Analyses of tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols) in palm oil have been extensively reported in the past. However, due to the scarcity of individual tocotrienol standards, calibrations have mostly been carried out using only α-tocopherol as standard. Moreover, even if the individual tocotrienols are being used, their reliability is often questioned, because tocotrienols are highly susceptible to oxidation and deterioration. This paper reports on the study of the deterioration rate of individual tocotrienol standards upon storage as well as different calibration methods for the tocols in palm oil.
In this work, a two-phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is developed to provide a rapid, selective and sensitive analytical method to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fresh milk. The standard addition method is used to construct calibration curves and to determine the residue levels for the target analytes, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene, thus eliminating sample pre-treatment steps such as pH adjustment. The HF-LPME method shows dynamic linearity from 5 to 500 µg/L for all target analytes with R(2) ranging from 0.9978 to 0.9999. Under optimized conditions, the established detection limits range from 0.07 to 1.4 µg/L based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. Average relative recoveries for the determination of PAHs studied at 100 µg/L spiking levels are in the range of 85 to 110%. The relative recoveries are slightly higher than those obtained by conventional solvent extraction, which requires saponification steps for fluorene and phenanthrene, which are more volatile and heat sensitive. The HF-LPME method proves to be simple and rapid, and requires minimal amounts of organic solvent that supports green analysis.
A simple, fast, repeatable and less laborious sample preparation protocol was developed and applied for the analysis of biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum strain FA1132 by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The match factors for sample spectra with respect to the mass spectra library of fungal volatile compounds were determined and used to study the complex hydrocarbons and other volatile compounds, which were separated by using different capillary columns with nonpolar, medium polar and high polar stationary phases. To date, more than 278 volatile compounds (with spectral match factor at least 90%) such as normal saturated hydrocarbons (C7-C30), cyclohexane, cyclopentane, fatty acids, alcohols, esters, sulfur-containing compounds, simple pyrane and benzene derivatives have been identified. Most of these compounds have not previously been reported. The method described in this paper is a more convenient research tool for the detection of volatile compounds from the cultures of T. harzianum.
Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., is known as the "Queen of fruits" and can be cultivated in the tropical rainforest such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. Compounds isolated from the fruit peel of mangosteen contain abundant xanthones (especially alpha-mangostin). It has been used as traditional medicine such as anti-inflammatory and antibacterial and is popularly applied to cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. However, there is little information for quality and quantity determination of alpha-mangostin in mangosteen. Thus, the aim of this study was to set up a validated and stability-indicated isocratic reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for quality control and quantity determination of a-mangostin from mangosteen peel extract. The assay was fully validated and shown to be linear (r(2) > 0.999), sensitive (LOD = 0.02 microg/mL and LOQ = 0.08 microg/mL), accurate (intra-day was between 98.1-100.8%, inter-day was between 90.0-101.3%), precise (intra-day variation < or = 1.8%, inter-day variation < or = 4.3%), specific, and with good recovery. Total analysis was approximately 8 min. The finalized method is also a stability-indicating assay. The present method should be useful for analytical research and for routine quality control analysis of alpha-mangostin in mangosteen peel extract and products of mangosteen.
A headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) procedure is optimized for the analysis of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in food matrices, namely cucumbers and strawberries by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The parameters affecting the HS-SDME performance, such as selection of the extraction solvent, solvent drop volume, extraction time, temperature, stirring rate, and ionic strength, were studied and optimized. Extraction was achieved by exposing 1.5 microL toluene drop to the headspace of a 5 mL aqueous solution in a 15-mL vial and stirred at 800 rpm. The analytical parameters, such as linearity, correlation coefficients, precision, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), and recovery, were compared with those obtained from headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and solid-phase extraction. The mean recoveries for all three methods were all above 70% and below 104%. HS-SPME was the best method with the lowest LOD and LOQ values. Overall, the proposed HS-SDME method is acceptable in the analysis of pesticide residues in food matrices.
