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  1. Barakat SM, Siar CH
    J Appl Oral Sci, 2015 Jan-Feb;23(1):79-86.
    PMID: 25760270 DOI: 10.1590/1678-775720140245
    The identification of stem cells (SC) remains challenging. In the human oral mucosal epithelium, these cells are believed to be in the basal layer (stem cell niche), but their exact location is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the dysplastic oral epithelium for these SC-like proteins in order to assess their diagnostic value as biomarkers complementing the histological grading of dysplasia.
  2. Natarajan J, Hunter K, Mutalik VS, Radhakrishnan R
    J Appl Oral Sci, 2014 12 4;22(5):426-33.
    PMID: 25466476
    S100A4, a biomarker of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), plays an important role in invasion and metastasis by promoting cancer cell motility. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), metastasis results in 90% of cancer associated mortality.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of S100A4 expression as an important component of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) program in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: S100A4 protein expression was assessed semi-quantitatively by immunohistochemistry in 47 histologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 10 normal oral mucosal biopsies. The association between the S100A4 overexpression and the aggressive features of OSCC were analyzed by X2 test.

    RESULTS: Moderate to strong cytoplasmic expression of S100A4 was observed in 30 out of 47 specimens of OSCC (64%). Overexpression of S100A4 was significantly associated with the clinical stage, lymph node involvement, metastases, pattern of invasion and recurrence (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: S100A4 expression represents an important biomarker of prognostic significance that may be used to identify a subset of patients at high risk of invasion and metast.

  3. Rahim ZH, Thurairajah N
    J Appl Oral Sci, 2011 Apr;19(2):137-46.
    PMID: 21552715
    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development.

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1)); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1))]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly.

    RESULTS: It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001). S. mutans adhering to 100 µm² glass surfaces (with/without sucrose) exhibited reduced cell surface area, fluffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL(-1) corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL(-1) of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity.

    CONCLUSION: The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved.

  4. Al-Makramani BM, Razak AA, Abu-Hassan MI
    J Appl Oral Sci, 2010 Dec;18(6):607-12.
    PMID: 21308292
    Advances in all-ceramic systems have established predictable means of providing metal-free aesthetic and biocompatible materials. These materials must have sufficient strength to be a practical treatment alternative for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of three core ceramic materials.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thickness - in accordance with ISO-6872, 1995) were made from the following ceramic materials: Turkom-Cera Fused Alumina [(Turkom-Ceramic (M) Sdn Bhd, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia)], In-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) and Vitadur-N (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany), which were sintered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test in an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The definitive fracture load was recorded for each specimen and the biaxial flexural strength was calculated from an equation in accordance with ISO-6872.

    RESULTS: The mean biaxial flexural strength values were: Turkom-Cera: 506.8 ± 87.01 MPa, In-Ceram: 347.4 ± 28.83 MPa and Vitadur-N: 128.7 ± 12.72 MPa. The results were analyzed by the Levene's test and Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test (SPSS software V11.5.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA ) at a preset significance level of 5% because of unequal group variances (P<0.001). There was statistically significant difference between the three core ceramics (P<0.05). Turkom-Cera showed the highest biaxial flexural strength, followed by In-Ceram and Vitadur-N.

    CONCLUSIONS: Turkom-Cera core had significantly higher flexural strength than In-Ceram and Vitadur-N ceramic core materials.

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