Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or infertility during the rearing period and the variation in culling rate of lactating cows. The objective of this study is to provide insight in the economically optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as replacements. A herd-level stochastic simulation model was developed specific for this purpose with a herd of 100 dairy cows; the biological part of the model consisted of a dairy herd unit and rearing unit for replacement heifers. The dairy herd unit included variation in the number of culled dairy cows. The rearing unit incorporated variation in the number of heifers present in the herd by including uncertainty in mortality and variation in fertility. The dairy herd unit and rearing unit were linked by the number of replacement heifers and culled dairy cows. When not enough replacement heifers were available to replace culled dairy cows, the herd size was temporarily reduced, resulting in an additional cost for the empty slots. When the herd size reached 100 dairy cows, the available replacement heifers that were not needed were sold. It was assumed that no purchase of cows and calves occurred. The optimal percentage of 2-wk-old heifer calves to be retained was defined as the percentage of heifer calves that minimized the average net costs of rearing replacement heifers. In the default scenario, the optimal retention was 73% and the total net cost of rearing was estimated at €40,939 per herd per year. This total net cost was 6.5% lower than when all heifer calves were kept. An earlier first-calving age resulted in an optimal retention of 75%, and the net costs of rearing were €581 per herd per year lower than in the default scenario. For herds with a lower or higher culling rate of dairy cows (10 or 40% instead of 25% in the default scenario), it was optimal to retain 35 or 100% of the heifer calves per year. Herds that had a lower or higher cost of empty slots (€50 or €120 per month instead of €82 in the default scenario) had an optimal retention of 49 or 83% per year; the optimal retention percentage was dependent on farm and herd characteristics. For Dutch dairy farming conditions, it was not optimal to keep all heifer calves.
The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and to characterize and determine the antibiotic resistance of Yersinia spp. isolates from raw milk. From September 2008 to August 2010, 446 raw milk samples were obtained from farm bulk milk tanks in Varamin, Iran. Yersinia spp. were detected in 29 (6.5%) samples, out of which 23 (79.3%), 5 (17.2%), and 1 (3.4%) were isolated from cow, sheep, and goat raw milk, respectively. The most common species isolated was Yersinia enterocolitica (65.5%), followed by Yersinia frederiksenii (31%), and Yersinia kristensenii (3.4%). Of the 19 Y. enterocolitica isolates, 14 (73.7%) were grouped into bioserotype 1A/O:9, 4 (21.1%) belonged to bioserotype 1B:O8, 1 (5.3%) belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3, and 1 isolate (biotype 1A) was not typable. All the isolates of biotypes 1B and 4harbored both the ystA and ail genes. However, all the isolates of biotype 1A were only positive for the ystB gene. The tested Yersinia spp. showed the highest percentages of resistance to tetracycline (48.3%), followed by ciprofloxacin and cephalothin (each 17.2%), ampicillin (13.8%), streptomycin (6.9%), and amoxicillin and nalidixic acid (each 3.4%). All of the tested isolates demonstrated significant sensitivity to gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Recovery of potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from raw milk indicates high risks of yersiniosis associated with consumption of raw milk.
The main challenge in microfiltration (MF) is membrane fouling, which leads to a significant decline in permeate flux and a change in membrane selectivity over time. This work aims to elucidate the mechanisms of membrane fouling in cold MF of skim milk by identifying and quantifying the proteins and minerals involved in external and internal membrane fouling. Microfiltration was conducted using a 1.4-μm ceramic membrane, at a temperature of 6±1°C, cross-flow velocity of 6m/s, and transmembrane pressure of 159kPa, for 90min. Internal and external foulants were extracted from a ceramic membrane both after a brief contact between the membrane and skim milk, to evaluate instantaneous adsorption of foulants, and after MF. Four foulant streams were collected: weakly attached external foulants, weakly attached internal foulants, strongly attached external foulants, and strongly attached internal foulants. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that all major milk proteins were present in all foulant streams. Proteins did appear to be the major cause of membrane fouling. Proteomics analysis of the foulants indicated elevated levels of serum proteins as compared with milk in the foulant fractions collected from the adsorption study. Caseins were preferentially introduced into the fouling layer during MF, when transmembrane pressure was applied, as confirmed both by proteomics and mineral analyses. The knowledge generated in this study advances the understanding of fouling mechanisms in cold MF of skim milk and can be used to identify solutions for minimizing membrane fouling and increasing the efficiency of milk MF.
