Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Lua PL
    PMID: 22754943 DOI: 10.2202/1553-3840.1369
    Although the popularity of complementary indigenous Malay therapies (CIMT) in general healthcare is undeniable in the Malaysian context today, their usage within the palliative care scenarios remains unexplored. Our study was specifically embarked to determine CIMT’s usage pattern, reasons, attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) differences (users vs. non-users) in a sample of hospice-based palliative patients in Selangor, Malaysia. From the 39 consenting patients (mean age = 56 years; female = 56.4 percent; Malay = 53.8 percent), 38.5 percent were users of CIMT. Dried medicinal roots, herbs and sea cucumber products were the most preferred types of CIMT (53.3 percent). The most common reason cited for usage was because these were "easier and simpler to be administered" (46.7 percent). Although users' attitudes, beliefs and perceptions were more favourable than the non-users, between 30.0-73.3 percent of users remained unsure or had no knowledge regarding CIMT. They also exhibited significantly poorer Physical Symptoms than the non-users (p=0.006), a probable motive for seeking CIMT in the first place. Despite the small sample size, the findings provided some insight into the role of CIMT especially with regard to usage trends and overall well-being among the terminally-ill, of which healthcare professionals should constantly be vigilant of amidst their routine care responsibilities.
  2. Ilyanie Y, Wong TW, Choo CY
    PMID: 22754938 DOI: 10.2202/1553-3840.1469
    Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae) leaf extract is used as an antidiabetic in traditional medicine. Its widespread usage is reflected by the available preparations in the present commercial market. The efficacy of other Ficus species has not been entirely satisfactory and many antidiabetic herbs have demonstrated poor safety profiles. This study examined hypoglycemic and toxicity profiles of F. deltoidea leaf extract in rodent models. Extracts of dried powdered leaves were obtained using methanol solution, n-hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol. These extracts were orally administered to rodents. Their blood glucose and insulin levels, acute and subchronic toxicity, biochemical and histological profiles of liver and kidney were determined. Methanol extract exhibited blood glucose lowering activity in mildly insulin resistant diabetic rats as well as in normoglycemic mice unlike hydrophilic butanol subextract which only expressed its activity in normoglycemic mice. Methanol extract could contain both insulin receptor sensitization and secretagogue constituents. Different from toxic chloroform and hexane subextracts, hydrophilic methanol extract gave zero percent mortality up to 6400 mg/kg in 14 days. It did not induce liver and kidney toxicity upon four-week consumption at 200 mg/kg. The methanol extract possessed mixed antidiabetic actions and exhibited a low level of oral toxicity.
  3. Alagasamy SV, Ramanathan S, Chear NJ, Tan WN, Ramachandram DS, Ching-Ga AT, et al.
    J Complement Integr Med, 2021 Jan 01;18(2):339-345.
    PMID: 34187118 DOI: 10.1515/jcim-2019-0316
    OBJECTIVES: Mesua ferrae, from the family of Calophyllaceae, is traditionally used for the treatment of piles, fever and renal disorders. The present study was aimed to examine the antibacterial compounds from the leaves of M. ferrae and their β-lactam antibiotic potentiate activities against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    METHODS: Stigmasterol (1) and β-caryophyllene oxide (2) were isolated from the n-hexane fraction of the leaves of M. ferrae using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach.

    RESULTS: The isolated compounds displayed anti-Staphylococcus and anti-MRSA activities. It is worth to note that both compounds demonstrated synergism with β-lactam antibiotics against S. aureus and MRSA. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated the n-hexane fraction was dominated by triterpenes and sesquiterpenes, suggesting the total antibacterial activity exhibited by the fraction.

    CONCLUSION: Based on the findings, it could conclude that M. ferrae is a promising natural source for the discovery of new anti-MRSA lead compounds.

  4. Hamzah F, Mat KC, Amaran S
    PMID: 34463077 DOI: 10.1515/jcim-2020-0388
    OBJECTIVES: This study examines the effect of hypnotherapy on exam anxiety among first-year nursing students. Nursing students have high tendency to experience stress and anxiety. Anxiety therapy which encompasses mind and body would be helpful for them.

