose chemotherapy. The second case was inoperable with invasion to the bladder mucosa. She had frank haematuria and bleeding from the tumour with severe anaemia. A course of chemotherapy and blood transfusion controlled the bleeding and anaemia was corrected. The third case presented late with obstructive uropathy and anaemia. She required dialysis, blood transfusion and high dose emergency chemotherapy to stop the bleeding before undergoing urinary diversion after an unsuccessful ureteric stenting. High dose chemotherapy consisting cisplatin, vincristine, bleomycin and mitomycin-C has a clinical value in arresting fulminant haemorrhage in cervical cancer.
A 50-year-old Chinese man presented with sudden onset of painful right eye, diplopia, and redness associated with headache and deteriorating vision. Examination revealed obvious proptosis with elevated intraocular pressure. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed presence of retrobulbar haemmorhage. Emergency lateral canthotomy and cantholysis was performed followed by medical orbital decompression, resulting in improvements in visual acuity, and other ocular symptoms. The diagnosis of thrombosed orbital varices involving inferior ophthalmic vein was confirmed on radiological- angiographic study. To date, he is symptoms-free with good visual acuity. Immediate surgical decompression with lateral cantholysis for retrobulbar haemorrhage was effective in the treatment of retrobulbar haemorrhage.
Effective management of cancer pain is often hampered by patients’ lack of knowledge regarding cancer pain management and other barriers related to ethnicity and religious beliefs. This cross sectional study was performed to determine the patient-related barriers to effective cancer pain management. One hundred patients receiving cancer pain management were studied. Inclusion criteria were: patients over the age of 18 years, able to communicate, with known diagnosis of cancer, experiencing persistent pain for the past two weeks. A modified version of the Barriers Questionnaire II (BQ-II) was used and a modified Brief Pain Inventory was used to assess the pain profile. Barriers such as, patient’s attitude and beliefs, communication skills and fear of side effects of pain medication were determined, given a score and the summation was recorded as the total patient related barriers score. Overall, 85% of respondents achieved more than 40% pain relief and the 72 of 100 patients reported low patient related barrier scores of 6 or less. Nevertheless, the main patient related barriers were: fear of tolerance to opioids (51%), ethnicity (p=0.003) and religious beliefs (p=0.002) which constituted the major components of the patient-related barriers score. Ethnicity and religious beliefs had significant influence on patient-related barriers score suggesting the need of further investigation into this area. In order to achieve a comprehensive view, other barriers to effective cancer pain management such as those related to the health systems and healthcare providers need to be assessed together.
An 18-year-old Malay gentleman was noted to have profound bilateral blurred vision for one month duration, associated with loss of weight, appetite, low grade fever and abdominal distension. Visual acuity on presentation was 6/60 on the right, counting finger on the left with no afferent pupillary defect. Anterior segments were unremarkable. Vitreous cells were occasional bilaterally. Fundus revealed multiple choroidal and sub-retinal Roth spots with areas of pre-retinal and intra-retinal haemorrhages, involving the macula in the left eye. Vessels were dilated and tortuous in all quadrants of the right eye. Many areas of capillary fall out at peripheral retina were demonstrated in fundus fluorescein angiogram. Further systemic and laboratory review confirmed the diagnosis of CML and chemotherapy was initiated. Both eye ischaemic retinopathy secondary to CML was confirmed and scatter pan retinal photocoagulation was performed bilaterally. Good improvement in vision noted during subsequent follow up to 6/24 on the right, 6/60 on the left. High levels of suspicion and accurate early recognition of fundus changes are vital in these types of cases to ensure the institution of prompt treatment.
Neck pain presents as a symptom of dull pain or discomfort mainly along the trapezius muscle. Dry needling is an invasive procedure which uses acupuncture needle directed at myofascial trigger points. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling in managing patients with neck pain. A pre-test-post-test interventional study design was used. Patient education package was provided to 32 respondents who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A 13-item Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) questionnaire was used to assess Rumination, Magnification and Helplessness. Subjective pain intensity was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). These questionnaires were given before and after the dry needling intervention. The findings reported that respondents scored high in pre-test total PCS score (27.41±13.652). Post-test result revealed a significant improvement in total PCS score (23.06±13.938) (p = 0.000). Post-test VAS score (4.78±1.237) was also significantly better than pre-test (6.47±1.414) (p = 0.000). There was no significant difference in pre-test PCS in terms of marital status (p > 0.05) whereas there was significant difference between marital status and rumination in post-test (Z = -2.303, p = 0.021). There was significant difference between pre-test magnification in terms of respondents’ occupation (p = 0.008) and race (p = 0.035) but no significant difference in post-test. Respondents’ age group showed no significant differences between pre-test and post-test PCS and VAS (p > 0.05). In conclusion, patients who received dry needling showed improvement in pain intensity and catastrophizing towards neck pain.
