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  1. Abdul Karim A, Azlan A, Ismail A, Hashim P, Abd Gani SS, Zainudin BH, et al.
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2016 Sep;15(3):283-95.
    PMID: 27041391 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12218
    OBJECTIVE: Cocoa pods are abundant waste materials of cocoa plantation, which are usually discarded onto plantation floors. However, due to poor plantation management, the discarded cocoa pods can create suitable breeding ground for Phytophthora palmivora, which is regarded as the causal agent of the black pod disease. On the other hand, cocoa pods potentially contain antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant compounds are related to the protection of skin from wrinkles and can be used as functional cosmetic ingredients. Therefore, in this study, cocoa pods were extracted and to be used as active ingredients for antiwrinkles.

    METHODS: The active compounds in cocoa pod extracts (CPE) were screened using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Fibroblast cells were used to determine the effective concentration of CPE to maintain the viability for at least 50% of the cells (EC50 ). The gel was tested by 12 panelists to determine the efficacy of CPE in gel form using Visioscan to reduce skin wrinkles and improve skin condition.

    RESULTS: CPE was detected to contain malic acid, procyanidin B1, rosmarinic acid, procyanidin C1, apigenin, and ellagic acid, all of which may contribute to functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The EC50 value of cocoa pod extracts was used to calculate the amount of CPE to be incorporated into gel so that the formulated product could reach an effective concentration of extract while being nonintoxicant to the skin cell. The results showed that CPE is potential ingredient to reduce wrinkles. Skin wrinkles reduced at 6.38 ± 1.23% with the application of the CPE gel within 3 weeks and significantly improved further (12.39 ± 1.59%) after 5 weeks. The skin hydration increased (3.181 ± 1.06%) after 3 weeks of the CPE gel application.

    CONCLUSION: Flavonoid compounds in CPE contributed to the functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The CPE which is nontoxic to skin cells help to reduce wrinkles on skin after 3 weeks of application. CPE can be used as the active ingredients in antiwrinkle products, and prolonged application may result in significant visual changes to the naked eyes.

  2. Shahinuzzaman M, Yaakob Z, Moniruzzaman M
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2016 Jun;15(2):185-93.
    PMID: 26777540 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12209
    Soap is the most useful things which we use our everyday life in various cleansing and cosmetics purposes. Jatropha oil is nonedible oil which has more benefits to soap making. It has also cosmetics and medicinal properties. But the presence of toxic Phorbol esters in Jatropha oil is the main constrains to use it. So it is necessary to search a more suitable method for detoxifying the Jatropha oil before the use as the main ingredient of soap production. This review implies a more suitable method for removing phorbol esters from Jatropha oil. Several parameters such as the % yield of pure Jatropha oil soap, TFM value of soap, total alkali content, free caustic alkalinity content, pH, the antimicrobial activity, and CMC value of general soap should be taken into consideration for soap from detoxified Jatropha oil.
  3. Baleg SM, Bidin N, Suan LP, Ahmad MF, Krishnan G, Johari AR, et al.
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2015 Sep;14(3):246-53.
    PMID: 25817596 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12142
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of multiple pulses on the depth of injury caused by CO2 laser in an in vivo rat model.
  4. Yap FB
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2017 Sep;16(3):348-352.
    PMID: 27539948 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12268
    INTRODUCTION: Low-dose isotretinoin is used to reduce side effects albeit higher relapse. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose 10 mg daily isotretinoin for the treatment of acne.

    METHODS: This prospective study was performed between 2011 and 2015. All 150 patients were given 10 mg daily isotretinoin until a cumulative dose of 90-110 mg/kg.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 26.6 years with 64.7% moderate acne, 29.3% severe, and 6% very severe. The mean cumulative dose was 98.8 ± 6.05 mg/kg. All 150 patients had total clearance with a mean time to clearance of 24.0 weeks. Patients with severe/very severe acne had higher cumulative dosage (102.1 vs. 97.0, P 

  5. Bae SH, Park JJ, Song EJ, Lee JA, Byun KS, Kim NS, et al.
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2016 Jul 1.
    PMID: 27369004 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12234
    The skin brightness is determined according to the amount and type of melanin. People with darker skin have a greater amount of melanin that makes their skin less susceptible to UV damages. They live in lower latitude and receive a greater amount of the intensity of the UV radiation.
  6. Shah S, Chew SK
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2018 Oct;17(5):830-839.
    PMID: 29193788 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12435
    BACKGROUND: Skin hyperpigmentation is the darkening of skin due to the increased production of melanin in the body.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a botanical-based Rosa E pigmentation serum in healthy fair skin female volunteers with wrinkles, skin tone, and pigmentation.