    METHODS: Sixty first-year nursing students participated in this interventional study. The hypnotherapy sessions started eight weeks prior to second exam. Outcome of hypnotherapy were assessed by measuring the exam anxiety score using TAI and clinical measurements (serum cortisol and vital signs). The measurements were done twice, there are two exams, where first exam and measurement were 1 day before exam (without hypnotherapy) and the second exam and measurement were 1 day before exam (with hypnotherapy).

    RESULTS: The mean difference of exam anxiety score and serum cortisol level between pre and post hypnotherapy sessions was statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study found that hypnotherapy is an effective tool in the management of exam anxiety among the nursing students.

  5. Kumarasamy G, Ramli RR, Singh H, Abdullah B
    J Complement Integr Med, 2020 Dec 21;18(2):433-438.
    PMID: 34187130 DOI: 10.1515/jcim-2020-0001
    OBJECTIVES: Recurrence rate of nasal polyps is high following endoscopic sinus surgery. To improve the surgical outcome, steroid impregnated nasal dressing is used postoperatively We aimed to compare the effect of Tualang honey impregnated nasal dressing with steroid impregnated nasal dressing on wound healing and surgical outcomes in post endoscopic sinus surgery patients.

    METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was carried out at two tertiary hospitals. 32 patients diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis and had underwent endoscopic sinus surgery were enrolled. The study group received 2 mL of Tualang honey nasal dressing and the control group received nasal dressing with 2 mL of triamcinolone 20 mg/mL as positive control. A 2 cm nasal dressing was placed longitudinally into the middle meatuses of both nasal cavities. Postoperative healing assessments of edema, crusting, secretions, scarring and symptoms were performed at postoperative day 7, 14, 28 and at 3 months using Sinonasal Outcome Test 22 questionnaire and modified Lund-Kennedy scoring system.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences noted in the scores of Sinonasal Outcome Test 22 and modified Lund-Kennedy at Day 7, 14 and 28 (p>0.05) for both groups. At 3rd month, patients in the triamcinolone group had lesser symptoms and better endoscopic findings (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Tualang honey is not as effective as steroid in achieving good wound healing and surgical outcomes in post endoscopic sinus surgery patients. Thus, it is not suitable as a substitute for steroid to reduce symptoms and prevent recurrence of disease.

  6. Chigurupati S, Vijayabalan S, Selvarajan KK, Alhowail A, Kauser F
    J Complement Integr Med, 2020 Dec 22;18(2):319-325.
    PMID: 34187119 DOI: 10.1515/jcim-2020-0203
    OBJECTIVES: Research on endosymbionts is emerging globally and is considered as a potential source of bioactive phytochemicals. The present study examines the antioxidant and antidiabetic of the endophytic crude extract isolated from Leucaena leucocephala leaves.

    METHODS: Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the leaves of L. leucocephala and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to establish their identity. The in vitro antioxidant effect of endophytic crude extract (LL) was evaluated using 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) free radical scavenging methods. The in vitro antidiabetic properties of LL were evaluated using α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition assay.

    RESULTS: The isolated endophytic bacteria were identified as Cronobacter sakazakii. LL displayed potent free radical scavenging effect against ABTS and DPPH radicals with an inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) value of 17.49 ± 0.06 and 11.3 ± 0.1 μg/mL respectively. LL exhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 23.3 ± 0.08 and 23.4 ± 0.1 μg/mL respectively compared to the standard drug (acarbose). Both glucose loaded normoglycemic rats and STZ induced diabetic rats treated with LL (200 mg/kg) exhibited a considerable reduction in blood glucose levels p<0.01 after 8 h of treatment when compared to normal and diabetic control rats respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the study shows that LL has a wellspring of natural source of antioxidants, and antidiabetic agents and phytoconstituents present in endophytes could be the rich source for bioactive compounds.