The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in Varamin, Tehran Province, Iran. All of the isolated Staph. aureus were identified by morphology and culture and confirmed using the API Staph identification system (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France). Antibiotic resistance genes were detected by PCR with oligonucleotide primers specific for each gene. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 43 of 207 (20.1%) bovine clinical milk samples. Using disk diffusion, methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus was detected in 5 of 43 (11.6%) samples. The pathogen showed high resistance against penicillin G (86%) and tetracycline (76.7%). The blaZ (penicillin) (86%), tetM (tetracycline), and ermC (erythromycin) genes (39.5% each) were the most prevalent antibiotic resistance genes. The findings of this study are useful for designing specific control programs for bovine clinical mastitis caused by Staph. aureus in this region of Iran.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of electroporation on the membrane properties of lactobacilli and their ability to remove cholesterol in vitro. The growth of lactobacilli cells treated at 7.5 kV/cm for 4 ms was increased by 0.89 to 1.96 log(10) cfu/mL upon fermentation at 37 °C for 20 h, the increase being attributed to the reversible and transient formation of pores and defragmentation of clumped cells. In addition, an increase of cholesterol assimilation as high as 127.2% was observed for most cells electroporated at a field strength of 7.5 kV/cm for 3.5 ms compared with a lower field strength of 2.5 kV/cm. Electroporation also increased the incorporation of cholesterol into the cellular membrane, as shown by an increased cholesterol:phospholipids ratio (50.0-59.6%) upon treatment at 7.5 kV/cm compared with treatment at 2.5 kV/cm. Saturation of cholesterol was observed in different regions of the membrane bilayer such as upper phospholipids, apolar tail, and polar heads, as indicated by fluorescence anisotropy using 3 fluorescent probes. Electroporation could be a useful technique to increase the ability of lactobacilli to remove cholesterol for possible use as cholesterol-lowering adjuncts in the future.
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-designed study was conducted to investigate the effect of a synbiotic product containing Lactobacillus gasseri [corrected] CHO-220 and inulin on lipid profiles of hypercholesterolemic men and women. Thirty-two hypercholesterolemic men and women with initial mean plasma cholesterol levels of 5.7±0.32 mmol/L were recruited for the 12-wk study. The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups; namely the treatment group (synbiotic product) and the control group (placebo), and each received 4 capsules of synbiotic or placebo daily. Our results showed that the mean body weight, energy, and nutrient intake of the subjects did not differ between the 2 groups over the study period. The supplementation of synbiotic reduced plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol by 7.84 and 9.27%, respectively, compared with the control over 12 wk. Lipoproteins were subsequently subfractionated and characterized. The synbiotic supplementation resulted in a lower concentration of triglycerides in the very low, intermediate, low, and high-density lipoprotein particles compared with the control over 12 wk. The concentration of triglycerides in lipoproteins is positively correlated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Our results showed that the synbiotic might exhibit an atheropreventive characteristic. Cholesteryl ester (CE) in the high-density lipoprotein particles of the synbiotic group was also higher compared with the control, indicating greater transport of cholesterol in the form of CE to the liver for hydrolysis. This may have led to the reduced plasma total cholesterol level of the synbiotic group. The supplementation of synbiotic also reduced the concentration of CE in the LDL particles compared with the control, leading to the formation of smaller and denser particles that are more easily removed from blood. This supported the reduced LDL-cholesterol level of the synbiotic group compared with the control. Our present study showed that the synbiotic product improved plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol levels by modifying the interconnected pathways of lipid transporters. In addition, although Lactobacillus gasseri [corrected] CHO-220 could deconjugate bile, our results showed a statistically insignificant difference in the levels of conjugated, deconjugated, primary, and secondary bile acids between the synbiotic and control groups over 12 wk, indicating safety from bile-related toxicity.
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-design study was conducted to investigate the effect of a synbiotic product containing Lactobacillus gasseri [corrected] CHO-220 and inulin on the irregularity in shape of red blood cells (RBC) in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The subjects (n=32) were randomly allocated to 2 groups, a treatment group (synbiotic product) and a control group (placebo), and received 4 capsules of either synbiotic or placebo daily for 12 wk. Morphological representation via scanning electron microscopy showed that the occurrence of spur RBC was improved upon supplementation of the synbiotic. In addition, the supplementation of synbiotic reduced the cholesterol:phospholipids ratio of the RBC membrane by 47.02% over 12 wk, whereas the control showed insignificant changes. Our present study also showed that supplementation of the synbiotic reduced the concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA), increased unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), and increased the ratio of UFA:SFA over 12 wk, whereas the control showed inconspicuous changes. The alteration of RBC membrane was assessed using fluorescence anisotropy (FAn) and fluorescence probes with different affinities for varying sections of the membrane phospholipid bilayer. A noticeable decrease in FAn of three fluorescent probes was observed in the synbiotic group compared with the control over 12 wk, indicative of increased membrane fluidity and reduced cholesterol enrichment in the RBC membrane.
