Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 56 in total

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  1. Mohd Yusof J, Abd Halim A, Wan Hamizan AK
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2020 Aug;15(4):334-337.
    PMID: 32982639 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2020.06.007
    Mild to severe epistaxis is common in pregnancy and often results from increased vascularity of the nasal mucosa and hormonal changes. Symptoms may occur in the absence of an obvious local cause or any systemic disorder; however, thorough otolaryngological (i.e., "ENT") evaluation is always warranted. Pyogenic granuloma or lobular capillary haemangioma is a benign fibrovascular proliferative tumour that is commonly found on the face, fingers, lips, and nasal mucosa. Pregnancy-induced pyogenic granuloma is not an uncommon entity and may result in torrential epistaxis if untreated. Managing a case of severe epistaxis during pregnancy usually requires multidisciplinary management. The authors present a case of severe epistaxis in pregnancy that necessitated examination of the nasal cavity under general anaesthesia. Intraoperative findings showed a bluish-red mass occupying the patient's right maxillary sinus. Bleeding was arrested and complete haemostasis was achieved. The nasal pyogenic granuloma completely resolved in the post-partum period.
  2. Andrew Chin RW, Chua YY, Chu MN, Mahadi NF, Wong MS, Yusoff MSB, et al.
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2018 Feb;13(1):1-9.
    PMID: 31435296 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.06.003
    Introduction: The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) is a recent burnout measure with a focus on fatigue and exhaustion. It has three factors: personal burnout, work-related burnout, and client-related burnout. This study aimed to translate the CBI into the Malay language and to validate the translated version among a group of medical students.

    Methods: The forward-backward translation was performed as per standard guidelines. The Malay version of CBI (CBI-M) was distributed to 32 medical students to assess face validity and later to 452 medical students to assess construct validity. The data analysis was performed by Microsoft Excel, SPSS and AMOS.

    Results: The face validity index of CBI-M was more than 0.8. The three factors of CBI-M achieved good levels of goodness-of-fit indices (Cmin/df = 2.99, RMSEA = 0.066, GFI = 0.906, CFI = 0.938, NFI = 0.910, TLI = 0.925). The composite reliability values of the three factors ranged from 0.84 to 0.87. The Cronbach's alpha values of the three factors ranged from 0.83 to 0.87.

    Conclusions: This study supports the face and construct validity of the CBI-M with a high internal consistency.
  3. Draman N, Mohamad N, Yusoff HM, Muhamad R
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2017 Oct;12(5):412-417.
    PMID: 31435272 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.05.005
    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the association between decision making for breastfeeding practices and associated factors for exclusive breastfeeding practices among parents attending primary health care facilities.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 196 parents who attended primary health care facilities in suburban Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire was given to assess decision-making styles and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding practices. Systematic random sampling was used for the non-exclusive breastfeeding group, and convenience sampling was used for the exclusive breastfeeding group. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the associated factors for exclusive breastfeeding practices.

    Results: We found an association between the mutual decision of parents on exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding practices. Previous exclusive breastfeeding experience, fathers' ages, mothers' occupations and mutual decisions had significant impact on exclusive breastfeeding practices.

    Conclusion: The important determinant for practising exclusive breastfeeding is parents' mutual decisions. Therefore, practitioners need to continuously educate and emphasize the fathers' role in the breastfeeding process.

  4. Mat Nor ZM, Yusoff SBM, Abdul Rahim FA
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2017 Aug;12(4):343-348.
    PMID: 31435261 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.01.003
    Objective: Mentoring programmes are important elements of the personal and professional development of medical students. Mentors must focus on the real issues that students face during the mentoring process. This study explores the need for mentoring programmes for first-year medical students at the Universiti Sains, Malaysia (USM).

    Methods: A qualitative case study was conducted with medical students who were in the early phases of their training. Purposive sampling was employed to select the study participants. Data collection was carried out using semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and they were later analysed using NVivo 10 software and employing open coding, axial coding and selective coding techniques. Nine medical students participated in the study. To ensure trustworthiness of the data, member checks, an audit trail, the Cohen kappa index, and peer checking were utilized.