A selective and sensitive reversed-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatographic method is developed for the quantitative analysis of five naturally occurring flavonoids of Blumea balsamifera DC, namely dihydroquercetin-7,4'-dimethyl ether (DQDE), blumeatin (BL), quercetin (QN), 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (THFE), and dihydroquercetin-4'-methyl ether (DQME). These compounds have been isolated using various chromatographic methods. The five compounds are completely separated within 35 min using an RP C18, Nucleosil column and with an isocratic methanol-0.5% phosphoric acid (50:50, v/v) mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The separation of the compounds is monitored at 285 nm using UV detection. Identifications of specific flavonoids are made by comparing their retention times with those of the standards. Reproducibility of the method is good, with coefficients of variation of 1.48% for DQME, 2.25% for THFE, 2.31% for QN, 2.23% for DQDE, and 1.51% for BL. The average recoveries of pure flavonoids upon addition to lyophilized powder and subsequent extraction are 99.8% for DQME, 99.9% for THFE, 100.0% for BL, 100.6% for DQDE, and 97.4% for QN.
Crude palm oil contains 600 to 1000 ppm of tocols in the form of tocopherols and tocotrienols. These palm tocols have been isolated and analyzed in the past by various chromatographic techniques such as open column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, as well as thin-layer chromatography. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has emerged as a more advanced chromatographic technique in recent years. The tocols present in palm oil are successfully isolated using SFC. Identification of these tocols is supported by various spectroscopic techniques such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry.
Palm oil is the richest source of natural carotenes, comprising 500-700 ppm in crude palm oil (CPO). Its concentration is found to be much higher in oil extracted from palm-pressed fiber, a by-product from the milling of oil palm fruits. There are 11 types of carotenes in palm oil, excluding the cis/trans isomers of some of the carotenes. Qualitative separation of these individual carotenes is particularly useful for the identification and confirmation of different types of oil as the carotenes profile is unique to each type of vegetable oil. Previous studies on HPLC separation of the individual palm carotenes reported a total analyses time of up to 100 min using C30 stationary phase. In this study, the separation was completed in <5 min. The qualitative separation was successfully carried out using a commonly used stationary phase, C18.
A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of Therminol 66 thermal heating fluid in glycerin and fatty acids is developed. Sample solutions dissolved in methanol-tetrahydrofuran (50:50, v/v) are injected directly into a reversed-phase C18 column and eluted with a methanol and water mixture (88:12, v/v). The concentration of the thermal heating fluid is monitored by fluorescence detection at 257 nm (excitation) and 320 nm (emission). The calibration graph obtained from various concentrations of the thermal heating fluid in the methanol and tetrahydrofuran mixture is linear (correlation coefficient = 0.999), and the limit of detection is 0.01 microg/mL. Spiked glycerin containing 0.1 to 1.0 microg/g of the thermal heating fluid also gives good linearity with a mean recovery of 95.3%. The mean intra- and interassay precision are 1.80-6.51% and 5.71-9.03%, respectively, at the 0.1-microg/g level. The method is simple and does not require any pretreatment step, thus it is ideal for quality assurance purposes.
Separation of 1,2(2,3)- and 1,3-positional isomers of diacylglycerols (DAG) from vegetable oils by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) is investigated. The method is based on isocratic elution using 100% acetonitrile and UV detection at 205 nm. The following elution order of DAG molecular species is identified: 1,3-dilinolein < 1,2-dilinolein < 1,3-dimyristin < 1-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl-glycerol < 1,2-dimyristoyl-rac-glycerol < 1(2)-oleoyl-2(3)-linoleoyl-glycerol < 1-linolenoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol < 1(2)-linolenoyl-2(3)-stearoyl-glycerol < 1,3-diolein < 1-palmitoyl-3-oleoyl-glycerol < 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol < 1(2)-palmitoyl-2(3)-oleoyl-glycerol < 1-linoleoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol < 1,3-dipalmitin < 1(2)-linoleoyl-2(3)-stearoyl-glycerol < 1-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol < 1,2-dipalmitoyl-rac-glycerol < 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol < 1,3-distearin < 1,2-distearoyl-rac-glycerol. Linearity is observed over three orders of magnitude. Limits of detection and quantitation range 0.2-0.7 microg/mL for 1,3-dilinolein to 0.6-1.9 microg/mL for 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol, respectively. Precision and accuracy of the method are also demonstrated. The method is developed to separate mixtures of DAG molecular species produced from edible oils.
Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) techniques coupled to chromatographic systems have been widely used for extraction and determination of diverse compounds. HF-LPME was able to provide better results in precision, accuracy, selectivity and enrichment factor, in addition to reduction of matrix effect and carry over. It is applicable within a wide pH range and compatible with most analytical instruments which enable the utilization of HF-LPME in a wide variety of applications. This review focused on the modified HF-LPME techniques, efficiency, comparison to other LPME methods and applications.