Fifteen strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were screened based on their ability to adhere to hydrocarbons via the determination of cellular hydrophobicity. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, L. acidophilus FTCC 0291, Lactobacillus bulgaricus FTCC 0411, L. bulgaricus FTDC 1311, and L. casei ATCC 393 showed greater hydrophobicity and, thus, were selected for examination of cholesterol-removal properties. All selected strains showed changes in cellular fatty acid compositions, especially total fatty acids and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the presence of cholesterol compared with those grown in the absence of cholesterol. In addition, we found that cells grown in media containing cholesterol were more resistant to sonication and enzymatic lysis compared with those grown without cholesterol. We further evaluated the location of the incorporated cholesterol via the insertion of fluorescence probes into the cellular membrane. In general, enrichment of cholesterol was found in the regions of the phospholipid tails, upper phospholipids, and polar heads of the cellular membrane phospholipid bilayer. Our results also showed that lactobacilli were able to reduce cholesterol via conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol, aided by the ability of strains to produce cholesterol reductase. Our results provided experimental evidence to strengthen the hypothesis that probiotics could remove cholesterol via the incorporation of cholesterol into the cellular membrane and conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol. The strains studied may be potential health adjunct cultures in fermented dairy products with possible in vivo hypocholesterolemic effects.
A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of <10(4) cfu/g. These acceptable APC ranged between <10(2) to 7.2×10(3) cfu/g. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter cloacae, which was present in 3 infant formulas and 1 infant food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae.
Lactic acid bacteria are present in fermented food products and help to improve shelf life and enhance the flavor of the food. They also produce metabolites such as bacteriocins to prevent the growth of undesirable or pathogenic bacteria. In this study, Enterococcus faecium C1 isolated from fermented cow milk was able to produce bacteriocin BacC1 and inhibit the growth of selected food-spoilage bacteria. The bacteriocin was purified through 4 steps: ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction column, a series of centrifugal steps, and finally reversed-phase HPLC. A membrane permeability test using SYTOX green dye (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) showed that the bacteriocin caused significant disruptions to the test bacterial membrane, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. The molecular weight of the BacC1 obtained from SDS-PAGE was around 10kDa, and N-terminal sequencing revealed a partial amino acid sequence of BacC1: GPXGPXGP. The bacterial strain was nonhemolytic and not antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it has high potential for application in the food industry as an antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of food products.
A portable ion-selective electrode (ISE) meter (LAQUAtwin B-722; Horiba Instruments Inc., Irvine, CA) is available for measuring the sodium ion concentration ([Na]) in biological fluids. The objective of this study was to characterize the analytical performance of the ISE meter in measuring [Na] in whole-blood, plasma, milk, abomasal fluid, and urine samples from cattle. Method comparison studies were performed using whole-blood and plasma samples from 106 sick calves and 11 sick cows admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital, 80 milk and 206 urine samples from 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with experimentally induced free water, electrolyte, and acid-base imbalances, and 67 abomasal fluid samples from 7 healthy male Holstein-Friesian calves fed fresh milk with or without an oral electrolyte solution. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine the accuracy of the meter against reference methods. The meter used in direct mode on undiluted samples measured whole-blood [Na] 9.7 mmol/L (7.3%) lower than a direct ISE reference method and plasma [Na] 16.7 mmol/L (12.7%) lower than an indirect ISE reference method. The meter run in direct mode measured milk [Na] 3.1 mmol/L lower and abomasal fluid [Na] 9.0% lower than indirect ISE reference methods. The meter run in indirect mode on diluted samples accurately measured urine [Na] compared with an indirect ISE reference method. We conclude that, after adjustment for the bias determined from Bland-Altman plots, the LAQUAtwin ISE meter provides a clinically useful and low-cost cow-side instrument for measuring [Na] in whole blood, plasma, milk, and abomasal fluid.