A pure ovarian choriocarcinoma is a very rare disease which can be either pregnancy related (gestational), may not be related (non-gestational), or commonly correlated with different type of germ cell; teratocarcinoma, dysgerminoma or undifferentiated carcinoma. A pure non-gestational primary ovarian choriocarcinoma is astronomically uncommon and we recorded such condition in 14-year-old teenage girl’s ovary. An abdominal operative procedure with the help of a careful histopathology examination revealed choriocarcinoma in absence of other type of germ cell element. Multiple courses of Etoposide/Methotrexate/Actinomycin-D (EMA) regime of chemotherapy were shown to be effective in this case.
This study aimed to review the risk factors and clinical outcomes of patients undergoing pars planar vitrectomy (PPV) for breakthrough bleeding (BTB) from age related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 346 patients operated by the vitreoretinal unit at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from January 2008 - June 2011. We found eight eyes of 8 patients with AMD/IPCV-related BTB who underwent PPV. Mean age of patients was 64.4 years (range 41-80 years) with 5 males. Five were Chinese. Duration of symptoms ranged from days to months. Four patients were on anti-coagulants. Two had history of prior photodynamic therapy. There were five cases of PCV, of which three were macular in location. All three cases of AMD were macular. Intraoperative intravitreal ranibizumab injection was given in three cases and two had combined vitrectomy and cataract extraction. All cases reported improvement in visual acuity with four cases achieving 6/60 or better post operatively including two cases of extramacular PCV achieving 6/9 vision. Mean follow-up was 60 weeks. Postoperative complications included retinal tear and detachment in one case, reattached on reoperation. Six patients had a history of hypertension including one individual with stroke. Our small series indicates a predominance of Chinese individuals with BTB. Usage of anticoagulants and hypertension may be a predisposing factor. Better visual prognosis occurs with extramacular lesions which tend to be of PCV type.
Eccrine spiradenoma is a benign tumour of the sweat gland. Eccrine glands can be found almost everywhere but are mostly concentrated on the palms, soles and the axillae. Lesions involving the breast are rare. We present a case of a 13-years-old Malay girl with eccrine spiradenoma of the breast. The clinical presentation and histological features are being described.
A 24-year-old Chinese gentleman presented with two weeks history of sudden floaters in his right temporal visual field associated with blurring of vision. This ex-smoker also reported chronic, bloody cough for two years and recent pleuritic chest pain. Examination revealed a thin patient with right eye visual acuity of 6/18 associated with optic nerve dysfunction, optic disc swelling and macula star, retinal vasculitis and retinitis. Despite anti-tuberculosis medication and corticosteroids, he developed neovascularisation. Subsequent vitreous haemorrhage necessitated trans pars plana vitrectomy, membrane peeling, endolaser and silicone oil injection. Final visual acuity was 6/9 with quiescent retinopathy.
Caesarean section has become the most common major surgical procedure which is performed worldwide. Caesarean section is considered as a lifesaving procedure for both mother and baby. It is estimated that 18.5 million caesarean sections are performed yearly, worldwide. In the United States, more than one million caesarean sections are being performed, annually. Overall rates of caesarean section have increased in the last 30 years without significant improvement in perinatal or maternal outcomes.
This was a prospective randomised study comparing carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations between low-flow anaesthesia (fresh gas flow 1.0 L/min) and minimal-flow anaesthesia (0.5 L/min) using desflurane. Sixty (ASA 1 or 2) adult patients undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive either low-flow (Group 1) or minimal flow anaesthesia (Group 2). Venous blood samples for carboxyhaemoglobin levels were taken at baseline and at 10 mins intervals for 40 mins. Both groups showed significant increase in carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations within the first 10 mins when fresh gas flow of 4.0 L/min was used. Reduction in carboxyhemoglobin levels was seen after 20 mins of minimal or low flow anaesthesia. However, there was no significant difference in the magnitude of reduction of carboxyhemoglobin concentrations between the groups. The fractional inspired of oxygen (FiO2) showed no significant changes in either group. In conclusion, desflurane usage in anaesthesia with either low-flow or minimal-flow was not associated with increased carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations.