    Results: Based on thematic analysis, four themes and seven categories were identified. Themes include soft skills, an academic overview, social skills and motivation from mentors. Categories include time management, study skills, communication skills, social adjustment, social activities, moral support and personal support.

    Conclusion: Results indicate that mentoring is essential to medical students in developing their identity and professional maturity. The effectiveness of the mentoring programme is supported by several factors that, as a whole, lead to the development of a professional graduate.

  5. Sukeri S, Man NNN
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2017 Dec;12(6):477-482.
    PMID: 31435282 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.05.009
    Objectives: This qualitative study aims to discover the factors that influenced the decisions of women who successfully escaped domestic violence by attaining a divorce.

    Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women, ages 21-56 who were either divorced or currently in the process of getting divorced in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Results: Several themes emerged, indicating the following five reasons for divorce: 1) reaching the point of ultimatum, 2) having adequate support pre- and post-divorce, 3) concern for children's welfare, 4) seeking financial independence, and 5) fear of harm.

    Conclusion: The identification of the driving factors for divorce may spark a change in our society's mindset to empower female divorcees and allow them to lead happy, abuse-free lives.

  6. Sukeri S, Bakar RS, Othman A, Ibrahim MI
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2017 Oct;12(5):424-429.
    PMID: 31435274 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.05.002
    Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the barriers that deter mothers of children with disabilities from attaining their unmet needs.

    Methods: In-depth interviews of 12 mothers of children with disabilities were conducted from November 2014 to January 2015 in Kelantan, Malaysia. The mothers were recruited by purposive sampling. Thematic analysis was used for identifying, analysing and reporting the data.

    Results: Barriers to the unmet needs among mothers of children with disabilities were found to stem from the mothers' expectation and further propagated by lack of support, the role of healthcare professionals in providing care, inappropriate policies and shortage of resources required for survival and maintaining care.

    Conclusions: Identification of the barriers to the attainment of unmet needs among mothers of disabled children is crucial for resolving the issue of unmet needs. Deeper understanding of these barriers may facilitate positive actions toward addressing the needs of these mothers and to alleviate the stress on mothers of disabled children. A concerted effort to coordinate services across all disciplines is required to dismantle these barriers by improving the provision of health care delivery and evaluation of welfare policies and services.
  7. Ahmad A, Bahri Yusoff MS, Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad WM, Mat Nor MZ
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2018 Apr;13(2):113-122.
    PMID: 31435313 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.12.001
    Objectives: Community-based education (CBE) has an impact on the types of medical students produced at the end of medical training. However, its impact on professional identity development (PID) has not been clearly understood. This study thus explores the effect of the CBE program on PID.

    Methods: A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted on a group of Universiti Sains Malaysia medical students who had finished the Community and Family Case Study (CFCS) program. Data were gathered through focused group discussions and student reflective journals. Participants were sampled using the maximal variation technique of purposive sampling. Three steps of thematic analysis using the Atlasti software were employed to identify categories, subthemes, and themes.

    Results: Personal, role, social, and research identities were generated that contribute to the PID of medical students through the CFCS program. The results indicate that the CFCS program nurtured personal identity through the development of professional skills, soft skills, and personal values. Pertaining to role identity, this is related to patient care in terms of primary care and interprofessional awareness. Pertaining to social identity, the obvious feature was community awareness related to culture, society, and politics. A positive outcome of the CFCS program was found to be its fostering of research skills, which is related to the use of epidemiology and research methods.

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that the CFCS program promotes PID among medical students. The current data highlight and provide insights into the importance of integrating CBE into medical curricula to prepare future doctors for their entry into the profession.

  8. Mohammad JAM, Yusoff MSB
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2018 Feb;13(1):58-63.
    PMID: 31435303 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.04.005
    Objectives: To determine the psychometric properties of the Mentor Behaviour Scale (MBS), a 15-item inventory that evaluates four supportive mentor behaviours in terms of construct validity and internal consistency.

    Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of medical students in their final year at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed using AMOS 22 to assess construct validity. Reliability analysis was performed using SPSS 22 to assess internal consistency.

    Results: A total of 159 final year medical students participated. CFA showed that the original four-factor model with 15 items achieved acceptable values for the goodness of fit indices, suggesting a good model fit (X2 = 198.295, ChiSq/df = 2.418, RMSEA = 0.095, GFI = 0.867, CFI = 0.953, NFI = 0.923, TLI = 0.940). The Cronbach's alpha values of the mentoring relationship structure, engagement, and competency support domains were 0.96, 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. For autonomy support, the Cronbach's alpha value was 0.62.

    Conclusion: MBS demonstrates a satisfactory level of construct validity and a high level of internal consistency in measuring supportive mentor behaviours in a medical school setting. This result suggests that MBS can be used as a mentorship evaluation tool for feedback in the context of a Malaysian medical school.

  9. Hadie SNH, Simok AA, Shamsuddin SA, Mohammad JA
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2019 Aug;14(4):395-401.
    PMID: 31488974 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2019.06.008
    Objective: Students commonly perceive gross anatomy lectures as difficult because they contain complex information that requires three-dimensional visualisation in order to be understood. Without prior preparation, a gross anatomy topic expounded via lecture can be cognitively challenging. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the impact of a pre-lecture activity in the form of viewing a video on students' lecture comprehension.

    Method: A quasi-experimental study was conducted using 254 first-year medical students with no prior exposure to the lecture topic during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 academic sessions. The students from each batch were divided into two groups and exposed to different video material. Group A watched an action movie, while Group B watched an educational video related to the lecture topic. After 15 min, both groups attended a lecture on the gross anatomy of the heart, which was delivered by a qualified anatomist. At the end of the lecture, their understanding of the material was measured through a post-lecture test using ten vetted multiple choice true/false questions.

    Results: Group B's test scores were found to be significantly higher than Group A's (p > 0.001, t-stats [df] = -4.21 [252]).

    Conclusion: This study concluded that the pre-lecture activity had successfully provided the students with some prior knowledge of the subject before they attended the lecture sessions. This finding was aligned with cognitive load theory, which describes a reduction in learners' cognitive load when prior knowledge is stimulated.

  10. Mohd Azhar N, Affandi NF, Mail MSZ, Shaharudin S
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2019 Aug;14(4):343-349.
    PMID: 31488966 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2019.06.007
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of transverse plane foot position on lower limb kinematics during a single leg squat.

    Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among highly-trained male athletes. Only participants who showed normal knee valgus during a drop landing screening test were recruited. Twelve junior athletes performed single leg squats while maintaining a knee flexion angle of 60°. The squats were executed in three foot positions: neutral (0°), adduction (-10°), and abduction (+10°). Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to capture the lower extremity kinematics of the participants' preferred limb. The hip and knee kinematics in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes during squatting were compared across the three foot positions using one-way ANOVA.

    Results: The participants showed a normal range of dynamic knee valgus (5.3°±1.6). No statistically significant differences were observed in hip flexion (p = 0.322), adduction (p = 0.834), or internal rotation (p = 0.967) across different foot positions. Similarly, no statistically significant differences were observed in knee flexion (p = 0.489), adduction (p = 0.822), or internal rotation (p = 0.971) across different foot positions.

    Conclusion: Small changes in transverse plane foot position do not affect lower extremity kinematics during single leg squat in highly trained adolescent males with normal dynamic knee valgus. Our findings may provide guidance on safer techniques for landing, pivoting, and cutting during training and game situations.

  11. Nor MZM
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2019 Aug;14(4):324-331.
    PMID: 31488963 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2019.06.001
    Objective: Professional identity development (PID) of academicians is triggered by numerous elements, including faculty development programmes (FDP). The study aims at exploring how FDPs contribute to PID among junior medical educationists.

