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  1. Sha'ban M, Yoon SJ, Ko YK, Ha HJ, Kim SH, So JW, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2008;19(9):1219-37.
    PMID: 18727862 DOI: 10.1163/156856208785540163
    Previously, we have proven that fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds facilitate cell proliferation, matrix production and early chondrogenesis of rabbit articular chondrocytes in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this study, we evaluated the potential of fibrin/PLGA scaffold for intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue engineering using annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in relation to potential clinical application. PLGA scaffolds were soaked in cells-fibrin suspension and polymerized by dropping thrombin-sodium chloride (CaCl(2)) solution. A PLGA-cell complex without fibrin was used as control. Higher cellular proliferation activity was observed in fibrin/PLGA-seeded AF and NP cells at each time point of 3, 7, 14 and 7 days using the MTT assay. After 3 weeks in vitro incubation, fibrin/PLGA exhibited a firmer gross morphology than PLGA groups. A significant cartilaginous tissue formation was observed in fibrin/PLGA, as proven by the development of cells cluster of various sizes and three-dimensional (3D) cartilaginous histoarchitecture and the presence of proteoglycan-rich matrix and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The sGAG production measured by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay revealed greater sGAG production in fibrin/PLGA than PLGA group. Immunohistochemical analyses showed expressions of collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and collagen type I genes throughout in vitro culture in both fibrin/PLGA and PLGA. In conclusion, fibrin promotes cell proliferation, stable in vitro tissue morphology, superior cartilaginous tissue formation and sGAG production of AF and NP cells cultured in PLGA scaffold. The 3D porous PLGA scaffold-cell complexes using fibrin can provide a vehicle for delivery of cells to regenerate tissue-engineered IVD tissue.
  2. Rabiatul AR, Lokanathan Y, Rohaina CM, Chowdhury SR, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2015;26(17):1297-311.
    PMID: 26335265 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2015.1088183
    Scaffold design is an important aspect of in vitro model development. In this study, nanoscaffold surface modification, namely UV radiation and genipin cross-linking to immobilize collagen on the surface of electrospun poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofiber sheet was investigated. Samples were divided into four groups; PMMA nanofibers (PMMA), collagen-coated PMMA nanofibers (PMMACOL), genipin cross-linked collagen-coated PMMA nanofibers (PMMAGEN), and UV-irradiated collagen-coated PMMA nanofibers (PMMAUV). 6 h of UV radiation significantly reduced the hydrophobicity of PMMA nanofibers from (131.88° ± 1.33°) to (110.04° ± 0.27°) (p 
  3. Dwivedi N, Shah J, Mishra V, Mohd Amin MC, Iyer AK, Tekade RK, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2016 May;27(7):557-80.
    PMID: 26928261 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2015.1133155
    Worldwide, the cancer appeared as one of the most leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Among the various cancer types, brain tumors are most life threatening with low survival rate. Every year approximately 238,000 new cases of brain and other central nervous system tumors are diagnosed. The dendrimeric approaches have a huge potential for diagnosis and treatment of brain tumor with targeting abilities of molecular cargoes to the tumor sites and the efficiency of crossing the blood brain barrier and penetration to brain after systemic administration. The various generations of dendrimers have been designed as novel targeted drug delivery tools for new therapies including sustained drug release, gene therapy, and antiangiogenic activities. At present era, various types of dendrimers like PAMAM, PPI, and PLL dendrimers validated them as milestones for the treatment and diagnosis of brain tumor as well as other cancers. This review highlights the recent research, opportunities, advantages, and challenges involved in development of novel dendrimeric complex for the therapy of brain tumor.
  4. Boukari Y, Scurr DJ, Qutachi O, Morris AP, Doughty SW, Rahman CV, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2015;26(12):796-811.
    PMID: 26065672 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2015.1058696
    An injectable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) system comprising both porous and protein-loaded microspheres capable of forming porous scaffolds at body temperature was developed for tissue regeneration purposes. Porous and non-porous (lysozyme loaded) PLGA microspheres were formulated to represent 'low molecular weight' 22-34 kDa, 'intermediate molecular weight' (IMW) 53 kDa and 'high molecular weight' 84-109 kDa PLGA microspheres. The respective average size of the microspheres was directly related to the polymer molecular weight. An initial burst release of lysozyme was observed from both microspheres and scaffolds on day 1. In the case of the lysozyme-loaded microspheres, this burst release was inversely related to the polymer molecular weight. Similarly, scaffolds loaded with 1 mg lysozyme/g of scaffold exhibited an inverse release relationship with polymer molecular weight. The burst release was highest amongst IMW scaffolds loaded with 2 and 3 mg/g. Sustained lysozyme release was observed after day 1 over 50 days (microspheres) and 30 days (scaffolds). The compressive strengths of the scaffolds were found to be inversely proportional to PLGA molecular weight at each lysozyme loading. Surface analysis indicated that some of the loaded lysozyme was distributed on the surfaces of the microspheres and thus responsible for the burst release observed. Overall the data demonstrates the potential of the scaffolds for use in tissue regeneration.
  5. Siddiqui NA, Billa N, Roberts CJ
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2017 Jun;28(8):781-793.
    PMID: 28278045 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2017.1301774
    The principal challenge for the use of boronic acids (BA) as glucose sensors is their lack of specificity for glucose. We examined the selectivity of and insulin release from two boronic acids- (2-formyl-3-thienylboronic acid (FTBA) and 4-formylphenylboronic acid (FPBA)) conjugated chitosan scaffolds to glucose and fructose. Adsorption of glucose to BA: chitosan conjugates was dose-dependent up to 1:1 at 35 and 42% for FPBA and FTBA respectively but the FTBA conjugates adsorbed more glucose and fructose at respective FPBA ratios. The affinity of both BA conjugates to glucose decreased with increase in BA ratio. On the other hand, the affinity of both BA conjugates for fructose decreased from ratio 1:1 to 2:1 then rose again at 3:1. Insulin release from FPBA nanoparticles (FPBAINP) and FTBA nanoparticles (FTBAINP) were both concentration-dependent within glyceamically relevant values (1-3 mg/ml glucose and 0.002 mg/ml fructose). Furthermore, the total amounts of insulin released from FPBAINP in both the media were higher than from FTBAINP. Both FPBAINP and FTBAINP have the potential for development as a glucose-selective insulin delivery system in physiological settings.
  6. Abdullah MF, Azfaralariff A, Lazim AM
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2018 10;29(14):1745-1763.
    PMID: 29989528 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2018.1489023
    This research aims to compare the ability of smart hydrogel in removing the methylene blue prepared by using two different radiation methods. The extracted pectin from the dragon fruit peel (Hylocereus polyrhizus) was used with acrylic acid (AA) to produce a polymerized hydrogel through gamma and microwave radiation. The optimum hydrogel swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation, pectin to AA ratio and pH used. From the array of samples, the ideal hydrogel was obtained at pH 8 with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin: AA) using 10 kGy and 400 W radiated gamma and microwave respectively. The performance of both hydrogels namely as Pc/AA(G) (gamma) and Pc/AA(Mw) (microwave) were investigated using methylene blue (MB) adsorption studies. In this study, three variables were manipulated, pH and MB concentration and hydrogel mass in order to find the optimum condition for the adsorption. Results showed that 20 mg of Pc/AA(G) performed the highest MB removal which was about 45% of 20 mg/L MB at pH 8. While 30 mg of Pc/AA(Mw) able to remove up to 35% of 20 mg/L MB at the same pH condition. To describe the adsorption mechanism, both kinetic models pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order were employed. The results from kinetic data showed that it fitted the pseudo-first-order as compared to pseudo-second-order model equation. This study provides alternative of green, facile and affective biomaterial for dye absorbents that readily available.
  7. Gobinathan S, Zainol SS, Azizi SF, Iman NM, Muniandy R, Hasmad HN, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2018 12;29(17):2051-2067.
    PMID: 29983100 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2018.1485814
    Amniotic membrane has the potential to be used as scaffold in various tissue engineering applications. However, increasing its biostability at the same time maintaining its biocompatibility is important to enhance its usage as a scaffold. This studied characteristics genipin-crosslinked amniotic membrane as a bioscaffold. Redundant human amniotic membranes (HAM) divided into native (nAM), decellularized (dAM) and genipin-crosslinked (clAM) groups. The dAM and clAM group were decellularized using thermolysin (TL) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Next, clAM group was crosslinked with 0.5% and 1.0% (w/v) genipin. The HAM was then studied for in vitro degradation, percentage of swelling, optical clarity, ultrastructure and mechanical strength. Meanwhile, fibroblasts isolated from nasal turbinates were then seeded onto nAM, dAM and clAM for biocompatibility studies. clAM had the slowest degradation rate and were still morphologically intact after 30 days of incubation in 0.01% collagenase type 1 solution. The dAM had a significantly highest percentage of swelling than other groups (p 
  8. Alkhader E, Roberts CJ, Rosli R, Yuen KH, Seow EK, Lee YZ, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2018 12;29(18):2281-2298.
    PMID: 30376409 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2018.1541500
    Curcumin, the active ingredient of the rhizome curcuma longa has been extensively studied as an anticancer agent for various types of tumours. However, its efficacy as an anticancer agent is restricted due to poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, rapid metabolism and degradation in acidic medium. In the present study, we encapsulated curcumin in chitosan-pectinate nanoparticulate system (CUR-CS-PEC-NPs) for deployment of curcumin to the colon, whereby curcumin is protected against degradative effects in the upper digestive tract, and hence, maintaining its anticancer properties until colon arrival. The CUR-CS-PEC-NPs was taken up by HT-29 colorectal cancer cells which ultimately resulted in a significant reduction in cancer cell propagation. The anti-proliferative effect of the encapsulated curcumin was similar to that of free curcumin at equivalent doses which confirms that the encapsulation process did not impede the anticancer activity of curcumin. The oral bioavailability (Cmax, and AUC) of curcumin in CUR-CS-PEC-NPs was enhanced significantly by 4-folds after 6 hours of treatment compared to free curcumin. Furthermore, the clearance of curcumin from the CUR-CS-PEC-NPs was lower compared to free curcumin. These findings point to the potential application of the CUR-CS-PEC-NPs in the oral delivery of curcumin in the treatment of colon cancer.
  9. Boukari Y, Qutachi O, Scurr DJ, Morris AP, Doughty SW, Billa N
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2017 Nov;28(16):1966-1983.
    PMID: 28777694 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2017.1364100
    The development of patient-friendly alternatives to bone-graft procedures is the driving force for new frontiers in bone tissue engineering. Poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and chitosan are well-studied and easy-to-process polymers from which scaffolds can be fabricated. In this study, a novel dual-application scaffold system was formulated from porous PLGA and protein-loaded PLGA/chitosan microspheres. Physicochemical and in vitro protein release attributes were established. The therapeutic relevance, cytocompatibility with primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and osteogenic properties were tested. There was a significant reduction in burst release from the composite PLGA/chitosan microspheres compared with PLGA alone. Scaffolds sintered from porous microspheres at 37 °C were significantly stronger than the PLGA control, with compressive strengths of 0.846 ± 0.272 MPa and 0.406 ± 0.265 MPa, respectively (p 
  10. Iqbal B, Sarfaraz Z, Muhammad N, Ahmad P, Iqbal J, Khan ZUH, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2018 07;29(10):1168-1184.
    PMID: 29460709 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2018.1443604
    In this study, collagen/alginate/hydroxyapatite beads having different proportions were prepared as bone fillers for the restoration of osteological defects. Ionic liquid was used to dissolve the collagen and subsequently the solution was mixed with sodium alginate solution. Hydroxyapatite was added in different proportions, with the rationale to enhance mechanical as well as biological properties. The prepared solutions were given characteristic bead shapes by dropwise addition into calcium chloride solution. The prepared beads were characterized using FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM analysis. Microhardness testing was used to evaluate the mechanical properties. The prepared beads were investigated for water adsorption behavior to ascertain its ability for body fluid uptake and adjusted accordingly to the bone cavity. Drug loading and subsequently the antibacterial activity was investigated for the prepared beads. The biocompatibility was assessed using the hemolysis testing and cell proliferation assay. The prepared collagen-alginate-HA beads, having biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, have showed an option of promising biologically active bone fillers for bone regeneration.
  11. Ullah F, Javed F, Othman MBH, Khan A, Gul R, Ahmad Z, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2018 03;29(4):376-396.
    PMID: 29285989 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2017.1421347
    Addressing the functional biomaterials as next-generation therapeutics, chitosan and alginic acid were copolymerized in the form of chemically crosslinked interpenetrating networks (IPNs). The native hydrogel was functionalized via carbodiimide (EDC), catalyzed coupling of soft ligand (1,2-Ethylenediamine) and hard ligand (4-aminophenol) to replace -OH groups in alginic acid units for extended hydrogel- interfaces with the aqueous and sparingly soluble drug solutions. The chemical structure, Lower solution critical temperature (LCST ≈ 37.88 °C), particle size (Zh,app ≈ 150-200 nm), grain size (160-360 nm), surface roughness (85-250 nm), conductivity (37-74 mv) and zeta potential (16-32 mv) of native and functionalized hydrogel were investigated by using FT-IR, solid state-13C-NMR, TGA, DSC, FESEM, AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The effective swelling, drug loading (47-78%) and drug release (53-86%) profiles were adjusted based on selective functionalization of hydrophobic IPNs due to electrostatic complexation and extended interactions of hydrophilic ligands with the aqueous and drug solutions. Drug release from the hydrogel matrices with diffusion coefficient n ≈ 0.7 was established by Non- Fickian diffusion mechanism. In vitro degradation trials of the hydrogel with a 20% loss of wet mass in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and 38% loss of wet mass in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), were investigated for 400 h through bulk erosion. Consequently, a slower rate of drug loading and release was observed for native hydrogel, due to stronger H-bonding, interlocking and entanglement within the IPNs, which was finely tuned and extended by the induced hydrophilic and functional ligands. In the light of induced hydrophilicity, such functional hydrogel could be highly attractive for extended release of sparingly soluble drugs.
  12. Harun NH, Mydin RBSMN, Sreekantan S, Saharudin KA, Basiron N, Seeni A
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2020 10;31(14):1757-1769.
    PMID: 32498665 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2020.1775759
    The emerging polymer nanocomposites have received industrial interests in diverse fields because of their added value in metal oxide-based nanocomposites, such as titanium (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO). Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)-based polymer has recently generated a huge market in the healthcare industry. TiO2 and ZnO are well known for their instant photocatalytic killing of hospital-acquired infections, especially multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. This study investigated the actions of LLDPE/TiO2/ZnO (1:3) nanocomposites in different weight% against two representative MDR pathogens, namely, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Klebsiella pneumonia (K.pneumoniae). Antibacterial activities were quantified according to international standard guidelines of CLSI MO2-A11 (static condition) and ASTM E-2149 (dynamic condition). Preliminary observation via a scanning electron microscope revealed that LLDPE matrix with TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites changed the bacterial morphology and reduced the bacterial adherence and biofilm formation. Furthermore, a high ZnO weight ratio killed both types of pathogens. The bactericidal potential of the nanocomposite is highlighted by the enhancements in photocatalytic activity, zinc ion release and reactive species, and bacteriostatic/bactericidal activity against bacterial growth. This study provides new insights into the MDR-bactericidal potential of LLDPE with TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites for targeted healthcare applications.
  13. Selvarajah J, Mh Busra MF, Bin Saim A, Bt Hj Idrus R, Lokanathan Y
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2020 09;31(13):1722-1740.
    PMID: 32458725 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2020.1774841
    Nasal injury following nasal surgery is an adverse consequence, and prompt treatment should be initiated. Nasal packing, either non-absorbable or absorbable, are commonly used after nasal surgery to prevent bleeding and promote wound healing. In the current study, a novel gelatine sponge crosslinked with genipin was evaluated for suitability to be used as nasal packing and compared to one of the frequently used commercial nasal packing made up of polyurethane. Gelatine at 7% and 10% (w/v) concentration were crosslinked with varying concentrations of genipin, 0.5%, 0.25%, and 0.2% (v/v). The gelatine sponges were further characterised by its water uptake ability, biodegradation, water vapour transmission rate, porosity, contact angle, chemical composition, crosslinking degree, and mechanical properties. The gelatine sponges absorbed five times more water than their dry weight and were degraded within five days. The water vapour transmission rate of the gelatine sponges was 1187.7 ± 430.2 g/(m-2 day) for 7% gelatine and 779.4 ± 375.5 g/(m-2 day) for 10% gelatine. Crosslinking of gelatine with genipin resulted in lower porosity and did not affect the wettability of gelatine sponge (contact angle: 95.3 ± 12.1° for 7% gelatine and 88.4 ± 7.2° for 10% gelatine). In terms of biodegradability, the gelatine sponges took 24-48 h to degrade completely. Genipin crosslinking improved the degradation resistance and mechanical strength of gelatine sponge. The physical and chemical properties of the gelatine sponge, i.e. biodegradability and mechanical durability, support its potential as nasal packing.
  14. Ali NH, Amin MCIM, Ng SF
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2019 06;30(8):629-645.
    PMID: 30896336 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2019.1595892
    Biofilms comprise bacteria attached to wound surfaces and are major contributors to non-healing wounds. It was found that the increased resistance of biofilms to antibiotics allows wound infections to persist chronically in spite of antibiotic therapy. In this study, the reduced form of graphene oxide (rGO) was explored as plausible antibiofilm agents. The rGO was synthesized via reducing the functional groups of GO. Then, rGO were characterized using zetasizer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and FESEM. The rGO were then formulated into sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) hydrogels to form rGO hydrogel and tested for antibiofilm activities in vitro using XTT test, and in vivo biofilm formation assay using nematodes C. elegans. Reduced GO hydrogel was successfully formed by reducing the functional groups of GO, and a reduction of up to 95% of functional groups was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. XTT tests confirmed that rGO hydrogels reduced biofilm formation by S. aureus (81-84%) and P. aeruginosa (50-62%). Fluorescence intensity also confirmed that rGO hydrogel can inhibit biofilm bacteria in C. elegans experiments. This study implied that rGO hydrogel is an effective antibiofilm agent for infected wounds.
  15. Chahal S, Kumar A, Hussian FSJ
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2019 10;30(14):1308-1355.
    PMID: 31181982 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2019.1630699
    Electrospinning is a promising and versatile technique that is used to fabricate polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Ideal scaffolds should be biocompatible and bioactive with appropriate surface chemistry, good mechanical properties and should mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone. Selection of the most appropriate material to produce a scaffold is an important step towards the construction of a tissue engineered product. Bone tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field, where the principles of engineering are applied on bone-related biochemical reactions. Scaffolds, cells, growth factors, and their interrelation in microenvironment are the major concerns in bone tissue engineering. This review covers the latest development of biomimetic electrospun polymeric biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. It includes the brief details to bone tissue engineering along with bone structure and ideal bone scaffolds requirements. Details about various engineered materials and methodologies used for bone scaffolds development were discussed. Description of electrospinning technique and its parameters relating their fabrication, advantages, and applications in bone tissue engineering were also presented. The use of synthetic and natural polymers based electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and their biomineralization processes were discussed and reviewed comprehensively. Finally, we give conclusion along with perspectives and challenges of biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering based on electrospun nanofibers.
  16. Sharma VK, Sharma PP, Mazumder B, Bhatnagar A, Subramaniyan V, Fuloria S, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2021 Aug;32(11):1420-1449.
    PMID: 33941041 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2021.1925389
    Mucoadhesive microspheres have their own significant amongst the various sustained release drug delivery systems. The prolonged residence time of these delivery devices at drug absorption site results in steep concentration gradient and enhanced bioavailability. In this study, the mucilage of Isabgol husk was applied as polymeric backbone to develop gliclazide loaded microspheres by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The formulations were studied for surface morphology, swelling behavior, particle size, in vitro release, release kinetics, in vitro mucoadhesion and gamma scintigraphy in rabbits. The release of gliclazide from microspheres was controlled by swelling of crosslinked microspheres followed by diffusion. Gamma scintigraphic images acquired for microspheres retention in gastrointestinal track of rabbits indicated the residence of formulation upto 24 h after oral administration. Gliclazide retained its integrity in polymeric matrix of microspheres as observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry. The sustained release of gliclazide and prolonged retention of microspheres in gastrointestinal track disclosed the rationality of mucoadhesive Isabgol husk microspheres in controlling the hyperglycemia in diabetes.
  17. Tan JSL, Roberts C, Billa N
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2020 02;31(2):141-154.
    PMID: 31612804 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2019.1680926
    Oral delivery of amphotericin B (AmpB) is desirable because it provides a more patient-friendly mode of administration compared to the current delivery approach akin with the marketed AmpB formulations. The goal of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of orally administered chitosan-coated AmpB-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (ChiAmpB NLC) administered to Sprague Dawley rats at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Orally administered ChiAmpB NLC resulted in a two-fold increase in the area under the curve (AUC0-∞) compared to the uncoated AmpB NLC and marketed Amphotret®. This enhanced bioavailability of AmpB suggests prolonged transit and retention of ChiAmpB NLC within the small intestine through mucoadhesion and subsequent absorption by the lymphatic pathway. The results show that mean absorption and residence times (MAT & MRT) were significantly higher from ChiAmpB NLC compared to the other two formulations, attesting to the mucoadhesive effect. The ChiAmpB NLC presented a lower nephrotic accumulation with preferential deposition in liver and spleen. Thus, the limitations of current marketed IV formulations of AmpB are potentially addressed with the ChiAmpB NLC in addition to utilizing this approach for targeting internal organs in visceral leishmaniasis.
  18. Qasim SSB, Zafar MS, Niazi FH, Alshahwan M, Omar H, Daood U
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2020 06;31(9):1144-1162.
    PMID: 32202207 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2020.1744289
    Design and development of novel therapeutic strategies to regenerate lost tissue structure and function is a serious clinical hurdle for researchers. Traditionally, much of the research is dedicated in optimising properties of scaffolds. Current synthetic biomaterials remain rudimentary in comparison to their natural counterparts. The ability to incorporate biologically inspired elements into the design of synthetic materials has advanced with time. Recent reports suggest that functionally graded material mimicking the natural tissue morphology can have a more exaggerated response on the targeted tissue. The aim of this review is to deliver an overview of the functionally graded concept with respect to applications in clinical dentistry. A comprehensive understanding of spatiotemporal arrangement in fields of restorative, prosthodontics, periodontics, orthodontics and oral surgery is presented. Different processing techniques have been adapted to achieve such gradients ranging from additive manufacturing (three dimensional printing/rapid prototyping) to conventional techniques of freeze gelation, freeze drying, electrospinning and particulate leaching. The scope of employing additive manufacturing technique as a reliable and predictable tool for the design and accurate reproduction of biomimetic templates is vast by any measure. Further research in the materials used and refinement of the synthesis techniques will continue to expand the frontiers of functionally graded membrane based biomaterials application in the clinical domain.
  19. Shah R, Soni T, Shah U, Suhagia BN, Patel MN, Patel T, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2021 05;32(7):833-857.
    PMID: 33380264 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2020.1870378
    Variable and low oral bioavailability (4-11%) of lumefantrine (LUF), an anti-malarial agent, is characterized by very low solubility in aqueous vehicle. Thus, the present study was intended to formulate lyophilized nanosuspensions of LUF to resolve its solubility issues for the improvement of oral bioavailability. A three level 32 factorial design was applied to analyze the influence of independent variables, concentration of polysorbate 80 (X1) and sonication time (X2) on the responses for dependent variables, particle size (Y1) and time to 90% release of LUF (t90) (Y2). Optimized formulation (F3) has shown to possess lowest particle size (95.34 nm) with minimum t90 value (⁓3 mins), which was lyophilized to obtain the dry powder form of the nanosuspension. The characterization parameters confirmed the amorphous form of LUF with good stability and no chemical interactions of the drug with the incorporated components. Further, saturation solubility study revealed increased solubility of the LUF nanosuspension (1670 µg/mL) when compared to the pure drug (212.33 µg/mL). Further, rate of dissolution of LUF from the nanosuspension formulations were found to be significantly (p 
  20. Harun NH, Mydin RBSMN, Sreekantan S, Saharuddin KA, Seeni A
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2021 07;32(10):1301-1311.
    PMID: 33849408 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2021.1916866
    An innovative nano-base polymer that scavenges radicals and reactive oxygen species exhibits potential antibacterial properties, which are crucial in the biomedical field, particularly in reducing nosocomial infections. However, the safety of this nano-based polymer, which has direct contact with the human system, has not been fully understood. The present study investigated the cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility responses of linear low-density polyethylene polymer (LLDPE) embedded with difference ratios of heterogeneous TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites. Exposure of the blood and fibroblast cells to LLDPE/100Z and LLDPE/25T75Z/10% nanocomposite films for 48 and 72 h decreased their viability by less than 40%, compared with LLDPE, LLDPE/100T and LLDPE/25T75Z/5% nanocomposite films. It also presented possible cellular damage and cytotoxicity, which was supported by the findings from the significant release of extracellular lactate dehydrogenase profiles and cell survival assay Further observation using an electron microscope revealed that LLDPE films with heterogeneous 25T75Z/5% promoted cell adhesion. Moreover, no hemolysis was detected in all ratios of heterogeneous TiO2/ZnO nanocomposite in LLDPE film as it was less than 0.2%, suggesting that these materials were hemocompatible. This study on LLDPE film with heterogeneous TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites demonstrated favorable biocompatible properties that were significant for advanced biomedical polymer application in a hospital setting.
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