    METHODS: This was a single-arm, open label study conducted in healthy Indian females; 18 subjects aged 30-55, having fair Caucasian-like skin with at least 2 dark skin pigments with facial wrinkles diagnosed by dermatologist were selected. Rosa E pigmentation serum was applied twice a day for 84 days. Effect was evaluated by (i) instrumental technique (spectrophotometer® 2600D), (ii) clinically by dermatologist regarding product efficacy (skin tone, antiwrinkle, pigmentation), and (iii) volunteers self-evaluation.

    RESULTS: The L* value of spectrophotometer reading represents lightness in the skin pigment. Reduction in the pigment was reported from day 14, with significant reductions observed till day 84 compared with baseline. Significant (P < .0001) skin pigmentation lightening was seen on day 14 (1.11) vastly improving on day 84 (1.94) based on photographic assessments. The significant reduction in skin pigment was 76.85%, Felix von Luschan skin color score was 30.24% (P < .0001) with a 7.38-fold reduction in skin tone and 57% reduction in facial wrinkles at day 84 from baseline.

    CONCLUSIONS: Rosa E pigmentation serum was found safe and effective in significant reduction in skin pigments, improvement of skin tone, and antiwrinkle properties instrumentally, clinically, and self-evaluation by volunteers. In these evaluations, best results were seen the longer the Rosa E was used.

  7. Hadi H, Wilkinson CM
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2017 Jun;16(2):180-185.
    PMID: 28145033 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12305
    Ensuring uniformity in the nomenclature standardization of facial creases is important to enable the scholarly community to follow and debate the advancements in research. This review highlights the prevailing disparity in the nomenclature that refers to the same facial crease by researchers and laypeople, and suggests uniform names for the facial creases based on available literature. The previous and current trends in facial crease classification are also discussed. The nomenclature of the facial creases considered for this review include the following: the nasolabial fold, corner of the mouth lines, upper and lower lip creases around the mouth region, the mandibular folds, the bifid nose, the transverse nasal line, the vertical glabellar line, chin crease, the mental crease, four type of creases around the eyes, forehead creases, and periauricular creases. A figure illustrating the above facial creases is included as reference. It is hoped that the proposed standardization of nomenclature would ensure a more scientific referencing of facial creases enabling more effective scientific interaction among the scholarly community as well as the laypeople interested in the research and application of facial creases.
  8. Packirisamy V, Sadacharan CM
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2021 Mar 11.
    PMID: 33706422 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.14062
    BACKGROUND: Eyebrows are an important esthetic feature of the face. In cosmetic surgery, knowledge about the patient's preference of eyebrow apex position is important to achieve agreeable esthetic results.

    AIM: To study the preference of eyebrow apex positions on the different facial shapes in the Malaysian population.

    METHODS: A frontal view photograph of a female model was morphed into oval, square, round, and long facial shapes. Four types of brow apex were created on each facial shape, A. above the midpupil (A-MP), B. above the lateral limbus (A-LL), C. halfway between the lateral limbus and lateral canthus (A-HF) and D. above the lateral canthus (A-LC). Out of the four brow apexes, the respondent selected one esthetically appealing brow apex for each facial shape. A total of 441 Malaysians completed the survey questionnaire. Differences in preference between the ethnic groups were analyzed by the chi-square test.

