The present study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective activity of a methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves (MEMM) using two established rat models. Ten groups of rats (n=6) were given a once-daily administration of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (negative control), 200 mg/kg silymarin (positive control), or MEMM (50, 250, or 500 mg/kg) for 7 days followed by induction of hepatotoxicity either using paracetamol or carbon tetrachloride. Blood samples and livers were collected for biochemical and microscopic analysis. Based on the results obtained, MEMM exhibited a significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotective activity against both inducers, as indicated by an improvement in the liver function test. These observations were supported by the histologic findings. In conclusion, M. malabathricum leaves possessed hepatoprotective activity, which could be linked to their phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity; this therefore requires further in-depth studies.
Orthosiphon stamineus is a popular folk medicine widely used to treat many diseases including diabetes. Previous studies have shown that the sub-fraction of chloroform extract was able to inhibit the rise of blood glucose levels in a glucose tolerance test. This study was carried out to evaluate the chronic effect and possible mechanism of action of the bioactive chloroform sub-fraction of O. stamineus using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and in vitro methods. Administration of the chloroform extract sub-fraction 2 (Cƒ2-b) at a dose of 1 g/kg twice daily on diabetic rats for 14 days showed a significant lowering (p < 0.05) of the final blood glucose level compared to the pretreatment level. However, there were no significant differences in the plasma insulin levels post-treatment compared to the pretreatment levels for all doses of Cƒ2-b. Conversely, Cƒ2-b at a concentration of 2 mg/mL significantly increased (p < 0.001) the glucose uptake by the rat diaphragm muscle. The increase in glucose uptake was also shown when the muscle was incubated in a solution containing 1 IU/mL of insulin or 1 mg/mL of metformin. Furthermore, the effect of this sub-fraction on glucose absorption in the everted rat jejunum showed that Cƒ2-b at concentrations of 0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL and, 2 mg/mL significantly reduced the glucose absorption of the jejunum (p < 0.05-0.001). Similarly, the absorption of glucose was also inhibited by 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL of metformin (p < 0.001). These results suggest that the effect of Cƒ2-b may be due to extra-pancreatic mechanisms. There was no evidence that the plant extract stimulated the release of insulin in order to lower the blood glucose level.
Orthosiphon stamineus extracts contain three flavonoids (3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, and eupatorin) as bioactive substances. Previous reported high performance liquid chromatography- ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) methods for the determination of these flavonoids have several disadvantages, including unsatisfactory separation times and not being well validated according to International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) standard guidelines. A rapid, specific reversed-phase HPLC method with isocratic elution of acetonitrile: isopropyl alcohol: 20mM phosphate buffer (NaH(2)PO(4)) (30:15:55, v/v) (pH 3.5) at a flow-rate of 1ml/minute, a column temperature of 25°C, and ultraviolet (UV) detection at 340 nm was developed. The method was validated and applied for quantification of different types of O stamineus extracts and fractions. The method allowed simultaneous determination of 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, and eupatorin in the concentration range of 0.03052-250 μg/ml. The limits of detection and quantification, respectively, were 0.0076 and 0.061 μg/ml for 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, 0.0153 and 0.122 μg/ml for sinensetin and 0.0305 and 0.122 μg/ml for eupatorin. The percent relative standard deviation (% RSD) values for intraday were 0.048-0.368, 0.025-0.135, and 0.05-0.476 for 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, and eupatorin, respectively, and those for intraday precision were 0.333-1.688, 0.722-1.055, and 0.548-1.819, respectively. The accuracy for intraday were 91.25%-103.38%, 94.32%-109.56%, and 92.85%-109.70% for 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, and eupatorin, respectively, and those for interday accuracy were 97.49%-103.92%, 103.58%-104.57%, and 103.9%-105.33%, respectively. The method was found to be simple, accurate and precise and is recommended for routine quality control analysis of O stamineus extract containing the three flavonoids as the principle components in the extract.
Type 2 diabetes is one of the most widespread diseases in the world. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of combined therapy using acupressure therapy, hypnotherapy, and transcendental meditation (TM) on the blood sugar (BS) level in comparison with placebo in type 2 diabetic patients. We used "convenience sampling" for selection of patients with type 2 diabetes; 20 patients were recruited. For collection of data, we used an identical quasi-experimental design called "nonequivalent control group." Therapy sessions each lasting 60-90 min were carried out on 10 successive days. We prescribed 2 capsules (containing 3g of wheat flour each) for each member of the placebo group (one for evening and one for morning). Pre-tests, post-tests, and follow-up tests were conducted in a medical laboratory recognized by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran. Mean BS level in the post-tests and follow-up tests for the experimental group was reduced significantly in comparison with the pre-tests whereas in the placebo group no changes were observed. Combined therapy including acupressure therapy, hypnotherapy, and TM reduced BS of type 2 diabetic patients and was more effective than placebo therapy on this parameter.
