Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 49 in total

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  1. Chan HK, Hassali MA, Lim CJ, Saleem F, Tan WL
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2015 Jun;40(3):266-72.
    PMID: 25865563 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.12272
    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that more than 80% of out-of-hospital medication errors among the young children involve liquid formulations. The usefulness of pictorial aids to improve communication of medication instructions has not been extensively investigated for child health. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of pictorial aids used to assist caregivers in the administration of liquid medications.
    METHODS: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ScienceDirect, Scopus and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published up to February 2015. Studies that used pictorial aids with liquid medications and measured at least one of the following outcomes were included: dosing accuracy, comprehension of medication instructions, recall of information and adherence of caregivers. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed methodological quality of studies using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool.
    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Five experimental studies (four hospital based and one community based) with a total of 962 participants were included. A wide range of liquid formulations were studied, including both prescription and over-the-counter medications. The existing findings suggest that pictographic interventions reduced dosing errors, enhanced comprehension and recall of medication instructions and improved adherence of caregivers. Incorporating pictorial aids into verbal medication counselling or text-based instructions was more beneficial than using the single approach alone. Mixed results were identified for the relationship between health literacy of caregivers and effectiveness of pictorial aids.
    WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: The evidence remains limited due to the small number of studies found and variations in methodological quality. This review suggests that pictorial aids might be potential interventions, but more high-quality studies are needed to support the routine use of any pictogram-based materials with liquid medications in the clinical settings.
    KEYWORDS: caregivers; graphics; health literacy; medication adherence; medication errors; paediatrics
  2. Aziz Z, Tang WL, Chong NJ, Tho LY
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2015 Apr;40(2):177-85.
    PMID: 25630350 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.12247
    Rutoside (rutin; quercetin rutinoside) is a glycoside found in various plant products, including apples, citrus fruits and cranberries. Hydroxyethylrutosides (HR) are semisynthetic derivatives sold as standardized products for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Commercially available products include Relvène(®) (France), Venoruton(®) (Switzerland) and Paroven(®) (United Kingdom). However, the evidence for their efficacy is inconclusive. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence of efficacy and tolerability of hydroxyethylrutosides for CVI.
  3. Au A, Baba AA, Azlan H, Norsa'adah B, Ankathil R
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2014 Dec;39(6):685-90.
    PMID: 25060527 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.12197
    The introduction and success of imatinib mesylate (IM) has brought about a paradigm shift in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) treatment. However, despite the high efficacy of IM, clinical resistance develops due to a heterogeneous array of mechanisms. Pharmacogenetic variability as a result of genetic polymorphisms could be one of the most important factors influencing resistance to IM. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genetic variations in drug efflux transporter ABCC1 (MRP1) and ABCC2 (MRP2) genes and response to IM in patients with CML.
  4. Hassan Y, Kassab Y, Abd Aziz N, Akram H, Ismail O
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2013 Apr;38(2):97-100.
    PMID: 23441979 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.12027
    Pharmacists have the knowledge regarding optimal use of medications and the ability to influence physician prescribing. Successful interventions by a pharmacist to implement cardioprotective medications to a coronary artery disease patient's regimen would not only improve the patient's quality of care but may also increase his or her likelihood of survival. Therefore, the aim of this study was to (i) evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacist initiated interventions in increasing the prescription rates of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) secondary prevention pharmacotherapy at discharge, and to (ii) evaluate the acceptance rate of these interventions by prescribers.
  5. Ong YC, Aziz Z
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2016 Apr;41(2):170-9.