  7. Roslim NA, Ahmad A, Mansor M, Aung MMT, Hamzah F, Lua PL
    J Complement Integr Med, 2021 Apr 02;18(3):561-568.
    PMID: 33794082 DOI: 10.1515/jcim-2020-0177
    OBJECTIVES: The global epidemic of overweight and obesity presents a major challenge in the health status of the society. Their prevalence is at an alarming rate worldwide due to poor compliance with conventional treatment and high rates of relapse, thus increasing demand for an effective and safe alternative approach such as hypnotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of hypnotherapy for weight loss and to compare these among selected socio-demographics.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 30 students and staff of a public university in Terengganu, Malaysia using convenience sampling. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 23.0.

    RESULTS: Among the respondents (age = 26.17 ± 8.23 years; female = 66.7%; students = 63.3%), 40.0% were overweight and 60.0% were obese. Results indicated excellent feasibility as determined by participants' satisfaction towards the clarity of hypnotherapist's voice (93.3%), the suitability of content (86.7%) and time spent for the session (90.0%). Good overall acceptability (>60.0%) was also reported regarding hypnotherapist professionalism, the environment and perceived usefulness of hypnotherapy. Obese individuals were significantly more satisfied towards the hypnotherapist environment than overweight respondents (p=0.015). Additionally, no adverse effects were reported after the intervention.

    CONCLUSIONS: This evidence signalled that hypnotherapy is a promising alternative tool in assisting overweight and obese individuals to lose weight. Extensive research is needed to substantiate its role in weight management programs for its full benefits.

  8. Syed Mohammad Salleh SN, Farooqui M, Gnanasan S, Karuppannan M
    J Complement Integr Med, 2021 Apr 05;18(4):805-812.
    PMID: 33818034 DOI: 10.1515/jcim-2020-0205
    OBJECTIVES: Chemotherapy-related side effects (CRSE) are among the most distressing events cancer patients face. Some patients seek complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), increasing the risk of undesirable drug- CAM interactions. This study aims to identify the prevalence and type of CAM used for CRSE among cancer patients and patient's disclosure of CAM use to their prescribers.

    METHODS: This was a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study. Data was collected from cancer patients attending to three departments: surgical, medical and gynaecology at a local hospital in Malaysia. Ethical approval was obtained from the Medical Research Ethics Committee, Ministry of Health, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: A total of 273 patients were recruited. Prevalence of CAM used for CRSE management was 166 (60.8%). Of the CAM users, 144 (86.7%) were female, 102 (61.4%) were employed and 123 (74.1%) were married. Breast cancer patients were found to be the highest users of CAM (n=76; 45.8%). The top three CAM used by patients in managing CRSE were dietary supplements (n=166; 100%); herbal products (n=154; 92.8%) and traditional Malay therapy (n=147; 88.6%). About 83% (n=137) patients disclosed CAM use to their prescribers. Among these, 58 (42.3%) reported that their doctors encouraged the use, whereas 89 (65.0%) patients claimed their doctors disagreed the use of CAM.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prescribers still have doubt in combining chemotherapy with CAM, hence patients use CAM discreetly. Increasing the awareness and understanding of CAM use are mandatory to distinguish its possible synergistic or adverse reactions with cancer patients.

  9. Ismail N, Zainudin AM, Hua GS
    J Complement Integr Med, 2021 Apr 02;18(4):859-863.
    PMID: 33818024 DOI: 10.1515/jcim-2019-0091
    OBJECTIVES: Level of βhCG and the presence of any uterine mass of hydatidiform mole need a careful review or monitoring in order to prevent metastasis, provide an early treatment and avoid unnecessary chemotherapy.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year old fifth gravida patient who had a missed abortion was diagnosed as having a molar pregnancy with beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG) level of 509,921 IU/L. Her lung field was clear and she underwent suction and curettage (S & C) procedure. However, after six weeks, AA presented to the emergency department with a massive bleeding, although her βhCG level had decreased to 65,770 IU/L. A trans-abdominal ultrasound indicated the presence of an intra-uterine mass (3.0 × 4.4 cm). Nevertheless, her βhCG continued to show a declining trend (8,426 IU/L). AA was advised to undergo a chemotherapy but she refused, citing preference for alternative medicine like herbs instead. She opted for an "at own risk" (AOR) discharge with scheduled follow up. Subsequently, her condition improved with her βhCG showing a downward trend. Surprisingly, at six months post S & C, her βhCG ameliorated to 0 IU/L with no mass detected by ultrasound.

