METHODS: A prospective study spanning 27 months was conducted at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Serum CEA (Abbott IMx) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (Abbott IMx) from patients clinically suspected of having primary carcinoma of the lung, were assayed using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay method.
RESULTS: Thirty seven cases of histologically confirmed primary lung carcinoma were studied. Of these, 17 were squamous cell carcinomas, 10 adenocarcinomas, nine small cell carcinomas, and one large cell carcinoma. The patients' ages ranged from 34-82 years. The male:female ratio was 3.6:1. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen was raised above the cutoff value of 1.5 ng/ml in 94.1% of squamous cell carcinomas, 20.0% of adenocarcinomas, and 11.1% of small cell carcinomas. By comparison, CEA was raised above the cutoff value of 3.0 ng/ml in 70.6% of squamous cell carcinomas, 77.8% of small cell carcinomas, and 100% of adenocarcinomas. CEA and squamous cell carcinoma antigen were not raised in the patient with large cell carcinoma and in 14 healthy volunteers. None of 15 patients with a variety of benign lung diseases showed a rise of CEA, while two patients--a 25 year old Indian woman with pneumonia and a 64 year old Malay man with bronchial asthma--had raised squamous cell carcinoma antigen values above the cutoff. Serum CEA and squamous cell carcinoma antigen values did not seem to correlate with stage or degree of differentiation of the tumours.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that CEA is a good general marker for carcinoma, particularly adenocarcinoma. In contrast, squamous cell carcinoma antigen is more specific for squamous carcinoma.
METHODS: Histologically confirmed invasive cervical carcinoma and benign cervices were assayed for telomerase activity using a commercial telomerase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. The same cases were subjected to PCR detection of HPV using type specific (HPV types 6b, 11, 16, and 18) followed by L1 open reading frame (ORF) consensus primers.
RESULTS: HPV was detected in 18 (13 HPV-16, one HPV-6b, four only L1 ORF) of 20 invasive cervical carcinoma and one (only L1 ORF) of 19 benign cervices. Raised telomerase activity (A(450 nm) > 0.215) was detected in 11 cervical carcinomas, with A(450 nm) ranging between 0.238 and 21.790 (mean, 3.952) in positive squamous carcinomas, whereas A(450 nm) was only 0.222 in the one positive adenosquamous carcinoma. Five of 11 cervical carcinomas in stage I, three of six in stage II, both in stage III, and the only case in stage IV showed telomerase activation. Increased telomerase activity was noted in five of the 12 lymph node negative, five of the seven lymph node status unknown cases, and the one case with presumed lymph node metastasis. Ten of 18 HPV positive and one of two HPV negative cervical carcinomas showed telomerase upregulation.
CONCLUSIONS: Telomerase is activated in invasive cervical carcinoma. Although larger studies are needed, there seems to be no clear association between telomerase upregulation and HPV status, although there is a suggestion of increased telomerase activity in squamous carcinomas and late stage disease.
METHODS: Diagnostic biopsies (n=104) were examined for COO classification, employing automated RNA digital quantification assay (Lymph2Cx). Results were equated against IHC-based COO categorisation. Assay performance was assessed through its impact on overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: 96 (92%) informative samples were labelled as GCB (38/96; 40%) and non-GCB (58/96; 60%) by IHC evaluation. Lymph2Cx catalogued 36/96 (37%) samples as GCB, 45/96 (47%) as ABC and 15/96 (16%) as unclassified. Lymph2Cx being reference, IHC protocol revealed sensitivity of 81% for ABC and 75% for GCB categorisation and positive predictive value of 81% versus 82%, respectively. Lymph2Cx-based COO classification performed superior to Hans algorithm in predicting OS (log rank test, p=0.017 vs p=0.212).
CONCLUSIONS: Our report show that current IHC-based protocols for COO classification of DLBCL at UKM Malaysia are in line with previously reported results and marked variation in preanalytical factors do not critically impact Lymph2Cx assay quality.
METHODS: 79 patients with DLBCL (nodal, 59% and extranodal, 41%) treated with rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy were selected. Expression levels of BCR and linked signalling pathway molecules were inter-related with Lymph2Cx-based cell of origin (COO) types and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Activated B-cell (ABC) type DLBCL constituted 49% (39/79) compared with germinal centre B-cell (GCB) type DLBCL (29/79; 37%) and revealed poor prognosis (p=0.013). In ABC-DLBCL, high BTK expression exerted poor response to R-CHOP, while OS in ABC-DLBCL with low BTK expression was similar to GCB-DLBCL subtype (p=0.004). High LYN expression coupled with a poor OS for ABC-DLBCL as well as GCB-DLBCL subtypes (p=0.001). Furthermore, high coexpression of BTK/LYN (BTKhigh/LYNhigh) showed poor OS (p=0.019), which linked with upregulation of several genes associated with BCR repertoire and nuclear factor-kappa B pathway (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, high BTK and LYN expression retained prognostic significance against established clinical predictive factors such as age, International Prognostic Index and COO (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide a clear association between high BCR activity in DLBCL and response to therapy in a distinct population. Molecular data provided here will pave the pathway for the provision of promising novel-targeted therapies to patients with DLBCL in Southeast Asia.