    RESULTS: The majority of Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Indians (MI) subjects found A-LL as attractive on the oval (MC-73%, MI-52%), square (MC-42%, MI-42%), round (MC-45%, MI-40%) and long (MC-39%, MI-44%) shape, but the Malaysian Malays preferred more the A-HF on long (42%) and round (42%) face. While the Malaysian Indians least preferred the A-MP on the oval (4%), square (5%), round (6%), and long (5%). A significant difference in preference of apex position was observed between MC versus MI and MC versus MM in both oval and square faces. On the round face, the difference was noted between all the ethnic groups. However, on the long face, a significant difference was noted only between MI and MM.

    CONCLUSIONS: Significant interethnic differences exist in the preference of eyebrow apex position on the facial shapes.

  9. Mehrabi JN, Bar-Ilan E, Wasim S, Koren A, Zusmanovitch L, Salameh F, et al.
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2021 Apr 01.
    PMID: 33794033 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.14110
    BACKGROUND: Melasma is an acquired disorder of hyperpigmentation, affecting a million individuals worldwide. Energy-based devices (EBDs) employed to treat melasma include various types of lasers, intense pulsed light (IPL), and radiofrequency (RF). Recent studies have attempted to address recalcitrant and recurring melasma by combining energy-based devices with topical or oral medications.

    OBJECTIVE: This article reviews EBDs-based augmented treatment for melasma and suggests practical pathogenesis-oriented treatment regimens. Treatment algorithms are proposed to address various components of melasma.

    METHODS: A systematic PubMed search was conducted acquiring information from various studies on combination treatments of melasma involving EBDs.

    RESULTS: The 286 retrieved articles were filtered by title to contain at least one type of energy-based modality such as laser, IPL, or RF along with at least one other treatment method. Based on their subject matter, combinations were further categorized into the subheadings: laser plus medication, laser plus laser, and IPL- and RF-containing treatment methods.

    CONCLUSION: There are many energy-based combination treatments that have been explored for mitigation of melasma including laser therapy with medication, multi-laser therapies, IPL, RF, and microneedling devices. Melasma is an exceedingly difficult condition to treat, however, choosing the appropriate tailor-made treatment combination can improve the final outcome.

  10. Lajis AFB, Ariff AB
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2019 Jun;18(3):703-727.
    PMID: 30866156 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12900
    Human skin pigmentation is a result of constitutive and facultative pigmentation. Facultative pigmentation is frequently stimulated by UV radiation, pharmacologic drugs, and hormones whereby leads to the development of abnormal skin hyperpigmentation. To date, many state-of-art depigmenting compounds have been studied using in vitro model to treat hyperpigmentation problems for cosmetic dermatological applications; little attention has been made to compare the effectiveness of these depigmenting compounds and their mode of actions. In this present article, new and recent depigmenting compounds, their melanogenic pathway targets, and modes of action are reviewed. This article compares the effectiveness of these new depigmenting compounds to modulate several melanogenesis-regulatory enzymes and proteins such as tyrosinase (TYR), TYR-related protein-1 (TRP1), TYR-related protein-2 (TRP2), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and N-terminal kinases (JNK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38 MAPK). Other evidences from in vitro assays such as inhibition on melanosomal transfer, proteasomes, nitric oxide, and inflammation-induced melanogenesis are also highlighted. This article also reviews analytical techniques in different assays performed using in vitro model as well as their advantages and limitations. This article also provides an insight on recent finding and re-examination of some protocols as well as their effectiveness and reliability in the evaluation of depigmenting compounds. Evidence and support from related patents are also incorporated in this present article to give an overview on current patented technology, latest trends, and intellectual values of some depigmenting compounds and protocols, which are rarely highlighted in the literatures.
  11. Gupta G, Singh Y, Chellappan D, Dua K
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2020 Sep;19(9):2447-2448.
    PMID: 32365277 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.13466
  12. de Maio M, Chatrath V, Hart S, Hoo AJS, Marchac A, Sykianakis D, et al.
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2021 Jul;20(7):2069-2082.
    PMID: 33977669 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.14216
    BACKGROUND: Comprehensive patient assessment and planning are central to esthetic treatment with injectables. MD ASA™ (Multi-Dimensional Aesthetic Scan Assessment) is a novel tool developed for this purpose.

    AIMS: To describe the MD ASA technique and present its preliminary application.