The present work was employing the Quality by Design approach for the development and validation of a LC-MS-MS method to support the clinical advancement in determination of sildenafil in human plasma using lorazepam as an internal standard. Sample preparation involved solid phase extraction and calibration range observed between 3 and 1,700 ng/mL. The method was systematically optimized by employing Box-Behnken design and used mobile phase flow rate, pH and composition of mobile phase as the critical factors, and assessing the design for retention time and peak area as the responses. A substantial decrease in the variability associated with the method variables was shown in optimization studies and confirmed enhanced method robustness. The present studies revealed that developed method achieves all the regulatory requirements for linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, sensitivity and stability for the determination of sildenafil in human plasma. There was not any significant change in the stability of the drug shown by stability studies, performed in human plasma through freeze-thaw cycles, bench-top stability, short-term stability, long-term stability and auto sampler stability. In short, this method shows satisfactory results for the analysis of sildenafil in human plasma and possesses high degree of utility in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies.
Fruits and vegetables constitute a major type of food consumed daily apart from whole grains. Unfortunately, the residual deposits of pesticides in these products are becoming a major health concern for human consumption. Consequently, the outcome of the long-term accumulation of pesticide residues has posed many health issues to both humans and animals in the environment. However, the residues have previously been determined using conventionally known techniques, which include liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the recently used liquid-phase microextraction techniques. Despite the positive technological effects of these methods, their limitations include; time-consuming, operational difficulty, use of toxic organic solvents, low selective property and expensive extraction setups, with shorter lifespan of instrumental performances. Thus, the potential and maximum use of these methods for pesticides residue determination has resulted in the urgent need for better techniques that will overcome the highlighted drawbacks. Alternatively, attention has been drawn recently towards the use of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe technique (QuEChERS) coupled with dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) to overcome the setback challenges experienced by the previous technologies. Conclusively, the reviewed QuEChERS-dSPE techniques and the recent cleanup modifications justifiably prove to be reliable for routine determination and monitoring the concentration levels of pesticide residues using advanced instruments such as high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Two-phase micro-electrodriven membrane extraction (EME) procedure for the pre-concentration of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in aquatic matrices was investigated. Agarose film was used as interface between donor and acceptor phase in EME which allowed for selective extraction of the analytes prior to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Charged analytes were transported from basic aqueous sample solution through agarose film into 1-octanol as an acceptor phase at 9 V potential. Response surface methodology in conjunction with the central composite design showed good correlations between extraction time and applied voltage (R2 > 0.9358). Under optimized extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the concentration range of 0.5-500 μg L-1 with coefficients of determination, r2≥ 0.9942 and good limits of detection (0.14-0.42 μg L-1) and limits of quantification (0.52-1.21 μg L-1). The results also showed high enrichment factors (62-86) and good relative recoveries (72-114%) with acceptable reproducibilities (RSDs ≤ 7.5% n = 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of NSAIDs from tap water and river water samples. The proposed method proved to be rapid, simple and requires low voltage and minute amounts of organic solvent, thus environmentally friendly.
The measurement of α-dicarbonyls and other degradation products of sugars has become important in view of their toxicity. Although there are several methods used for their analysis, most require long reaction times to form UV absorbing or fluorescent derivatives and the nonpolar nature of commonly used derivatives necessitates relatively high concentrations of organic solvents for elution in reverse phase liquid chromatography. The present method describes the use of Girard-T reagent in a simple, one step derivatization of α-dicarbonyls and conjugated aldehydes and analysis using ion-pair reverse phase liquid chromatography. The limit of detection was in the range of 0.06-0.09 μM (4-12 ng/mL) for glyoxal, methylglyoxal, 3-deoxyglucosone and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural with good linear response and reproducibility using UV detection. The hydrazone derivatives were stable for several days in solution. The method was used to study degradation of several sugars and quantification of the target α-dicarbonyls and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in several soft drinks.