Intraoperative active warming in daycare surgery may be least popular compared to major elective surgeries due to the lesser risk of perioperative hypothermia. This prospective, single blind, randomized, controlled trial in daycare breast lumpectomy was done to evaluate the routine use of intraoperative forced-air warmer in the presence of other warming modalities in prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Fifty patients were randomized into two groups; Group 1 received forced-air warmer and Group 2 received a standard cotton thermal blanket. Both groups received circulating-water mattress. Intraoperatively, all patients received pre-warmed intravenous fluid with an in-line warmer. Ear and ambient temperature was recorded using infrared ear thermometer and digital thermo-hygrometer respectively. Measurement was done before induction, every 15 minutes intraoperatively, upon arrival in recovery room and 30 mins later, postoperatively. All patients were normothermic prior to induction of anaesthesia. During the initial half an hour post-induction, both groups mean core temperature decreased at approximately 0 ̊.C5 . Both showed no statistical difference in mean core temperature (0.04 ̊C) within the initial half an hour. The next half an hour, both groups had approximately 0 ̊.C2 decrement but this time, Group 2 had a slightly higher mean core temperature than Group 1 which maintained until the end of surgery. Overall, within the initial one hour post- induction of GA, there was a drop of 0.7 ̊C and 0.6°C in Group 1 and Group 2 respectively, however the difference in final mean core temperature between the two groups was 0.05°C and it was not statistically significant (p value < 0.05). None of the patients experienced intraoperative hypothermia (< 36 ̊C) and all remained in the normothermic range with no shivering or sense of feeling cold, postoperatively. The results of the present study found no significant difference in the changes of final core temperature with or without the usage of intraoperative forced-air warmer in the presence of other warming measures in daycare breast lumpectomy.
The EXIT (Ex utero intrapartum treatment) procedures have been, with a high degree of success, employed to treat a myriad types of fetal airway obstruction most commonly neck masses such as cystic hygroma and lymphangioma with ample plan including prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound scan or MRI. Before the advent of EXIT, formal documentations had been published with descriptions of intubation during intrapartum period and fetal airway protection either during normal or operative delivery. We report a 28-year-old gravida 2 para 1 who was referred to our Maternal Fetal Medicine (MFM) unit at 26 weeks and 3 days gestation with a foetal neck mass. We present a case of an successful EXIT procedure performed in the Lloyd Davies position with the hips abducted and flexed at 15 degrees as is employed during gynecologic laparoscopy surgery minus the Trendelenburg tilt. Both mother and baby are well. The benefits of this position are discussed.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the one of the most common type of of cancer of the kidneys affecting adults. A 35- year-old man, with Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) syndrome was referred for bilateral renal mass in a follow up CT for evaluation. Open partial left nephrectomy was performed and the final histopathological report confirmed the diagnosis. One of the most important genetic and hereditary risk factor for RCC is Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL). RCC in VHL may occur bilaterally in some cases, so preserving renal parenchymal function is a major therapeutic goal and nephron sparing surgery provides a favorable patient outcome.
This study aimed to compare dexmedetomidine and propofol, in terms of haemodynamic parameters, respiratory rates and offset times, when used for sedation in patients undergoing elective orthopaedic and surgical procedures under regional anaesthesia. This was a prospective, randomised, single-blind study where 88 patients were recruited. Patients were randomised into two groups to receive either dexmedetomidine or propofol infusion. Central neuraxial blockade (spinal, epidural or combined spinal epidural) was performed. After ensuring an adequate block and stable haemodynamic parameters, dexmedetomidine was infused 15 minutes later at 0.4 μg/kg/hr, and propofol, at a target concentration of 2.5 μg/ml. Both drugs were titrated to achieve a bispectral index score of 70 before surgery commenced. Sedation level was monitored using the bispectral index score and assessed by the Observer Assessment of Alertness Scale score. Drug infusion was adjusted to maintain bispectral index scores ranging between 70-80 during surgery. Both groups showed reductions in mean arterial pressure and heart rate from baseline readings throughout the infusion time. However there was no significant reduction in the first 15 minutes from baseline (p > 0.05). Haemodynamic parameters and respiratory rate between both groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05). No patient demonstrated significant respiratory depression or SpO2 ≤ 95%. Offset times were also not significantly different between both groups (p = 0.594). There were no significant differences in haemodynamic parameters, respiratory rates and offset times between dexmedetomidine and propofol used for sedation in patients undergoing elective orthopaedic and surgical procedures under regional anaesthesia.
A middle-aged gentleman with history of left penetrating keratoplatsy presented with left eye perforated corneal graft secondary to infective keratitis. The affected eye was blind from absolute steroid-induced glaucoma. In view of expected poor graft survival in a blind eye, globe removal was offered. However, the patient refused the treatment and request for another corneal graft. This case highlights both the possibility of good outcome of cornea graft in such a case, and also illustrates that patient’s autonomy to refuse treatment option outweighs beneficence.