Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Ng KL, Morais C, Bernard A, Saunders N, Samaratunga H, Gobe G, et al.
    J. Clin. Pathol., 2016 Aug;69(8):661-71.
    PMID: 26951082 DOI: 10.1136/jclinpath-2015-203585
    Numerous immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers have been employed to aid in the difficult differentiation between chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) and renal oncocytoma (RO). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature was carried out to summarise and analyse the evidence for discriminatory IHC biomarkers to differentiate the two entities.
  2. Rajendra S, Ackroyd R, Karim N, Mohan C, Ho JJ, Kutty MK
    J. Clin. Pathol., 2006 Sep;59(9):952-7.
    PMID: 16467164
    Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) expression is altered in oesophageal carcinomas compared with normal tissue. It is unclear, however, whether this phenotype precedes malignant transformation or results as a consequence of it.
  3. Shia AK, Gan GG, Jairaman S, Peh SC
    J. Clin. Pathol., 2005 Sep;58(9):962-7.
    PMID: 16126878
    Recent reports have divided diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into germinal centre B cell-like and activated B cell-like subgroups with implicated differences in prognosis.
  4. Wilson AP, Matthews S, Bahl M, Efstratiou A, Cookson BD
    J. Clin. Pathol., 1992 Nov;45(11):1036-7.
    PMID: 1452782 DOI: 10.1136/jcp.45.11.1036
    A throat swab from a 9 year old girl with pharyngitis yielded a non-toxigenic strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae var mitis and Streptococcus group G. C pseudodiphtheriticum was isolated from the throats of two of her four brothers. In each case the isolate was sent to the reference laboratory before full identification. The growth was found to be mixed for one brother; the other isolate being a toxin producing C diphtheriae var gravis. The child was asymptomatic and the case proves that all colonial types on the Hoyles plate should be identified.
  5. Jackson N, Zaki M, Rahman AR, Nazim M, Win MN, Osman S
    J. Clin. Pathol., 1997 May;50(5):436-7.
    PMID: 9215130
    A 35 year old man with a fatal Campylobacter jejuni infection is described. He had HbE/beta zero thalassaemia and had undergone splenectomy nine months previously for hypersplenism; he also had chronic hepatitis C infection. He presented with high grade fever but no gastrointestinal symptoms and rapidly progressed to septicaemic shock and hepatic encephalopathy despite treatment with penicillin, gentamicin, and, later, chloramphenicol and ceftazidime. Only one case of Campylobacter jejuni septicaemia occurring post-splenectomy has been reported previously, also in an iron overloaded thalassaemia patient. Unusual Gram negative bacilli must be covered by the chosen antibiotic regimen when splenectomised thalassaemic patients present with high grade fever.
  6. Cheah PL, Liam CK, Yap SF, Looi LM
    J. Clin. Pathol., 1994 Jun;47(6):535-7.
    PMID: 8063936
    AIMS: To determine (1) the detection rate of primary carcinoma of the lung by serological assay of CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen); and (2) whether addition of seroassay of squamous cell carcinoma related antigen before treatment improves detection sensitivity.

    METHODS: A prospective study spanning 27 months was conducted at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Serum CEA (Abbott IMx) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (Abbott IMx) from patients clinically suspected of having primary carcinoma of the lung, were assayed using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay method.

    RESULTS: Thirty seven cases of histologically confirmed primary lung carcinoma were studied. Of these, 17 were squamous cell carcinomas, 10 adenocarcinomas, nine small cell carcinomas, and one large cell carcinoma. The patients' ages ranged from 34-82 years. The male:female ratio was 3.6:1. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen was raised above the cutoff value of 1.5 ng/ml in 94.1% of squamous cell carcinomas, 20.0% of adenocarcinomas, and 11.1% of small cell carcinomas. By comparison, CEA was raised above the cutoff value of 3.0 ng/ml in 70.6% of squamous cell carcinomas, 77.8% of small cell carcinomas, and 100% of adenocarcinomas. CEA and squamous cell carcinoma antigen were not raised in the patient with large cell carcinoma and in 14 healthy volunteers. None of 15 patients with a variety of benign lung diseases showed a rise of CEA, while two patients--a 25 year old Indian woman with pneumonia and a 64 year old Malay man with bronchial asthma--had raised squamous cell carcinoma antigen values above the cutoff. Serum CEA and squamous cell carcinoma antigen values did not seem to correlate with stage or degree of differentiation of the tumours.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that CEA is a good general marker for carcinoma, particularly adenocarcinoma. In contrast, squamous cell carcinoma antigen is more specific for squamous carcinoma.