In this study, caged calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersive microsolid phase extraction was described for the first time for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples prior to gas chromatographic analysis. Fluorene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene were selected as model compounds. The caged calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetry analyses. The effective parameters namely desorption solvent, solvent volume, extraction time, desorption time, the mass of adsorbent and sample volume were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the developed method showed good linearity in the range of 0.5-50 ng mL-1 (R2 ≥ 0.996), low limits of detection and quantification (0.42-0.22 ng mL-1) (0.73-1.38 ng mL-1) respectively, good relative recoveries (71.2-104.2%) and reproducibility (RSD 1.8-12.4%, n = 3) for the studied PAHs in water sample. With high enrichment factor (1,000), short extraction time (<30 min), low amounts of adsorbent (100 mg) and low amounts of solvent (0.1 mol) have proven that the microsolid phase extraction method based on calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes are environmentally friendly and convenient extraction method to use as an alternative adsorbent in the simultaneous preconcentration of PAHs from environmental water samples.
The effect of mobile phase pH on positive ionization process and retention time of nine pharmaceuticals on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was discussed. The effective use of high and low mobile phase pH in LC-MS/MS qualitative analyses method was also evaluated by comparing the instrument detection limit, quantification limit, precision, linearity and signal to noise (S/N) under low and high mobile phase pH. In this work, six mobile phase pH that ranged between pH 2 and pH 10 were used to evaluate the effect of the mobile phase pH changes on the ionization process in electrospray ionization. Results revealed that high mobile phase pH ionized more pharmaceuticals molecules and gave a higher signal than low mobile phase pH in positive ionization mode. The results proved that ammonium ion was better as a proton donor in high pH mobile phase than the hydronium ion in acidic mobile phase. The results revealed that the qualitative LC-MS/MS analyses method by using high mobile phase pH has better performance for most analytes in terms of sensitivity, precision, linearity and S/N than the low mobile phase pH.
Anti-glaucoma latanoprost-loaded ocular implants provide prolonged delivery and enhanced bioavailability relative to the conventional eye drops. This study aims at the development and validation of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for quantitative analysis of nanogram levels of latanoprost in the eye, and for the first time, compares the use of fluorescence vs ultraviolet (UV) detectors in latanoprost quantification. The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile:0.1% v/v formic acid (60:40, v/v) with a flow rate of 1 mL/min and separation was done using a C18 column at temperature 40°C. The fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths were set at 265 and 285 nm, respectively, while the UV absorption was measured at 200 nm. The latanoprost concentration-peak area relationship maintained its linearity (R2 = 0.9999) over concentration ranges of 0.063-10 μg/mL and 0.212-10 μg/mL for the fluorescence and UV detectors, respectively. The UV detector showed better precision, while the fluorescence detector exhibited higher robustness and greater sensitivity, with a detection limit of 0.021 μg/mL. The fluorescence detector was selected for quantification of latanoprost released from ocular implants in vitro and in porcine ocular tissues. The developed method is a robust, rapid and cost-effective alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for routine analysis of latanoprost released from ocular implants.
The objective of the study was to fractionate the crude extract of Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) roots and identify the intense peaks using HPLC-PDA-MS/MS, UPLC-MS/MS and H-NMR. Column chromatography was used to fractionate the crude extract into individual fractions using six solvent systems ranged from ethyl acetate, methanol and water in increasing polarity. Two fractions with nearly pure and intense peaks were selected for compound identification. Chromenone (coumarin) and chromone derivatives were putatively identified, besides several previously reported quassinoid glycosides (eurycomanone derived glycoside, 2,3-dehydro-4α-hydroxylongilactone glucoside, eurycomanol glycoside and eurycomanol trimer) in the fraction 11 of 100% methanol. A newly reported compound, namely hydroxyl glyyunanprosapogenin D (838 g/mol) was proposed to be the compound detected in the fraction 11 of 50% ethyl acetate and 50% methanol. This is also the first study to report the identification of chromenones and chromones in E. longifolia extract.
Capilliposide B (CPS-B) and Capilliposide C (CPS-C), as the key components in Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl., increasingly aroused the interest and research concern of many researchers due to the good bioactivities. Nowadays, the reference standards of CPS-B and CPS-C yield were very limited. Due to the deficit of reference standards, the determination could be difficult to carry out, and the quality control and evaluation would be restrained afterwards. To solve this urgent problem, a quantitative analysis of multi-components by single-marker (QAMS) method was proposed and established based on high-performance liquid-chromatography tandem evaporative light-scattering detector. In this QAMS method, the content of the two bioactive components could be calculated by buddlejasaponin IV, which is applied as an external standard and readily obtained. And the methodological experiments were evaluated and indicated accuracy, stability and feasibility of this QAMS method. Therefore, in this study, this built method would properly meet the requirement of determination of CPS-B, CPS-C and quality control of the L. capillipes Hemsl. plant.