    METHODS: MD ASA breaks down the face into five hierarchies (H1-H5). H1 shifts patients' focus from "distractions" (individual lines and folds) toward the overall messages their face portrays, based on eight Emotional Attributes: four negative (tired, sad, angry, and saggy); four positive (youthful, attractive, contoured, and feminine/masculine). Three priority Emotional Attributes are selected for each patient. This is followed by a process of narrowing down through facial thirds (H2), periorbital and perioral dynamics (H3), facial units (H4), and subunits (H5), to arrive at a final assessment. Based on the key facial signs identified, this can be translated into MD Codes equations and thus a treatment formula. A retrospective analysis was performed based on 12 female patients injected by expert clinicians at an educational event. All patients were selected for, and treated using, a single MD Codes formula derived from a common MD ASA work-up.

    RESULTS: There were substantial differences between patients and clinicians in their views of which anatomical areas needed treatment-but good alignment on priority Emotional Attributes. Patients were treated only for three negative Emotional Attributes, but improvements were observed across all eight attributes.

    CONCLUSIONS: MD ASA provides a practical method for translating facial messages into actionable injectable treatment plans and facilitates greater patient-clinician alignment. Prospective studies are warranted.

  13. Redaelli A, Siddiqui Syed S, Liu X, Poliziani M, Erbil H, Prygova I, et al.
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2020 Nov;19(11):3020-3031.
    PMID: 32153099 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.13349
    BACKGROUND: Data on opinions and experiences of aesthetic medical procedures outside the United States and Western Europe are scarce.

    AIMS: This study aimed to survey users and non-users of aesthetic procedures in countries where this information is less readily available, to understand attitudes and perceptions relating to beauty.

    PATIENTS/METHODS: Two independent internet-based observational surveys were conducted. Survey 1: individuals from Colombia, Lebanon, Malaysia, Russia and Turkey who were 'users' or 'non-users' of aesthetic medical procedures. Survey 2: individuals from Colombia, Russia, Thailand, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates who were 'users' of non-surgical aesthetic treatments.

    RESULTS: Surveys 1 and 2 were completed by 300 and 160 individuals, respectively, most of whom were female (94.0% and 99%). Overall, respondents rated the eyes and smile as the most pleasing male and female facial features. Most participants (mean 82.6%; range 75%-100%) believed maintaining a healthy lifestyle was important for ageing gracefully, and over one-third (36.0%; 28%-47%) believed men age more gracefully than women. The emphasis respondents placed on the importance of physical attributes vs inner feelings, internal beauty and self-confidence varied between countries. Users were often more positive about aesthetic medical procedure outcomes than non-users. Adequate information, good physician communication (including managing treatment expectations), treatment recommendations based on patient need and good aftercare improved treatment satisfaction.

    CONCLUSIONS: The eyes and smile were key features of attractiveness, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle was consistently considered an important factor for ageing gracefully. Ensuring patients are well informed was a major determinant of treatment satisfaction.

  14. Teo BSX, Gan RY, Abdul Aziz S, Sirirak T, Mohd Asmani MF, Yusuf E
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2021 Mar;20(3):993-1001.
    PMID: 32659861 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.13624
    BACKGROUND: Eucheuma Cottonii is a type of red algae obtained from Sabah with main active component, sulfated polysaccharide or k-carrageenan.

    AIMS: The objective of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and potential wound-healing properties in aqueous extraction of E cottonii in order to meet the increasing demand for halal and natural cosmeceutical products.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Aqueous extract of E cottonii was investigated for active compounds by phytochemical screening and IR spectroscopy. Antioxidant activity was carried out using DPPH method, and the IC50 value was 1.99 mg/mL. Antibacterial activity was examined against Staphylococcus Aureus using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and showed 10.03 ± 0.06 mm zone of inhibition, achieved by 200 mg/mL of extracts. A wound was made by skin excision of area around 100 mm2 on each mouse. Test group was treated with aqueous extract gel (10% w/w); meanwhile, the mice that were treated with honey acted as the positive control group and the untreated mice as negative control group. Results showed that the wound contraction rate inclined to aqueous extracts as compared to untreated group (P 

  15. Nordin FNM, Aziz A, Zakaria Z, Wan Mohamed Radzi CWJ
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2021 Apr;20(4):1050-1060.
    PMID: 32854162 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.13691
    BACKGROUND: Skin-whitening products are in the high trend of demand for skin beautifying and lightening. Sources of ingredients for cosmetics could be natural, semi-synthetic, and synthetic that may affect the halal status of a product. The lack of scientific evidence on the safety and risks of such ingredients is a major concern to many consumers.

    OBJECTIVE: This review paper aimed to shed light on the skin-whitening ingredients and their issues related to safety, health risk, and halal status.

    METHODOLOGY: Based on the reviews scientific publications published from January 2015 to July 2020 using Web of Science and Scopus engines.

    FINDINGS: Based on the review, most of the common ingredients in the skin-whitening products are originated from plants, animals, microbes, and heavy metals. Health risk of the ingredients was evaluated based on the usage, chronic or acute adverse effect, frequency of incidence, and the hazardous chemical contents of a halal cosmetics. The halal status of the ingredients was investigated based on the sources of origin, safety evaluation, and associated health risk of the ingredients.

    ORIGINALITY: This review shows that ingredients play a vital role in the halal status decision-making of a cosmetic product. Therefore, the categories of Halal-Safe, Haram-Prohibited, and Critical-Need further evaluation were suggested to integrate the sources of ingredients with safety.

  16. Lim T, Frank K, Hadjab B
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2021 Jul 13.
    PMID: 34255904 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.14342
    Injectable rejuvenation treatments used in Caucasians might not always suit Asians as the visible signs of aging manifest differently, underscoring a need for Asian-specific strategies that correct underlying structural deficiencies and cumulative age-related changes. The presented Target-Specific Sandwich Technique (TSST) aims to simultaneously restore, rejuvenate, and enhance faces through the distribution of minute amounts of different fillers with different rheologies, using a minimal number of entry points in strategic facial areas and different soft tissue layers in Asians. A total of 14 patients underwent the presented TSST and were subsequently assessed for satisfaction with the treatment and the outcome of the treatment. With 3 cc of fillers, patients experienced a rejuvenated appearance with brow support, brow ridge softening, less severe nasolabial folds, and corrected tear trough hollows. Fillers in the lateral canthal and mandibular angles lifted mouth corners, improved submandibular jowls, and defined the lower face. Although the prejowl sulcus received minimal filler, it appeared subtler, relaxed, and had fewer lines visible while smiling. Overall, patients appeared less tense, rejuvenated, and had improved light reflection and firmer skin. These were due to tissues being supported upward and laterally by fillers in areas of bone resorption-induced volume loss.
  17. Mohammed AH, Blebil A, Dujaili J, Hassan BAR
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2021 Jul;20(7):1992-2000.
    PMID: 33834600 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.14147
    BACKGROUND: The use of cosmetics is growing among both male and female consumers due to the availability of different brands. While there is an increase in the usage of cosmetic products, it is concerning whether the consumers are aware of the safety of the products.

    AIMS: This study aimed to widely explore consumers' perceptions and attitudes toward cosmetics within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among adults in Selangor, Malaysia. Thirty-three questions divided into three dimensions (socio-demographic parameters, assessment of perception, and assessment of attitude) were developed and validated to be answered by cosmetics consumers. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was done using SPSS.

    RESULTS: A response rate of 87% was achieved, and the mean age of participants was 33 ± 7.2. The overall perception of consumers indicates low levels of perception and moderate level of attitude toward cosmetic products. There was a positive correlation and high relationship between participants' perception and attitude (p = 0.001, r = 0.72). A significant association was observed between demographic data of respondents and their attitude and perception toward cosmetic products. Participants were unaware that sharing of cosmetic products could lead to bacterial infection and possibly increased the chance of contracting COVID-19.

    CONCLUSION: This study displayed a nonchalant perception and attitude of Malaysian adults toward cosmetic products by focusing on aesthetics rather than health safety. Therefore, it is recommended to raise awareness on the composition and effects of cosmetic products, increase the practice of hygiene and dissuade the sharing of cosmetics to reduce transmissions of COVID-19.

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