Novel bioactive peptides from camel milk protein hydrolysates (CMPH) were identified and tested for inhibition of cholesterol esterase (CEase), and their possible binding mechanisms were elucidated by molecular docking. Papain-generated CMPH showed the highest degree of hydrolysis. All CMPH produced upon enzymatic degradation demonstrated a dramatic enhancement of CEase inhibition compared with intact camel milk proteins, with papain-generated hydrolysate P9 displaying the highest inhibition. Peptide identification and their modeling through PepSite 2 revealed that among 20 potential bioactive peptides in alcalase-generated hydrolysate A9, only 3 peptides, with sequences KFQWGY, SQDWSFY, and YWYPPQ, showed the highest binding toward CEase catalytic sites. Among 43 peptides in 9-h papain-generated hydrolysate P9, 4 peptides were found to be potent CEase inhibitors. Molecular docking revealed that WPMLQPKVM, CLSPLQMR, MYQQWKFL, and CLSPLQFR from P9 hydrolysates were able to bind to the active site of CEase with good docking scores and molecular mechanics-generalized born surface area binding energies. Overall, this is the first study reporting CEase inhibitory potential of peptides generated from milk proteins.
Urine pH (UpH) and net acid excretion (NAE) are used to monitor the degree of systemic acidification and predict the magnitude of resultant hypercalciuria when feeding an acidogenic ration to control periparturient hypocalcemia in dairy cattle. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic performance of urine dipstick and pH paper for measuring UpH, and to characterize the UpH-NAE relationship and the association of urine Ca concentration ([Ca]) with UpH and NAE. Urine samples (n = 1,116) were collected daily from 106 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows fed an acidogenic ration during late gestation. Net acid excretion was measured by titration, and UpH was measured by a glass-electrode pH meter (reference method), Multistix-SG urine dipsticks (Siemens Medical Solutions Inc., Ann Arbor, MI), and Hydrion pH paper (Micro Essential Laboratory Inc., Brooklyn, NY). Diagnostic performance was evaluated using Spearman correlation coefficient (rs), Bland-Altman plots, and logistic regression. Urine pH measured by urine dipstick (rs = 0.94) and pH paper (rs = 0.96) were strongly associated with UpH. Method-comparison studies indicated that the urine dipstick measured an average of 0.28 pH units higher, and pH paper 0.10 pH units lower, than UpH. Urine [Ca] was more strongly associated with UpH (rs = -0.65) than NAE (rs = 0.52). Goals for controlling periparturient hypocalcemia under the study conditions were UpH <6.22 and <6.11, based on achieving urine [Ca] ≥5 mmol/L and estimated urinary Ca excretion ≥4 g/d, respectively. Urine pH was as accurate at predicting urine [Ca] as NAE when UpH >6.11. We conclude that pH paper is an accurate, practical, and low-cost cow-side test for measuring UpH and provides a clinically useful estimate of urine [Ca].
This study explores the inhibitory properties of camel whey protein hydrolysates (CWPH) toward α-amylase (AAM) and α-glucosidase (AG). A general full factorial design (3 × 3) was applied to study the effect of temperature (30, 37, and 45°C), time (120, 240, and 360 min), and enzyme (pepsin) concentration (E%; 0.5, 1, and 2%). The results showed that maximum degree of hydrolysis was obtained when hydrolysis was carried out at higher temperature (45°C; P < 0.05), compared with lower temperatures of 30 and 37°C. Electrophoretic pattern displays degradation of all protein bands upon hydrolysis by pepsin at various hydrolysis conditions applied. All the 27 CWPH generated showed significant AAM and AG inhibitory potential as indicated by their lower IC50 values (mg/mL) compared with intact whey proteins. In total 196 peptides were identified from selected hydrolysates and 15 potential peptides (PepSite score > 0.8; http://pepsite2.russelllab.org/) were explored via in silico approach. Novel peptides PAGNFLMNGLMHR, PAVACCLPPLPCHM, MLPLMLPFTMGY, and PAGNFLPPVAAAPVM were identified as potential inhibitors for both AAM and AG due to their high number of binding sites and highest binding probability toward the target enzymes. CCGM and MFE, as well as FCCLGPVPP were identified as AG and AAM inhibitory peptides, respectively. This is the first study that reports novel AG and AAM inhibitory peptides from camel whey proteins. The future direction for this research involves synthesis of these potential AG and AAM inhibitory peptides in a pure form and investigate their antidiabetic properties in the in vitro, as well as in vivo models. Thus, CWPH can be considered for potential applications in glycaemic regulation.