    Methods: A qualitative phenomenological study was carried out in six Malaysian public medical schools from 15th March to 15th April 2019. A total of 10 junior medical educationists participated in the study. A purposive sampling technique was utilised to select eligible participants. A series of semi-structured interviews was conducted to collect the data using a pre-determined interview protocol. The collected data were then analysed using open, axial, and selective coding methods assisted by ATLAS.ti software.

    Results: Three themes (i.e. personal growth, professional growth, and self-reflective practice) and nine sub-themes (i.e. self-awareness, intention, internal satisfaction, career pathway, maintaining professional skills, acquiring new knowledge, identifying strengths and weaknesses, and areas for improvement) emerged from the data analysis.

    Conclusion: The study showed that PID could be developed through personal growth, professional growth, and self-reflective practice. Policymakers should focus on these characteristics during training sessions designed for the professional development of their medical faculty staff.

  12. Asari MA, Zulkaflee MH, Sirajudeen KNS, Mohd Yusof NA, Mohd Sairazi NS
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2019 Aug;14(4):317-323.
    PMID: 31488962 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2019.06.004
    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Tualang honey (TH), DHA-rich fish oil, and their combination on the concentrations of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat brains following exposure to chronic stress.

    Methods: Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into (i) control, (ii) stress-exposed, (iii) stress-exposed and treated with TH (1 g/kg body weight twice daily via oral gavage), (iv) stress-exposed and treated with DHA-rich fish oil (450 mg/kg body weight twice daily via oral gavage), and (v) stress-exposed and treated with a combination of TH and DHA-rich fish oil. The chronic stress regimen consisted of a combination of restraint stress and a swim stress test for 28 days. The concentrations of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain homogenates (TNF-α, IL6, and IFN-γ) were measured by ELISA.

    Results: The concentrations of TNF-α, IL6, and IFN-γ in brain homogenates from the DHA, TH, and TH + DHA-treated groups were significantly lower compared to the control and stress-only-exposed groups (p 

  13. Nor ZMZMN, Yaacob NNM, Mohammad JAM
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2019 Apr;14(2):123-130.
    PMID: 31435402 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2019.01.002
    Objective: There is no standard mechanism for empathy guidance and counselling for medical students. This study aimed to determine the dimensionality and reliability of a questionnaire developed for establishing guidance and counselling for pre-clinical medical students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM).

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate medical students of the School of Medical Sciences of USM. The proposed USM Medical Students' Guidance and Counselling Needs (USM-MSGCN) questionnaire is a self-administered instrument that consists of 68 initial items developed from the recommendation of medical students, counsellors, and lecturers in the medical education department. To determine the dimensionality (construct validity) and reliability of the questionnaire, exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha internal consistency reliability analysis were conducted.

    Results: A total of 208 students participated in the study. Factor analysis revealed that the items were not unidimensional; four potential constructs could be extracted from the questionnaire, namely, self-leadership (7 items), communication (5 items), learning (5 items), and psychological coping skills (3 items), with factor loading ranges of 0.56-0.82, 0.56-0.88, 0.65-0.84, and 0.79-0.80, respectively. These domains had the following internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha): 0.89, 0.90, 0.87, and 0.87, respectively; the overall alpha value was 0.93.

    Conclusion: Four factors, with 20 items in the USM-MSGCN questionnaire had good validity and reliability values when administered among the pre-clinical medical students.

