Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 196 parents who attended primary health care facilities in suburban Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire was given to assess decision-making styles and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding practices. Systematic random sampling was used for the non-exclusive breastfeeding group, and convenience sampling was used for the exclusive breastfeeding group. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the associated factors for exclusive breastfeeding practices.
Results: We found an association between the mutual decision of parents on exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding practices. Previous exclusive breastfeeding experience, fathers' ages, mothers' occupations and mutual decisions had significant impact on exclusive breastfeeding practices.
Conclusion: The important determinant for practising exclusive breastfeeding is parents' mutual decisions. Therefore, practitioners need to continuously educate and emphasize the fathers' role in the breastfeeding process.
Methods: A qualitative case study was conducted with medical students who were in the early phases of their training. Purposive sampling was employed to select the study participants. Data collection was carried out using semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and they were later analysed using NVivo 10 software and employing open coding, axial coding and selective coding techniques. Nine medical students participated in the study. To ensure trustworthiness of the data, member checks, an audit trail, the Cohen kappa index, and peer checking were utilized.
Results: Based on thematic analysis, four themes and seven categories were identified. Themes include soft skills, an academic overview, social skills and motivation from mentors. Categories include time management, study skills, communication skills, social adjustment, social activities, moral support and personal support.
Conclusion: Results indicate that mentoring is essential to medical students in developing their identity and professional maturity. The effectiveness of the mentoring programme is supported by several factors that, as a whole, lead to the development of a professional graduate.
Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women, ages 21-56 who were either divorced or currently in the process of getting divorced in Kelantan, Malaysia.
Results: Several themes emerged, indicating the following five reasons for divorce: 1) reaching the point of ultimatum, 2) having adequate support pre- and post-divorce, 3) concern for children's welfare, 4) seeking financial independence, and 5) fear of harm.
Conclusion: The identification of the driving factors for divorce may spark a change in our society's mindset to empower female divorcees and allow them to lead happy, abuse-free lives.
Methods: A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted on a group of Universiti Sains Malaysia medical students who had finished the Community and Family Case Study (CFCS) program. Data were gathered through focused group discussions and student reflective journals. Participants were sampled using the maximal variation technique of purposive sampling. Three steps of thematic analysis using the Atlasti software were employed to identify categories, subthemes, and themes.
Results: Personal, role, social, and research identities were generated that contribute to the PID of medical students through the CFCS program. The results indicate that the CFCS program nurtured personal identity through the development of professional skills, soft skills, and personal values. Pertaining to role identity, this is related to patient care in terms of primary care and interprofessional awareness. Pertaining to social identity, the obvious feature was community awareness related to culture, society, and politics. A positive outcome of the CFCS program was found to be its fostering of research skills, which is related to the use of epidemiology and research methods.
Conclusion: The findings indicate that the CFCS program promotes PID among medical students. The current data highlight and provide insights into the importance of integrating CBE into medical curricula to prepare future doctors for their entry into the profession.
Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of medical students in their final year at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed using AMOS 22 to assess construct validity. Reliability analysis was performed using SPSS 22 to assess internal consistency.
Results: A total of 159 final year medical students participated. CFA showed that the original four-factor model with 15 items achieved acceptable values for the goodness of fit indices, suggesting a good model fit (X2 = 198.295, ChiSq/df = 2.418, RMSEA = 0.095, GFI = 0.867, CFI = 0.953, NFI = 0.923, TLI = 0.940). The Cronbach's alpha values of the mentoring relationship structure, engagement, and competency support domains were 0.96, 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. For autonomy support, the Cronbach's alpha value was 0.62.
Conclusion: MBS demonstrates a satisfactory level of construct validity and a high level of internal consistency in measuring supportive mentor behaviours in a medical school setting. This result suggests that MBS can be used as a mentorship evaluation tool for feedback in the context of a Malaysian medical school.
Method: A quasi-experimental study was conducted using 254 first-year medical students with no prior exposure to the lecture topic during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 academic sessions. The students from each batch were divided into two groups and exposed to different video material. Group A watched an action movie, while Group B watched an educational video related to the lecture topic. After 15 min, both groups attended a lecture on the gross anatomy of the heart, which was delivered by a qualified anatomist. At the end of the lecture, their understanding of the material was measured through a post-lecture test using ten vetted multiple choice true/false questions.