    PMID: 26956355 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.12374
    Red yeast rice is believed to be a useful alternative in the management of dyslipidaemia. However, the comparative effectiveness of red yeast rice and simvastatin for the management of dyslipidaemia is unknown. This review assesses the efficacy and safety of red yeast rice versus simvastatin in dyslipidaemia.
  6. Lai PS, Chua SS, Chan SP
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2012 Oct;37(5):536-43.
    PMID: 22380577 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2012.01335.x
    Pharmacists have been involved in providing comprehensive interventions to osteoporosis patients, but pharmaceutical care issues (PCIs) encountered during such interventions have not been well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to document PCIs encountered by post-menopausal osteoporotic women prescribed bisphosphonates.
  7. Wan Rosalina WR, Teh LK, Mohamad N, Nasir A, Yusoff R, Baba AA, et al.
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2012 Apr;37(2):237-41.
    PMID: 21545474 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2011.01272.x
    Genetic polymorphisms of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPA 94C>A) contribute to variable responses, including fatal adverse effects, among subjects treated with 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). Our objectives were to investigate the distribution of specific TPMT and ITPA genotypes in healthy subjects and patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) from the three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Malaysia and the association of the polymorphisms with adverse effects of 6-MP.
  8. Lai PS, Chua SS, Chew YY, Chan SP
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2011 Oct;36(5):557-67.
    PMID: 21916908 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2010.01210.x
    Studies have shown that comprehensive interventions by pharmacists can improve adherence and persistence to osteoporosis therapy, but the association between adherence and bone turnover markers (BTMs) has never been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on medication adherence (and its effects on BTMs), as well as persistence of postmenopausal osteoporotic women to prescribed bisphosphonates.
  9. Teh LK, Langmia IM, Fazleen Haslinda MH, Ngow HA, Roziah MJ, Harun R, et al.
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2012 Apr;37(2):232-6.
    PMID: 21507031 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2011.01262.x
    Testing for cytochrome P450-2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) variant alleles is recommended by the FDA for dosing of warfarin. However, dose prediction models derived from data obtained in one population may not be applicable to another. We therefore studied the impact of genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin dose requirement in Malaysia.
  10. Dhabali AA, Awang R, Zyoud SH
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2012 Aug;37(4):426-30.
    PMID: 22081958 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2011.01314.x
    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide and may lead to hospital admission. Sophisticated computerized drug information and monitoring systems, more recently established in many of the emerging economies, including Malaysia, are capturing useful information on prescribing. Our aim is to report on an investigation of potentially serious DDIs, using a university primary care-based system capturing prescription records from its primary care services.
    METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from two academic years over 20 months from computerized databases at the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) from users of the USM primary care services.
    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Three hundred and eighty-six DDI events were observed in a cohort of 208 exposed patients from a total of 23,733 patients, representing a 2-year period prevalence of 876·4 per 100,000 patients. Of the 208 exposed patients, 138 (66·3%) were exposed to one DDI event, 29 (13·9%) to two DDI events, 15 (7·2%) to three DDI events, 6 (2·9%) to four DDI events and 20 (9·6%) to more than five DDI events. Overall, an increasing mean number of episodes of DDIs was noted among exposed patients within the age category ≥70 years (P=0·01), an increasing trend in the number of medications prescribed (P<0·001) and an increasing trend in the number of long-term therapeutic groups (P<0·001).
    WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: We describe the prevalence of clinically important DDIs in an emerging economy setting and identify the more common potentially serious DDIs. In line with the observations in developed economies, a higher number of episodes of DDIs were seen in patients aged ≥70 years and with more medications prescribed. The easiest method to reduce the frequency of DDIs is to reduce the number of medications prescribed. Therapeutic alternatives should be selected cautiously.