  14. Ng YL, Teoh SH, Mohd Radzniwan AR, Syahnaz MH
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2019 Feb;14(1):88-94.
    PMID: 31435395 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2018.12.002
    Objectives: Undiagnosed glycaemic disorders remain a major health concern as in such cases the opportunity for early interventions that can potentially prevent complications is missed. Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been suggested as a predictor for glycaemic disorders in men. However, data on men with ED having undiagnosed glycaemic disorders is limited, especially in the Malaysian context. This study aimed to identify prevalence and associated factors of undiagnosed glycaemic disorders in men with ED.
    Methods: We applied a cross-sectional purposive sampling technique on a group of 114 men with ED without underlying glycaemic disorders. They underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and the cases were then classified into two groups: normal and undiagnosed glycaemic disorders groups. The glycaemic disorders group consisted of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). The patients were interviewed, and their medical records were reviewed for their sociodemographic and clinical profiles.
    Results: Prevalence of undiagnosed glycaemic disorders in men with ED was 41.2%. Higher age (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.17, p = 0.002) and BMI (adjusted OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.29, p = 0.003) were found to be significantly associated with undiagnosed glycaemic disorders.
    Conclusion: This study found that men with ED had a high prevalence of undiagnosed glycaemic disorders. ED was associated with advancing age and higher BMI. Further research to validate the findings of this study is needed to increase the prevalence of DM screening among men with ED.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
  15. Nini Shuhaida MH, Siti Suhaila MY, Azidah KA, Norhayati NM, Nani D, Juliawati M
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2019 Jun;14(3):268-276.
    PMID: 31435416 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2019.03.002
    Objective: This study aims to identify risks induced by depression, anxiety, stress, and socio-demographic factors associated with poor glycaemic control among type II diabetes mellitus patients in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.
    Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in two Malaysian health clinics by using the Malay version of a self-administered questionnaire. This instrument contains a diabetes care profile, a 21-item version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS21), and a Malaysian Medication Adherence Score (MalMAS). Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
    Results: A total of 338 type II diabetes mellitus patients responded (response rate 93.1%). The proportion of patients with poor glycaemic control was 76.0%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that 1) social support scores [Adj. OR (95% CI): 1.06 (1.03,1.10); p = 0.001]; 2) unemployment [Adj. OR (95% CI): 0.46 (0.22,0.95); p = 0.035]; 3) pensioner status [Adj. OR (95% CI): 0.28 (0.13,0.61); p = 0.001]; and 4) perception of diabetes as interfering with daily living activities [Adj. OR (95% CI): 3.18 (1.17,8.70); p = 0.024] were significant factors for poor glycaemic control.
    Conclusions: Unemployment, perception of diabetes' interference with daily living activities, and social support are significantly correlated with poor glycaemic control. Further studies assessing other important clinical and psychosocial factors that may influence glycaemic control are suggested. A younger age range of participants is recommended for better outcomes and interventional implementation of findings.
  16. Yusoff MSB
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2019 Jun;14(3):203-240.
    PMID: 31435411 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2019.03.006
    Objectives: Multiple Mini Interviews (MMI) have been conducted across the globe in the student selection process, particularly in health profession education. This paper reported the validity evidence of MMI in various educational settings.

    Methods: A literature search was carried out through Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar, PubMed, and EBSCOhost databases based on specific search terms. Each article was appraised based on title, abstract, and full text. The selected articles were critically appraised, and relevant information to support the validity of MMI in various educational settings was synthesized. This paper followed the PRISMA guideline to ensure consistency in reporting systematic review results.

    Results: A majority of the studies were from Canada, with 41.54%, followed by the United Kingdom (25.39%), the United States (13.85%), and Australia (9.23%). The rest (9.24%) were from Germany, Ireland, the United Arab Emirates, Japan, Pakistan, Taiwan, and Malaysia. Moreover, most MMI stations ranged from seven to 12 with a duration of 10 min per station (including a 2-min gap between stations).

    Conclusion: The results suggest that the content, response process, and internal structure of MMI were well supported by evidence; however, the relation and consequences of MMI to important outcome variables were inconsistently supported. The evidence shows that MMI is a non-biased, practical, feasible, reliable, and content-valid admission tool. However, further research on its impact on non-cognitive outcomes is required.

  17. Mohd Yusoff D, Awang S, Kueh YC
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2019 Feb;14(1):39-46.
    PMID: 31435388 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2018.11.009
    Objectives: Urinary incontinence (UI) is common among pregnant women. This growing health problem affects physical, emotional, and social well-being. This study determined the prevalence of UI and associated factors, and evaluated screening needs.

    Methods: A total of 330 pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) were surveyed. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire and analysed with SPSS software version 22.0.