  7. Thiruchelvan N, Wuu KY, Arseculeratne SN, Ashraful-Haq J
    J. Clin. Pathol., 1998 Mar;51(3):246-8.
    PMID: 9659271
    Wet India ink mounts of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are useful in the laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. Pseudo-cryptococcal artefacts in such mounts have been attributed to leucocytes in CSF but their mode of formation has not been explained. This report describes the reproduction of such an artefact in cryptococcus free CSF-leucocyte mixtures that had been subjected to high speed centrifugation. The viscosity of DNA that could provide a morphological pseudo-capsule, and the yellow-green fluorescence of the pseudo-capsular material on staining with acridine-orange, suggest that lymphocytic nuclear DNA, which possibly leaked out after damage to the lymphocyte membrane by centrifugation, was responsible for this artefact.
  8. Pang T, Puthucheary SD
    J. Clin. Pathol., 1983 Apr;36(4):471-5.
    PMID: 6833514
    The diagnostic value of the Widal test was assessed in an endemic area. The test was done on 300 normal individuals, 297 non-typhoidal fevers and 275 bacteriologically proven cases of typhoid. Of 300 normal individuals, 2% had an H agglutinin titre of 1/160 and 5% had an O agglutinin titre of 1/160. On the basis of these criteria a significant H and/or O agglutinin titre of 1/320 or more was observed in 93-97% of typhoid cases and in only 3% of patients with non-typhoidal fever. Of the sera from typhoid cases which gave a significant Widal reaction, the majority (79.9%) showed increases in both H and O agglutinins and 51 of 234 (21.8%) of these sera were collected in the first week of illness. The significance and implications of these findings are discussed.
  9. Ngeow YF, Rachagan SP, Ramachandran S
    J. Clin. Pathol., 1990 May;43(5):400-2.
    PMID: 2196283
    A single antigen indirect immunofluorescence test was used to screen for chlamydial antibody among Malaysian infants, children, sexually active adults and prostitutes. Of 794 serum samples tested, 361 (45.5%) were positive. Seropositivity increased with age and sexual activity and ranged from 10 to 16% among children under 10 years old to 94.4% among prostitutes. Pregnant women and female adolescents showed a higher antibody prevalence than nonpregnant and older women. Six (13%) infants under 6 months of age were positive for chlamydial IgM.
  10. Lim PL
    J. Clin. Pathol., 1978 Mar;31(3):223-6.
    PMID: 641196
    Citrobacter koseri, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Edwardsiella tarda, Yersinia enterocolitica, Alkalescens dispar, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio alginolyticus were seven interesting microorganisms isolated recently in our diagnostic laboratory.
  11. Lau KS, White JC
    J. Clin. Pathol., 1969 Jul;22(4):433-8.
    PMID: 4183835 DOI: 10.1136/jcp.22.4.433
    Three cases of myelosclerosis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus are described. The probable role of systemic lupus erythematosus in the initiation of myelonecrosis and subsequent myelosclerosis is discussed.
  12. Hayati AR, Cheah FC, Yong JF, Tan AE, Norizah WM
    J. Clin. Pathol., 2004 Dec;57(12):1299-301.
    PMID: 15563671
    AIMS: To determine the role of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in predicting the occurrence of septal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in infants of mothers with diabetes.
    METHODS/MATERIALS: In this prospective study, 100 pregnant women (50 with diabetes and 50 controls), matched for age and race, were studied. One intrapartum blood sample was taken at 28 weeks of gestation from both groups of mothers and another sample at delivery. All samples were analysed for maternal IGF-I by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. A chest radiograph and an electrocardiogram were performed on the babies of the mothers with diabetes within the first 24 hours of life. An echocardiogram was performed in the first 3 days of life to look for septal hypertrophy and to measure the myocardial thickness.
    RESULTS: In the six cases of neonatal septal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, all the mothers had greatly raised IGF-I concentrations of more than 400 ng/ml at the time of delivery compared with a mean (SD) of 302 (25) ng/ml in control mothers.
    CONCLUSIONS: In the present study a crude analysis revealed that increased IGF-I concentrations correlate with neonatal septal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
    Study site: Obstetric and gynaecology clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  13. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Ng MH, Sivanesaratnam V
    J. Clin. Pathol., 2002 Jan;55(1):22-6.
    PMID: 11825919
    AIM: Telomerase activity was studied in invasive uterine cervical carcinoma to assess whether it was activated during cervical malignant transformation and to look for a possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a set of Malaysian patients.

    METHODS: Histologically confirmed invasive cervical carcinoma and benign cervices were assayed for telomerase activity using a commercial telomerase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. The same cases were subjected to PCR detection of HPV using type specific (HPV types 6b, 11, 16, and 18) followed by L1 open reading frame (ORF) consensus primers.