The present study aims to determine the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of various extracts from the leaves of Melastoma malabathricum using various established in vitro assays. The aqueous extract inhibited the proliferation of Caov-3 and HL-60 cell lines, while the chloroform extract exhibited antiproliferative activity against the Caov-3, HL-60, and CEM-SS cell lines. The methanol extract demonstrated antiproliferative activity against more cell lines, including the MCF-7, HeLa, Caov-3, HL-60, CEM-SS, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines. Interestingly, all extracts did not inhibit the proliferation of 3T3 cells, thus indicating their noncytotoxic properties. Unlike the chloroform extracts, the aqueous and methanol extracts of M malabathricum (20, 100, and 500 μg/ml) produced high antioxidant activity for the superoxide scavenging assay with only the 500 μg/ml aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited high activity for the 2,2-diphenyl -1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic content recorded for the aqueous, methanol, and chloroform extracts were 3344.2 ± 19.1, 3055.1 ± 8.7, and 92.5 ± 7.3 mg/100 g of gallic acid, respectively. The M malabathricum leaves possessed potential antiproliferative and antioxidant activities that could be attributed to its high content of phenolic compounds.
The mode by which Loranthus ferrugineus methanol extract antagonizes and/or modulates norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction was investigated in rat aortic rings. The vascular effects of three different concentrations of this extract were challenged against cumulative additions of norepinephrine. Phentolamine, a nonselective α-adrenoceptor antagonist, verapamil, an L-type calcium channel blocker, and papaverine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, were used in three different concentrations as positive controls. Log concentration-response curves and double-reciprocal plots were constructed for the extract and each vasorelaxant. To characterize antagonism reversibility, the norepinephrine maximum contractile effect was examined before extract addition to the aortic ring chamber and after its removal. Phentolamine shifted the norepinephrine log concentration-response curve to the right with no significant depression in the maximum response. Similar to verapamil and papaverine, the extract produced a rightward shift in norepinephrine log concentration-response curve and a significant drop in maximum response. The double-reciprocal plots showed comparable y-intercept values for all phentolamine concentrations, a characteristic of competitive antagonism. In contrast, different y-intercept values on double-reciprocal plots were obtained for each concentration of extract, verapamil, and papaverine, typical of noncompetitive antagonism. The norepinephrine maximum contractile response was approximately similar before the addition of extract and after its removal. The data collectively showed that L. ferrugineus methanol extract exerted its vascular effect by reversible noncompetitive antagonism of norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction. These findings add to the understanding of the cardiovascular mechanisms by which L. ferrugineus, a plant traditionally used for the management of hypertension, elicits its action.
Murdannia bracteata (C. B. Clarke) is a local plant that is widely used in Malaysia as a traditional remedy for various diseases of the kidney and liver, including inflammation and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of M. bracteata methanol extract (MB). 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation inhibition and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of MB were determined. The hepatoprotective activity of MB was studied using a CCl(4)-induced liver toxicity model in rats. The hepatoprotective effect was assessed by monitoring the plasma malondialdehyde level and serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities. Histopathological changes of hepatic tissue were also investigated. The results indicated that MB possessed potential antioxidant, lipid peroxidation inhibition and free radical scavenging activities. Pretreatment of rats with MB (500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg per os) before induction of CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity showed a dose-dependent reduction in the necrotic changes in hepatic tissue. The increases in plasma malondialdehyde level, serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities were also significantly inhibited by MB. The total phenolic content of MB determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay was found to be 10%. The results of the present study indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of MB is most likely due to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.
Elephantopus tomentosus is widely used in Asia, especially in Malaysia, for the treatment of pain and inflammation. In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a 95% ethanol extract of E. tomentosus were investigated in different experimental models. In the anti-inflammation study, 1000 mg/kg of extract significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw edema (p < 0.05) and inhibited abdominal permeability compared with control (p < 0.01). The analgesic activity was assayed in several experimental models in mice: (1) hot plate, (2) tail flick, (3) writhing test; and rats: carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold test. However, at the doses tested, no significant activity was found in the hot plate test and the tail flick test. E. tomentosus ethanol extract at 1000 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) increased hyperalgesia pain threshold and inhibited writhing activity. The results suggest that E. tomentosus ethanol extract at 1000 mg/kg dose is effective in anti-inflammatory and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug type anti-nociception activities.
This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism(s) of the spasmogenic action of Loranthus ferrugineus in isolated guinea pig ileum. Thus the contractile responses of guinea pig ileum to graded additions of either L. ferrugineus methanol extract or its n-butanol fraction were tested in the presence and absence of various pharmacological interventions. The data showed that L. ferrugineus methanol extract and the n-butanol fraction produced a concentration-dependent spasmogenic effect in isolated guinea pig ileum segments. These effects were significantly inhibited in the presence of 1 microM atropine. In contrast, the response to the lowest concentrations of L. ferrugineus methanol extract (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL) and n-butanol fraction of L. ferrugineus (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL) were considerably enhanced in the presence of 0.05 microM neostigmine. Neither L. ferrugineus methanol extract nor n-butanol fraction contractile responses were affected upon the incubation of the ileal segments with 100 microM hexamethonium. The results of this study show that the spasmogenic effect of L. ferrugineus is possibly mediated through a direct action on intestinal muscarinic receptors. It is suggested that the bioactive constituents of L. ferrugineus serve as a substrate for acetylcholinesterase.