    Results: Overall, 84.5% (n = 279) of the pregnant women had experienced UI. Multiple logistic regression identified body mass index (BMI), presence of other illness, and consumption of coffee as major risk factors for UI. The majority of pregnant women preferred early screening for UI.

    Conclusion: A great majority of pregnant women in this study experienced UI. Higher BMI and the presence of other medical conditions are significant risk factors for UI and early screening is required. The need for universal education about UI and pelvic floor muscle exercise is warranted and can potentially prevent postnatal UI and UI later in life.

  18. Ibrahim H, Tengku Ismail TA, Hashim N
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2019 Feb;14(1):25-30.
    PMID: 31435386 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2018.11.012
    Objectives: Weight gain remains an issue for contraceptive users due to the high prevalence of obesity. This retrospective study compares the weight gain between hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive users in government health clinics in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Methods: A total of 380 women who had used the same contraceptive method for at least twelve months were recruited in this study. Covariance analysis was done to compare the weight gain between hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive users, while studying the same confounders [age, household income, number of pregnancies, and baseline body mass index (BMI)].

    Results: Hormonal methods were more commonly used. The mean weight gain among hormonal users (adjusted mean 2.85, 95% CI 2.45, 3.24) was significantly higher than non-hormonal users (adjusted mean 0.46, 95% CI -0.73, 1.65; p-value <0.001), after controlling for age, household income, number of pregnancies, and baseline BMI.

    Conclusion: The possibility of weight gain following the use of hormonal methods should be investigated and non-hormonal methods should be considered to prevent weight gain.

  19. Mohd Salim NS, Umar MA, Shaharudin S
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2018 Dec;13(6):576-581.
    PMID: 31435381 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2018.10.007
    Objectives: The isokinetic evaluation of the ankle joint is important in determining the effectiveness of the rehabilitation programme for the management of ankle sprains. This study aimed to determine the effects of physiotherapy programme on isokinetic variables in individuals with grade I ankle sprains.

    Methods: Seven patients with acute grade 1 ankle sprain (15 days of ankle sprain) were recruited. They were provided with 7 days of protection, optimal loading, ice, compression, and elevation (POLICE) treatment, and the standard physiotherapy programme consisted of towel stretching and balancing exercises on one leg. Pain scale score was recorded daily during the physiotherapy programme. The isokinetic ankle strengths of the patient's injured and uninjured legs were compared before and after the physiotherapy programme. Isokinetic tests were conducted in painless range of motion for the injured leg.

    Results: Pain was significantly reduced after the patients underwent the standard physiotherapy programme. No significant differences were observed in terms of the ankle peak torque, time to peak torque, and ankle plantar flexion-to-dorsiflexion ratio of the injured and uninjured legs. The injured leg showed significant improvement in terms of ankle eversion-to-inversion ratio (E:I) after 7 days of performing the standard physiotherapy programme.

    Conclusion: Performing the standard physiotherapy programme for 1 week reduces pain and improves the ankle E:I in patients with grade 1 ankle sprain.

  20. Abdul Rahim MF, Shaharudin S
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2018 Dec;13(6):572-575.
    PMID: 31435380 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2018.08.001
    Objectives: This study aimed to determine isokinetic profiles of rotator cuff muscle strength and power in adolescent state-level weightlifters.

    Methods: Nineteen young state-level weightlifters performed concentric strength tests of the upper limbs using an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque/body weight was measured for each weightlifter in dominant and non-dominant limbs.

    Results: Peak torque/body weight was significantly different in external rotation (p  0.05). Time to peak torque in external rotation was less in the dominant than in the non-dominant limb. However, opposite results were obtained in external rotation, whereby time to peak torque was longer in the dominant limb compared to the non-dominant limb. Similarly, no significant difference was found between dominant and non-dominant limbs in terms of average power (p > 0.05).

    Conclusions: The findings of this study may help in establishing potential imbalance in variables of muscular contractions between dominant and non-dominant limbs of weightlifters. This may help to maximise performance and minimise potential shoulder injury.

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