    RESULTS: HPV was detected in 18 (13 HPV-16, one HPV-6b, four only L1 ORF) of 20 invasive cervical carcinoma and one (only L1 ORF) of 19 benign cervices. Raised telomerase activity (A(450 nm) > 0.215) was detected in 11 cervical carcinomas, with A(450 nm) ranging between 0.238 and 21.790 (mean, 3.952) in positive squamous carcinomas, whereas A(450 nm) was only 0.222 in the one positive adenosquamous carcinoma. Five of 11 cervical carcinomas in stage I, three of six in stage II, both in stage III, and the only case in stage IV showed telomerase activation. Increased telomerase activity was noted in five of the 12 lymph node negative, five of the seven lymph node status unknown cases, and the one case with presumed lymph node metastasis. Ten of 18 HPV positive and one of two HPV negative cervical carcinomas showed telomerase upregulation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Telomerase is activated in invasive cervical carcinoma. Although larger studies are needed, there seems to be no clear association between telomerase upregulation and HPV status, although there is a suggestion of increased telomerase activity in squamous carcinomas and late stage disease.

  14. Phang KC, Akhter A, Tizen NMS, Rahman FA, Zahratul Azma R, Elyamany G, et al.
    J. Clin. Pathol., 2018 Mar;71(3):215-220.
    PMID: 28775174 DOI: 10.1136/jclinpath-2017-204548
    AIMS: The cell of origin (COO) based molecular characterisation into germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtypes are central to the pathogenesis and clinical course in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Globally, clinical laboratories employ pragmatic but less than ideal immunohistochemical (IHC) assay for COO classification. Novel RNA-based platforms using routine pathology samples are emerging as new gold standard and offer unique opportunities for assay standardisation for laboratories across the world. We evaluated our IHC protocols against RNA-based technologies to determine concordance; additionally, we gauged the impact of preanalytical variation on the performance of Lymph2Cx assay.

    METHODS: Diagnostic biopsies (n=104) were examined for COO classification, employing automated RNA digital quantification assay (Lymph2Cx). Results were equated against IHC-based COO categorisation. Assay performance was assessed through its impact on overall survival (OS).

    RESULTS: 96 (92%) informative samples were labelled as GCB (38/96; 40%) and non-GCB (58/96; 60%) by IHC evaluation. Lymph2Cx catalogued 36/96 (37%) samples as GCB, 45/96 (47%) as ABC and 15/96 (16%) as unclassified. Lymph2Cx being reference, IHC protocol revealed sensitivity of 81% for ABC and 75% for GCB categorisation and positive predictive value of 81% versus 82%, respectively. Lymph2Cx-based COO classification performed superior to Hans algorithm in predicting OS (log rank test, p=0.017 vs p=0.212).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our report show that current IHC-based protocols for COO classification of DLBCL at UKM Malaysia are in line with previously reported results and marked variation in preanalytical factors do not critically impact Lymph2Cx assay quality.

  15. Masir N, Akhter A, Roshan TM, Florence CS, Abdul-Rahman F, Tumian NR, et al.
    J. Clin. Pathol., 2019 Sep;72(9):630-635.
    PMID: 31189540 DOI: 10.1136/jclinpath-2019-205837
    AIMS: Heightened B-cell receptor (BCR) activity in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is well established, and a subset of patients with relapsed DLBCL can benefit from BCR-targeted therapies. Universal outreach of such emerging therapies mandates forming a global landscape of BCR molecular signalling in DLBCL, including Southeast Asia.

    METHODS: 79 patients with DLBCL (nodal, 59% and extranodal, 41%) treated with rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy were selected. Expression levels of BCR and linked signalling pathway molecules were inter-related with Lymph2Cx-based cell of origin (COO) types and overall survival (OS).

    RESULTS: Activated B-cell (ABC) type DLBCL constituted 49% (39/79) compared with germinal centre B-cell (GCB) type DLBCL (29/79; 37%) and revealed poor prognosis (p=0.013). In ABC-DLBCL, high BTK expression exerted poor response to R-CHOP, while OS in ABC-DLBCL with low BTK expression was similar to GCB-DLBCL subtype (p=0.004). High LYN expression coupled with a poor OS for ABC-DLBCL as well as GCB-DLBCL subtypes (p=0.001). Furthermore, high coexpression of BTK/LYN (BTKhigh/LYNhigh) showed poor OS (p=0.019), which linked with upregulation of several genes associated with BCR repertoire and nuclear factor-kappa B pathway (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, high BTK and LYN expression retained prognostic significance against established clinical predictive factors such as age, International Prognostic Index and COO (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide a clear association between high BCR activity in DLBCL and response to therapy in a distinct population. Molecular data provided here will pave the pathway for the provision of promising novel-targeted therapies to patients with DLBCL in Southeast Asia.

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