    CONCLUSIONS: Brucea javanica fruits, Pereskia bleo and Annona muricata leaves can potentially be useful alternatives to chemotherapy and need further studies.

  10. Dewi IP, Wahyuni FS, Aldi Y, Ismail NH, Dachriyanus
    J Complement Integr Med, 2023 Jun 01;20(2):365-371.
    PMID: 36750417 DOI: 10.1515/jcim-2022-0419
    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine the activity of Garcinia cowa Roxb. n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions as an immunomodulator in vitro and obtain the fraction that has the potential as an immunomodulator.

    METHODS: Raw 264.7 macrophages were used to asses G. cowa Roxb. immunomodulatory activity. The MTT assay was chosen to measure cell viability to evaluate the cytotoxic effect on cells. ELISA method was used to measure the concentration of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) secreted by cells after being treated with G. cowa Roxb. fraction. The neutral red uptake assay determined the effect of Garcinia cowa Roxb. on the phagocytic activity.

    RESULTS: After Raw 264.7 macrophages were given the Hexan fraction (Hex) at concentrations of 12.5 and 25 μg/mL, there was a decrease in the concentration of IL-6, TNF-α, and the phagocytosis index of cells. Administration of the Ethyl Acetate fraction (EtOAc) at concentrations of 12.5 and 25 μg/mL on cells caused a decrease in IL-6 and TNF-α levels but did not affect the phagocytosis index. There was an increase in the level of TNF-α and the phagocytosis index after being given the Butanol fraction (BuOH) with concentrations of 12.5 and 25 μg/mL but there was a slight decrease in the level of IL-6.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both Hex and EtOAc fractions could suppress immune responses through decreasing IL-6, TNF-α, and slightly decreased phagocytic activity. BuOH fraction could stimulate immunomodulatory activities through enhanced TNF-α levels and phagocytic index, but less potent in enhancing IL-6 production. The BuOH fraction could be developed as an immunostimulant.

  11. Yee LS, Abu Bakar MF, Abdullah N, Abu Bakar FI, Fatmawati S
    J Complement Integr Med, 2023 Dec 01;20(4):772-778.
    PMID: 37561949 DOI: 10.1515/jcim-2020-0141
    OBJECTIVES: An increase in gout prevalence has drawn attention among society and this situation drives the exploration of more favourable treatment using traditional medicinal plants which are rich in phenolic and flavonoid to avoid the side effects of modern medication. However, there are only few studies regarding the optimization of phytochemicals and anti-gout properties of medicinal plants and their combinations. The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal formulation of Strobilanthes crispus, Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Stevia rebaudiana with maximum total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as minimum IC50 of in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and to examine their correlations among the formulations.

    METHODS: Plant extracts from hot water infusion were tested for the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and enzyme inhibition through Folin-ciocalteu assay, aluminium chloride method and xanthine oxidase inhibition assay, respectively. Simplex-centroid mixture design was applied in this study and 13 polyherbal formulations were generated by Design Expert Software.

    RESULTS: Linear, special cubic and quadratic models were selected to describe the interaction effect between polyherbal formulations and their responses. Low IC50 value (13.90 μg/mL) of xanthine oxidase activity was found in the binary combination of O. stamineus and S. rebaudiana and this probably related to its high phenolic and flavonoid contents as xanthine oxidase inhibition and phytochemicals were correlated.

    CONCLUSIONS: The suggested optimal formulation was comprised of 44.26 % O. stamineus and 55.74 % S. rebaudiana and it could be developed as an alternative treatment for gout.

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