Results: Group B's test scores were found to be significantly higher than Group A's (p > 0.001, t-stats [df] = -4.21 ).
Conclusion: This study concluded that the pre-lecture activity had successfully provided the students with some prior knowledge of the subject before they attended the lecture sessions. This finding was aligned with cognitive load theory, which describes a reduction in learners' cognitive load when prior knowledge is stimulated.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among highly-trained male athletes. Only participants who showed normal knee valgus during a drop landing screening test were recruited. Twelve junior athletes performed single leg squats while maintaining a knee flexion angle of 60°. The squats were executed in three foot positions: neutral (0°), adduction (-10°), and abduction (+10°). Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to capture the lower extremity kinematics of the participants' preferred limb. The hip and knee kinematics in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes during squatting were compared across the three foot positions using one-way ANOVA.
Results: The participants showed a normal range of dynamic knee valgus (5.3°±1.6). No statistically significant differences were observed in hip flexion (p = 0.322), adduction (p = 0.834), or internal rotation (p = 0.967) across different foot positions. Similarly, no statistically significant differences were observed in knee flexion (p = 0.489), adduction (p = 0.822), or internal rotation (p = 0.971) across different foot positions.
Conclusion: Small changes in transverse plane foot position do not affect lower extremity kinematics during single leg squat in highly trained adolescent males with normal dynamic knee valgus. Our findings may provide guidance on safer techniques for landing, pivoting, and cutting during training and game situations.
Methods: A qualitative phenomenological study was carried out in six Malaysian public medical schools from 15th March to 15th April 2019. A total of 10 junior medical educationists participated in the study. A purposive sampling technique was utilised to select eligible participants. A series of semi-structured interviews was conducted to collect the data using a pre-determined interview protocol. The collected data were then analysed using open, axial, and selective coding methods assisted by ATLAS.ti software.
Results: Three themes (i.e. personal growth, professional growth, and self-reflective practice) and nine sub-themes (i.e. self-awareness, intention, internal satisfaction, career pathway, maintaining professional skills, acquiring new knowledge, identifying strengths and weaknesses, and areas for improvement) emerged from the data analysis.
Conclusion: The study showed that PID could be developed through personal growth, professional growth, and self-reflective practice. Policymakers should focus on these characteristics during training sessions designed for the professional development of their medical faculty staff.
Methods: Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into (i) control, (ii) stress-exposed, (iii) stress-exposed and treated with TH (1 g/kg body weight twice daily via oral gavage), (iv) stress-exposed and treated with DHA-rich fish oil (450 mg/kg body weight twice daily via oral gavage), and (v) stress-exposed and treated with a combination of TH and DHA-rich fish oil. The chronic stress regimen consisted of a combination of restraint stress and a swim stress test for 28 days. The concentrations of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain homogenates (TNF-α, IL6, and IFN-γ) were measured by ELISA.
Results: The concentrations of TNF-α, IL6, and IFN-γ in brain homogenates from the DHA, TH, and TH + DHA-treated groups were significantly lower compared to the control and stress-only-exposed groups (p
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate medical students of the School of Medical Sciences of USM. The proposed USM Medical Students' Guidance and Counselling Needs (USM-MSGCN) questionnaire is a self-administered instrument that consists of 68 initial items developed from the recommendation of medical students, counsellors, and lecturers in the medical education department. To determine the dimensionality (construct validity) and reliability of the questionnaire, exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha internal consistency reliability analysis were conducted.
Results: A total of 208 students participated in the study. Factor analysis revealed that the items were not unidimensional; four potential constructs could be extracted from the questionnaire, namely, self-leadership (7 items), communication (5 items), learning (5 items), and psychological coping skills (3 items), with factor loading ranges of 0.56-0.82, 0.56-0.88, 0.65-0.84, and 0.79-0.80, respectively. These domains had the following internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha): 0.89, 0.90, 0.87, and 0.87, respectively; the overall alpha value was 0.93.
Conclusion: Four factors, with 20 items in the USM-MSGCN questionnaire had good validity and reliability values when administered among the pre-clinical medical students.
