Interaction of pendimethalin (PM) herbicide with the major transporter in human circulation, human serum albumin (HSA), was studied using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and molecular modeling methods. The attenuation of the fluorescence intensity of HSA in the presence of PM revealed formation of the PM-HSA complex. Analysis of the fluorescence quenching data showed moderately strong binding affinity between PM and HSA. Both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding were suggested to stabilize the PM-HSA complex, based on thermodynamic data. Binding of PM to HSA induced perturbation in the microenvironment around the aromatic fluorophores as well as secondary and tertiary structural changes in the protein. Complexation of PM with HSA led to an increase in its thermal stability. Both site marker displacement and molecular modeling results suggested site I, located in subdomain IIA as the preferred binding site of PM on HSA.
We hypothesized that genistein could affect the chloride (Cl(-) ) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-) ) secretory mechanisms in uterus. Ovariectomized female rats were given estradiol or estradiol plus progesterone with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day genistein. Following completion of the treatment, uterine fluid Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations were determined by in vivo uterine perfusion. Uteri were subjected for molecular biological analysis (Western blot, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry) to detect levels of expression of Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), Cl(-) /HCO3(-) exchanger (SLC26a6), Na(+) /HCO3(-) cotransporter (SLC4a4), and estrogen receptor (ER)-α and β. Coadministration of genistein resulted in decrease in Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations and expression of CFTR, SLC26a6, SLC4a4, and ER-α and ER-β in the uteri of estradiol-treated rats. In estradiol plus progesterone-treated rats, a significant increase in the above parameters were observed following high-dose genistein treatment except for the SLC24a4 level. In conclusion, genistein-induced changes in the uterus could affect the reproductive processes that might result in infertility.
Oxidative stress is performing an essential role in developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), and age-related disorder and other neurodegenerative diseases. In existing research, we have aimed at investigating the daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone) effect (10 and 20 mg/kg of body weight), as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant in streptozotocin (STZ) infused AD in rat model. Daidzein treatment led to significant improvement in intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced memory and learning impairments that was evaluated by Morris water maze test and spontaneous locomotor activity. It significantly restored the alterations in malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione levels. In addition, histopathological observations in cerebral cortex and hippocampal areas confirmed the neuroprotective effect of daidzein. These outcomes provide experimental proof showing preventive effect of daidzein on memory, learning dysfunction and oxidative stress in case of ICV-STZ rats. In conclusion, daidzein offers a potential treatment module for various neurodegenerative disorders with regard to mental deficits like AD.
Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is observed in breast cancer. The major snag faced by the human population is the development of chemoresistance to HER2 inhibitors by advanced stage breast cancer cells. Moreover, recent researchers focussed on fisetin as an antiproliferative and chemotherapeutic agent. Therefore, this study was intended to analyze the effects of fisetin on HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Our results depicted that fisetin induced apoptosis of these cells by various mechanisms, such as inactivation of the receptor, induction of proteasomal degradation, decreasing its half-life, decreasing enolase phosphorylation, and alteration of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling.