Worldwide, the cancer appeared as one of the most leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Among the various cancer types, brain tumors are most life threatening with low survival rate. Every year approximately 238,000 new cases of brain and other central nervous system tumors are diagnosed. The dendrimeric approaches have a huge potential for diagnosis and treatment of brain tumor with targeting abilities of molecular cargoes to the tumor sites and the efficiency of crossing the blood brain barrier and penetration to brain after systemic administration. The various generations of dendrimers have been designed as novel targeted drug delivery tools for new therapies including sustained drug release, gene therapy, and antiangiogenic activities. At present era, various types of dendrimers like PAMAM, PPI, and PLL dendrimers validated them as milestones for the treatment and diagnosis of brain tumor as well as other cancers. This review highlights the recent research, opportunities, advantages, and challenges involved in development of novel dendrimeric complex for the therapy of brain tumor.
Scaffold design is an important aspect of in vitro model development. In this study, nanoscaffold surface modification, namely UV radiation and genipin cross-linking to immobilize collagen on the surface of electrospun poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofiber sheet was investigated. Samples were divided into four groups; PMMA nanofibers (PMMA), collagen-coated PMMA nanofibers (PMMACOL), genipin cross-linked collagen-coated PMMA nanofibers (PMMAGEN), and UV-irradiated collagen-coated PMMA nanofibers (PMMAUV). 6 h of UV radiation significantly reduced the hydrophobicity of PMMA nanofibers from (131.88° ± 1.33°) to (110.04° ± 0.27°) (p
An injectable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) system comprising both porous and protein-loaded microspheres capable of forming porous scaffolds at body temperature was developed for tissue regeneration purposes. Porous and non-porous (lysozyme loaded) PLGA microspheres were formulated to represent 'low molecular weight' 22-34 kDa, 'intermediate molecular weight' (IMW) 53 kDa and 'high molecular weight' 84-109 kDa PLGA microspheres. The respective average size of the microspheres was directly related to the polymer molecular weight. An initial burst release of lysozyme was observed from both microspheres and scaffolds on day 1. In the case of the lysozyme-loaded microspheres, this burst release was inversely related to the polymer molecular weight. Similarly, scaffolds loaded with 1 mg lysozyme/g of scaffold exhibited an inverse release relationship with polymer molecular weight. The burst release was highest amongst IMW scaffolds loaded with 2 and 3 mg/g. Sustained lysozyme release was observed after day 1 over 50 days (microspheres) and 30 days (scaffolds). The compressive strengths of the scaffolds were found to be inversely proportional to PLGA molecular weight at each lysozyme loading. Surface analysis indicated that some of the loaded lysozyme was distributed on the surfaces of the microspheres and thus responsible for the burst release observed. Overall the data demonstrates the potential of the scaffolds for use in tissue regeneration.
Previously, we have proven that fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds facilitate cell proliferation, matrix production and early chondrogenesis of rabbit articular chondrocytes in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this study, we evaluated the potential of fibrin/PLGA scaffold for intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue engineering using annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in relation to potential clinical application. PLGA scaffolds were soaked in cells-fibrin suspension and polymerized by dropping thrombin-sodium chloride (CaCl(2)) solution. A PLGA-cell complex without fibrin was used as control. Higher cellular proliferation activity was observed in fibrin/PLGA-seeded AF and NP cells at each time point of 3, 7, 14 and 7 days using the MTT assay. After 3 weeks in vitro incubation, fibrin/PLGA exhibited a firmer gross morphology than PLGA groups. A significant cartilaginous tissue formation was observed in fibrin/PLGA, as proven by the development of cells cluster of various sizes and three-dimensional (3D) cartilaginous histoarchitecture and the presence of proteoglycan-rich matrix and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The sGAG production measured by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay revealed greater sGAG production in fibrin/PLGA than PLGA group. Immunohistochemical analyses showed expressions of collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and collagen type I genes throughout in vitro culture in both fibrin/PLGA and PLGA. In conclusion, fibrin promotes cell proliferation, stable in vitro tissue morphology, superior cartilaginous tissue formation and sGAG production of AF and NP cells cultured in PLGA scaffold. The 3D porous PLGA scaffold-cell complexes using fibrin can provide a vehicle for delivery of cells to regenerate tissue-engineered IVD tissue.
The principal challenge for the use of boronic acids (BA) as glucose sensors is their lack of specificity for glucose. We examined the selectivity of and insulin release from two boronic acids- (2-formyl-3-thienylboronic acid (FTBA) and 4-formylphenylboronic acid (FPBA)) conjugated chitosan scaffolds to glucose and fructose. Adsorption of glucose to BA: chitosan conjugates was dose-dependent up to 1:1 at 35 and 42% for FPBA and FTBA respectively but the FTBA conjugates adsorbed more glucose and fructose at respective FPBA ratios. The affinity of both BA conjugates to glucose decreased with increase in BA ratio. On the other hand, the affinity of both BA conjugates for fructose decreased from ratio 1:1 to 2:1 then rose again at 3:1. Insulin release from FPBA nanoparticles (FPBAINP) and FTBA nanoparticles (FTBAINP) were both concentration-dependent within glyceamically relevant values (1-3 mg/ml glucose and 0.002 mg/ml fructose). Furthermore, the total amounts of insulin released from FPBAINP in both the media were higher than from FTBAINP. Both FPBAINP and FTBAINP have the potential for development as a glucose-selective insulin delivery system in physiological settings.
The development of patient-friendly alternatives to bone-graft procedures is the driving force for new frontiers in bone tissue engineering. Poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and chitosan are well-studied and easy-to-process polymers from which scaffolds can be fabricated. In this study, a novel dual-application scaffold system was formulated from porous PLGA and protein-loaded PLGA/chitosan microspheres. Physicochemical and in vitro protein release attributes were established. The therapeutic relevance, cytocompatibility with primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and osteogenic properties were tested. There was a significant reduction in burst release from the composite PLGA/chitosan microspheres compared with PLGA alone. Scaffolds sintered from porous microspheres at 37 °C were significantly stronger than the PLGA control, with compressive strengths of 0.846 ± 0.272 MPa and 0.406 ± 0.265 MPa, respectively (p
Curcumin, the active ingredient of the rhizome curcuma longa has been extensively studied as an anticancer agent for various types of tumours. However, its efficacy as an anticancer agent is restricted due to poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, rapid metabolism and degradation in acidic medium. In the present study, we encapsulated curcumin in chitosan-pectinate nanoparticulate system (CUR-CS-PEC-NPs) for deployment of curcumin to the colon, whereby curcumin is protected against degradative effects in the upper digestive tract, and hence, maintaining its anticancer properties until colon arrival. The CUR-CS-PEC-NPs was taken up by HT-29 colorectal cancer cells which ultimately resulted in a significant reduction in cancer cell propagation. The anti-proliferative effect of the encapsulated curcumin was similar to that of free curcumin at equivalent doses which confirms that the encapsulation process did not impede the anticancer activity of curcumin. The oral bioavailability (Cmax, and AUC) of curcumin in CUR-CS-PEC-NPs was enhanced significantly by 4-folds after 6 hours of treatment compared to free curcumin. Furthermore, the clearance of curcumin from the CUR-CS-PEC-NPs was lower compared to free curcumin. These findings point to the potential application of the CUR-CS-PEC-NPs in the oral delivery of curcumin in the treatment of colon cancer.
Amniotic membrane has the potential to be used as scaffold in various tissue engineering applications. However, increasing its biostability at the same time maintaining its biocompatibility is important to enhance its usage as a scaffold. This studied characteristics genipin-crosslinked amniotic membrane as a bioscaffold. Redundant human amniotic membranes (HAM) divided into native (nAM), decellularized (dAM) and genipin-crosslinked (clAM) groups. The dAM and clAM group were decellularized using thermolysin (TL) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Next, clAM group was crosslinked with 0.5% and 1.0% (w/v) genipin. The HAM was then studied for in vitro degradation, percentage of swelling, optical clarity, ultrastructure and mechanical strength. Meanwhile, fibroblasts isolated from nasal turbinates were then seeded onto nAM, dAM and clAM for biocompatibility studies. clAM had the slowest degradation rate and were still morphologically intact after 30 days of incubation in 0.01% collagenase type 1 solution. The dAM had a significantly highest percentage of swelling than other groups (p
This research aims to compare the ability of smart hydrogel in removing the methylene blue prepared by using two different radiation methods. The extracted pectin from the dragon fruit peel (Hylocereus polyrhizus) was used with acrylic acid (AA) to produce a polymerized hydrogel through gamma and microwave radiation. The optimum hydrogel swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation, pectin to AA ratio and pH used. From the array of samples, the ideal hydrogel was obtained at pH 8 with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin: AA) using 10 kGy and 400 W radiated gamma and microwave respectively. The performance of both hydrogels namely as Pc/AA(G) (gamma) and Pc/AA(Mw) (microwave) were investigated using methylene blue (MB) adsorption studies. In this study, three variables were manipulated, pH and MB concentration and hydrogel mass in order to find the optimum condition for the adsorption. Results showed that 20 mg of Pc/AA(G) performed the highest MB removal which was about 45% of 20 mg/L MB at pH 8. While 30 mg of Pc/AA(Mw) able to remove up to 35% of 20 mg/L MB at the same pH condition. To describe the adsorption mechanism, both kinetic models pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order were employed. The results from kinetic data showed that it fitted the pseudo-first-order as compared to pseudo-second-order model equation. This study provides alternative of green, facile and affective biomaterial for dye absorbents that readily available.
Addressing the functional biomaterials as next-generation therapeutics, chitosan and alginic acid were copolymerized in the form of chemically crosslinked interpenetrating networks (IPNs). The native hydrogel was functionalized via carbodiimide (EDC), catalyzed coupling of soft ligand (1,2-Ethylenediamine) and hard ligand (4-aminophenol) to replace -OH groups in alginic acid units for extended hydrogel- interfaces with the aqueous and sparingly soluble drug solutions. The chemical structure, Lower solution critical temperature (LCST ≈ 37.88 °C), particle size (Zh,app ≈ 150-200 nm), grain size (160-360 nm), surface roughness (85-250 nm), conductivity (37-74 mv) and zeta potential (16-32 mv) of native and functionalized hydrogel were investigated by using FT-IR, solid state-13C-NMR, TGA, DSC, FESEM, AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The effective swelling, drug loading (47-78%) and drug release (53-86%) profiles were adjusted based on selective functionalization of hydrophobic IPNs due to electrostatic complexation and extended interactions of hydrophilic ligands with the aqueous and drug solutions. Drug release from the hydrogel matrices with diffusion coefficient n ≈ 0.7 was established by Non- Fickian diffusion mechanism. In vitro degradation trials of the hydrogel with a 20% loss of wet mass in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and 38% loss of wet mass in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), were investigated for 400 h through bulk erosion. Consequently, a slower rate of drug loading and release was observed for native hydrogel, due to stronger H-bonding, interlocking and entanglement within the IPNs, which was finely tuned and extended by the induced hydrophilic and functional ligands. In the light of induced hydrophilicity, such functional hydrogel could be highly attractive for extended release of sparingly soluble drugs.
In this study, collagen/alginate/hydroxyapatite beads having different proportions were prepared as bone fillers for the restoration of osteological defects. Ionic liquid was used to dissolve the collagen and subsequently the solution was mixed with sodium alginate solution. Hydroxyapatite was added in different proportions, with the rationale to enhance mechanical as well as biological properties. The prepared solutions were given characteristic bead shapes by dropwise addition into calcium chloride solution. The prepared beads were characterized using FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM analysis. Microhardness testing was used to evaluate the mechanical properties. The prepared beads were investigated for water adsorption behavior to ascertain its ability for body fluid uptake and adjusted accordingly to the bone cavity. Drug loading and subsequently the antibacterial activity was investigated for the prepared beads. The biocompatibility was assessed using the hemolysis testing and cell proliferation assay. The prepared collagen-alginate-HA beads, having biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, have showed an option of promising biologically active bone fillers for bone regeneration.
Biofilms comprise bacteria attached to wound surfaces and are major contributors to non-healing wounds. It was found that the increased resistance of biofilms to antibiotics allows wound infections to persist chronically in spite of antibiotic therapy. In this study, the reduced form of graphene oxide (rGO) was explored as plausible antibiofilm agents. The rGO was synthesized via reducing the functional groups of GO. Then, rGO were characterized using zetasizer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and FESEM. The rGO were then formulated into sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) hydrogels to form rGO hydrogel and tested for antibiofilm activities in vitro using XTT test, and in vivo biofilm formation assay using nematodes C. elegans. Reduced GO hydrogel was successfully formed by reducing the functional groups of GO, and a reduction of up to 95% of functional groups was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. XTT tests confirmed that rGO hydrogels reduced biofilm formation by S. aureus (81-84%) and P. aeruginosa (50-62%). Fluorescence intensity also confirmed that rGO hydrogel can inhibit biofilm bacteria in C. elegans experiments. This study implied that rGO hydrogel is an effective antibiofilm agent for infected wounds.
Electrospinning is a promising and versatile technique that is used to fabricate polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Ideal scaffolds should be biocompatible and bioactive with appropriate surface chemistry, good mechanical properties and should mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone. Selection of the most appropriate material to produce a scaffold is an important step towards the construction of a tissue engineered product. Bone tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field, where the principles of engineering are applied on bone-related biochemical reactions. Scaffolds, cells, growth factors, and their interrelation in microenvironment are the major concerns in bone tissue engineering. This review covers the latest development of biomimetic electrospun polymeric biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. It includes the brief details to bone tissue engineering along with bone structure and ideal bone scaffolds requirements. Details about various engineered materials and methodologies used for bone scaffolds development were discussed. Description of electrospinning technique and its parameters relating their fabrication, advantages, and applications in bone tissue engineering were also presented. The use of synthetic and natural polymers based electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and their biomineralization processes were discussed and reviewed comprehensively. Finally, we give conclusion along with perspectives and challenges of biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering based on electrospun nanofibers.
Oral delivery of amphotericin B (AmpB) is desirable because it provides a more patient-friendly mode of administration compared to the current delivery approach akin with the marketed AmpB formulations. The goal of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of orally administered chitosan-coated AmpB-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (ChiAmpB NLC) administered to Sprague Dawley rats at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Orally administered ChiAmpB NLC resulted in a two-fold increase in the area under the curve (AUC0-∞) compared to the uncoated AmpB NLC and marketed Amphotret®. This enhanced bioavailability of AmpB suggests prolonged transit and retention of ChiAmpB NLC within the small intestine through mucoadhesion and subsequent absorption by the lymphatic pathway. The results show that mean absorption and residence times (MAT & MRT) were significantly higher from ChiAmpB NLC compared to the other two formulations, attesting to the mucoadhesive effect. The ChiAmpB NLC presented a lower nephrotic accumulation with preferential deposition in liver and spleen. Thus, the limitations of current marketed IV formulations of AmpB are potentially addressed with the ChiAmpB NLC in addition to utilizing this approach for targeting internal organs in visceral leishmaniasis.