    Study site: e Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM
  11. Tan PC, Hassan SK, Mohamad NA, Gan SH
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2012 Feb;37(1):100-4.
    PMID: 21128989 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2010.01232.x
    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Interindividual variability in drug responses may be attributable to genetically determined alteration in enzyme activity. In this study, we investigated the association between cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) genetic polymorphisms and post-operative fentanyl requirements.

    METHODS: Patients (n = 94) scheduled for gynaecological laparotomy received i.v. fentanyl infusion (3 μg/kg/h) after induction of general anaesthesia. Post-operative fentanyl requirements were quantified by using a patient-controlled analgesia and the number of i.v. fentanyl rescue analgesia required were recorded. Pain control was assessed using visual analogue scores (VAS) and fentanyl's adverse effects were documented. CYP3A4*4, CYP3A4*5 and CYP3A4*18 alleles of cytochrome P450 3A4 were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Differences in fentanyl requirements, VAS scores and adverse effects among the various genotypes were compared.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: No CYP3A4*4 and CYP3A4*5 alleles were detected. Eighty-nine patients (94·7%) were wild-type, five (5·3%) were heterozygous and none was homozygous. No significant difference was demonstrated between the genotype groups in terms of fentanyl consumption, pain control and adverse effects.

    WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: CYP3A4*4 and CYP3A4*5 are rare in the Malaysian Malay population. Genetic polymorphism of CYP3A4*18 may not play an important role in influencing postoperative fentanyl requirements.

  12. Ruzilawati AB, Mohd Suhaimi AW, Gan SH
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2010 Feb;35(1):105-12.
    PMID: 20175819 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2009.01042.x
    To estimate population pharmacokinetic parameters of repaglinide in 121 healthy Malaysian volunteers.
  13. Teh LK, Zahri MK, Zakaria ZA, Ismail R, Salleh MZ
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2010 Dec;35(6):723-8.
    PMID: 21054465 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2009.01146.x
    CYP2C8 is involved in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase pathway. Arachidonic acid metabolites such as epoxyeicosatrienenoic acids and hydroxyeicosatetrenoic acids, produced may have a role in hypertension. We aimed to develop a medium through-put method for screening samples of known and new mutations of CYP2C8 using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC).
  14. Salman SA, Amrah S, Wahab MS, Ismail Z, Ismail R, Yuen KH, et al.
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2010 Dec;35(6):691-6.
    PMID: 21054461 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2009.01147.x
    Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia), a herb commonly consumed for its aphrodisiac properties, is widely used by Asian males. This may include hypertensive patients receiving propranolol which may cause sexual dysfunction as one of its side-effects. There is no published study of the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between propranolol and the herb.
  15. Ng YJ, Lo YL, Lee WS
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2009 Feb;34(1):55-60.
    PMID: 19125903 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00985.x
    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common illness among infants and children contributing to significant mortality and morbidity. As such, appropriate treatment received prior to hospital admission is of utmost importance. This retrospective observational study aimed to determine preadmission management in paediatric patients prior to hospital admission. Two hundred and twenty-two case notes of paediatric AGE patients were reviewed over a 12-month period. One hundred and fifty-four patients received medications prior to admission with 143 (92.9%) patients received known classes of medications. Antipyretic agents were the most commonly prescribed (69.2%), followed by antibiotics (38.5%), anti-emetics (35.7%), oral rehydration salts (29.4%) and antidiarrhoeals (28.0%). The mean duration of stay in hospital was slightly shorter in patients, who received prior medications than those who did not (2.22 vs. 2.32 days respectively). Seventy per cent of children admitted for AGE were treated suboptimally prior to hospital admission with oral rehydration salts being largely under-utilized, despite their proven efficacy and safety. Sex, race and age had no influence on the type of preadmission treatment. A greater effort should be made to educate the general public in the appropriate treatment of AGE.
  16. George C, Yesoda A, Jayakumar B, Lal L
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2009 Feb;34(1):33-40.
    PMID: 19125901 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00988.x
    This prospective, observational, study evaluates the clinical outcomes, drug utilization patterns, and adherence to treatment of patients on highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) at a government institution in Kerala, India.
  17. Chua SS, Tea MH, Rahman MH
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2009 Apr;34(2):215-23.
    PMID: 19250142 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00997.x
    Drug administration errors were the second most frequent type of medication errors, after prescribing errors but the latter were often intercepted hence, administration errors were more probably to reach the patients. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the frequency and types of drug administration errors in a Malaysian hospital ward.
  18. Khoo YS, Aziz Z
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2009 Apr;34(2):133-45.
    PMID: 19250134 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00998.x
    Prevention of cardiovascular disease by modifying its major risk factors, including serum cholesterol levels, is an important strategy. Regular intake of garlic has been suggested, but its impact on cholesterol levels has been inconsistent.
  19. Hassan Y, Awaisu A, Aziz NA, Aziz NH, Ismail O
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2007 Dec;32(6):535-44.
    PMID: 18021330
    To highlight therapeutic controversies, and present a critical review of the most recent evidence on the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT).
  20. Ab Rahman AF, Budiarti LE
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 1998 Apr;23(2):127-31.
    PMID: 9786098
    To determine how nurses handled drug-related questions in the work environment of a teaching hospital in Malaysia and the type of information sources they used.
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