Methods: A literature search was carried out through Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar, PubMed, and EBSCOhost databases based on specific search terms. Each article was appraised based on title, abstract, and full text. The selected articles were critically appraised, and relevant information to support the validity of MMI in various educational settings was synthesized. This paper followed the PRISMA guideline to ensure consistency in reporting systematic review results.
Results: A majority of the studies were from Canada, with 41.54%, followed by the United Kingdom (25.39%), the United States (13.85%), and Australia (9.23%). The rest (9.24%) were from Germany, Ireland, the United Arab Emirates, Japan, Pakistan, Taiwan, and Malaysia. Moreover, most MMI stations ranged from seven to 12 with a duration of 10 min per station (including a 2-min gap between stations).
Conclusion: The results suggest that the content, response process, and internal structure of MMI were well supported by evidence; however, the relation and consequences of MMI to important outcome variables were inconsistently supported. The evidence shows that MMI is a non-biased, practical, feasible, reliable, and content-valid admission tool. However, further research on its impact on non-cognitive outcomes is required.
Methods: A total of 330 pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) were surveyed. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire and analysed with SPSS software version 22.0.
Results: Overall, 84.5% (n = 279) of the pregnant women had experienced UI. Multiple logistic regression identified body mass index (BMI), presence of other illness, and consumption of coffee as major risk factors for UI. The majority of pregnant women preferred early screening for UI.
Conclusion: A great majority of pregnant women in this study experienced UI. Higher BMI and the presence of other medical conditions are significant risk factors for UI and early screening is required. The need for universal education about UI and pelvic floor muscle exercise is warranted and can potentially prevent postnatal UI and UI later in life.
Methods: A total of 380 women who had used the same contraceptive method for at least twelve months were recruited in this study. Covariance analysis was done to compare the weight gain between hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive users, while studying the same confounders [age, household income, number of pregnancies, and baseline body mass index (BMI)].
Results: Hormonal methods were more commonly used. The mean weight gain among hormonal users (adjusted mean 2.85, 95% CI 2.45, 3.24) was significantly higher than non-hormonal users (adjusted mean 0.46, 95% CI -0.73, 1.65; p-value <0.001), after controlling for age, household income, number of pregnancies, and baseline BMI.
Conclusion: The possibility of weight gain following the use of hormonal methods should be investigated and non-hormonal methods should be considered to prevent weight gain.
Methods: Seven patients with acute grade 1 ankle sprain (15 days of ankle sprain) were recruited. They were provided with 7 days of protection, optimal loading, ice, compression, and elevation (POLICE) treatment, and the standard physiotherapy programme consisted of towel stretching and balancing exercises on one leg. Pain scale score was recorded daily during the physiotherapy programme. The isokinetic ankle strengths of the patient's injured and uninjured legs were compared before and after the physiotherapy programme. Isokinetic tests were conducted in painless range of motion for the injured leg.
Results: Pain was significantly reduced after the patients underwent the standard physiotherapy programme. No significant differences were observed in terms of the ankle peak torque, time to peak torque, and ankle plantar flexion-to-dorsiflexion ratio of the injured and uninjured legs. The injured leg showed significant improvement in terms of ankle eversion-to-inversion ratio (E:I) after 7 days of performing the standard physiotherapy programme.
Conclusion: Performing the standard physiotherapy programme for 1 week reduces pain and improves the ankle E:I in patients with grade 1 ankle sprain.
Methods: Nineteen young state-level weightlifters performed concentric strength tests of the upper limbs using an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque/body weight was measured for each weightlifter in dominant and non-dominant limbs.
Results: Peak torque/body weight was significantly different in external rotation (p 0.05). Time to peak torque in external rotation was less in the dominant than in the non-dominant limb. However, opposite results were obtained in external rotation, whereby time to peak torque was longer in the dominant limb compared to the non-dominant limb. Similarly, no significant difference was found between dominant and non-dominant limbs in terms of average power (p > 0.05).
Conclusions: The findings of this study may help in establishing potential imbalance in variables of muscular contractions between dominant and non-dominant limbs of weightlifters. This may help to maximise performance and minimise potential shoulder injury.