There is currently a great deal of research interest in utilizing plant compounds against human diseases, including hypertension. The present study investigated the effects of different extracts and fractions from leaves of Gynura procumbens Merr. on rat atrial contraction in vitro. Isolated left and right atria, mounted in a 20-ml organ bath, were allowed to equilibrate for 15 min before the application of the extracts or fractions. The extracts (petroleum-ether extract (PE) and methanol extract (ME)) and the fractions (chloroform fraction (CHL), ethyl-acetate fraction (EA), n-butanol fraction (NB) and water fraction (WA) of the methanol extract) were tested at three concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml), with a β-adrenergic agonist (isoprenaline) as a control. All data on contraction responses were log-transformed and analyzed. When exposed to the different extracts, both atria tended to exhibit greater contractive responses with the NB whereas cardiac contractions had a tendency to be reduced with most other extracts. For a given extract, the contraction responses were particularly greater at 0.5 mg/ml for the right atrium and at 1 mg/ml for the left atrium. Further analysis focusing on the NB fraction revealed that positive inotropism was greater in left atria exposed to highly-concentrated F2 and F3 sub-fractions. Taken together, our results suggest that NB extracts and fractions from the G. procumbens-leaf methanol extract have positive inotropic activities and, hence, can be considered as an alternative/traditional medicine against increased blood pressure in humans or can be used in strategies aimed at finding antihypertensive biomolecules from an accessible source.
Although acupuncture has existed for over 2000 years, its application as an anesthetic aid began in the 1950s in China. The first surgical procedure performed under acupuncture anesthesia was a tonsillectomy. Soon thereafter, major and minor surgical procedures took place with electroacupuncture alone providing the anesthesia. The procedures performed were diverse, ranging from cardiothoracic surgery to dental extractions. Usage of acupuncture anesthesia, specifically in neurosurgery, has been well documented in hospitals across China, especially in Beijing, dating back to the 1970s. We present a case of a 65-year-old man who presented with right-sided body weakness. He had a past medical history of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obstructive sleep apnea requiring use of a nasal continuous positive airway pressure device during sleep. We performed a computed tomography brain scan, which revealed a left-sided acute on chronic subdural hemorrhage. Due to his multiple comorbidities, we decided to perform the surgical procedure under electroacupuncture anesthesia. The aim of this case report is to describe a craniotomy performed under electroacupuncture on an elderly patient with multiple comorbidities who was awake during the procedure and in whom this procedure, if it had been performed under general anesthesia, would have carried high risk.
Auriculotherapy has been extensively used for chronic spontaneous urticaria in China. However, the evidence of its effectiveness and safety for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria is insufficient. Hence, we conducted this study to compare auriculotherapy or auriculotherapy joint treatment with Western medicine for the cure of chronic spontaneous urticaria. This meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials showed that auriculotherapy or auriculotherapy joint treatment was significantly superior to Western medicine in curing clinical signs and symptoms of chronic spontaneous urticaria [odds ration (OR), 2.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.54-4.43; p = 0.0004) and also better in total effect rate (OR, 3.81; 95% CI, 2.07-7.01; p＜0.0001). But, auriculotherapy or auriculotherapy joint treatment was similar to Western medicine in improving clinical signs and symptoms of chronic spontaneous urticaria (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.35-1.56; p = 0.42). Auriculotherapy or auriculotherapy joint treatment was safer than Western medicine for curing chronic spontaneous urticaria (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.80; p = 0.02). Auriculotherapy alone or auriculotherapy joint treatment appears to be more effective and safer than Western medicine that contains antihistamines in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the unclear risk bias of methodological quality, and further studies with large-scale, better, and more rigorously designed protocol are necessary to prove these findings.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an acquired disease of the neuromuscular junctions characterized by muscular weakness and fatigue, with a prevalence of 50-125 cases per million population in western countries. In men, it usually appears after the age of 60 years, while in women, it usually appears before the age of 40 years. Long-term immunosuppression with corticosteroids is the mainstay treatment for patients with MG; however, the use of corticosteroids is a well-documented risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, which has also been reported in steroid-treated patients with MG. Here, a case of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a patient with MG who underwent 105 sessions of acupuncture delivered over 6 months is reported. After acupuncture treatment, the patient's fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, as well as the score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, were decreased. Furthermore, no adverse effects were observed. The findings in this clinical study are encouraging and provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of acupuncture in reducing type 2 diabetes mellitus in a patient with MG.
Sleep disturbance is one of the more common risk factors, numerous other negative physical health outcomes, and it is defined as self-reported poor quality of sleep, short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and insomnia symptoms. It is a common risk factor for depression and anxiety. Here, a case of sleep disturbance that received 72 sessions of acupuncture treatment delivered is reported. After acupuncture treatment, the patient's PSQI, HDRS, and SAS score decreased, as well as the plasma TNF-α, and IL-6 are reduced. No adverse effects were observed. The clinical studies findings are provide evidence based supporting the acupuncture effects in reducing sleep disturbance patient.