High-producing dairy cows experience a state of negative energy balance in the periparturient period that is partially addressed by increasing the rate of fat and protein mobilization. Previous studies have focused on the rate of fat mobilization, and consequently the rate of protein mobilization has not been well characterized. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the change in indicators of muscle mass during early lactation using ultrasonographic measurement of muscle thickness and changes in plasma creatinine concentration. The maximum thickness of the gluteus medius and longissimus dorsi muscles of 106 Holstein cows (34 primiparous, 72 multiparous) was determined ultrasonographically on d -3, 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 relative to the day of parturition. Plasma creatinine concentration was measured periodically during the same period. Mixed models analysis and Passing-Bablok regression were used to analyze the data. Gluteus medius thickness, longissimus dorsi loin thickness (LDLT), and longissimus dorsi thoracic thickness (LDTT) were decreased at 28 d postpartum compared with d 3 antepartum. Plasma creatinine concentration was weakly associated with gluteus medius thickness, LDLT, and LDTT (Spearman's rho = 0.31, 0.39, and 0.32, respectively). Plasma creatinine concentration in primiparous and multiparous cows at 28 d postpartum decreased by 0.24 and 0.30 mg/dL, respectively, compared with values 3 d antepartum. We concluded that ultrasonographic measurement of LDLT and LDTT and change in plasma creatinine concentration may provide practical methods for monitoring the rate of protein mobilization in periparturient dairy cows. Ultrasonographic examination of LDLT and LDTT therefore complements ultrasonographic measurement of backfat thickness and may be useful in the evaluation of energy reserve mobilization in periparturient dairy cows.
The molecular basis of the anti-diabetic properties of camel milk reported in many studies and the exact active agent are still elusive. Recent studies have reported effects of camel whey proteins (CWP) and their hydrolysates (CWPH) on the activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and the human insulin receptor (hIR). In this study, CWPH were generated, screened for DPP-IV binding in silico and inhibitory activity in vitro, and processed for peptide identification. Furthermore, pharmacological action of intact CWP and their selected hydrolysates on hIR activity and signaling and on glucose uptake were investigated in cell lines. Results showed inhibition of DPP-IV by CWP and CWPH and their positive action on hIR activation and glucose uptake. Interestingly, the combination of CWP or CWPH with insulin revealed a positive allosteric modulation of hIR that was drastically reduced by the competitive hIR antagonist. Our data reveal for the first time the profiling and pharmacological actions of CWP and their derived peptides fractions on hIR and their pathways involved in glucose homeostasis. This sheds more light on the anti-diabetic properties of camel milk by providing the molecular basis for the potential use of camel milk in the management of diabetes.
Monitoring and detecting individual cows' liveweight (LW) and liveweight change (LWC) are important for estimation of nutritional requirements and health management, and could be useful to measure short-term feed intake, water consumption, defecation, and urination. Walk-over weighing (WOW) systems can facilitate measurements of LW for these purposes, providing automated LW recorded at different times of the day. We conducted a field study to (1) quantify the contribution of feed and water intake, as well as urine and feces excretions, to short-term LWC and (2) determine the feasibility of stationary and WOW scales to detect subtle changes in LW as a result of feed and water intake, urination, and defecation. In this experiment, 10 cows walked through a WOW system and then stood individually on a stationary scale collecting weights at 10 and 3.3 Hz, respectively. Cows were offered 4 kg of feed and 10 kg of water on the stationary scale. For each animal, LW before and after eating and drinking was then calculated using different approaches. Liveweight change was calculated as the difference between the initial and final LW before and after eating and drinking for each statistical measure. The weights of feed intake, water consumption, urination, and defecation were measured and used as predictors of LWC. Urine and feces were collected from individual cows while the cow was on the scale, using a container, and weighed separately. The agreement between LWC measured using either stationary or WOW scales was assessed to determine the sensitivity of the scales to detect subtle changes in LW using the coefficient of determination (R2), Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and mean bias. The prediction model showed that most of the regression coefficients were not significantly different from +1.0 for feed and water, or -1.0 for urine and feces. The R2 and CCC values demonstrated a satisfactory agreement between calculated and stationary LWC and values ranged from 0.60 to 0.92 and 0.71 to 0.94, respectively. A moderate agreement was achieved between calculated and automated LWC with R2 and Lin's CCC values of 0.45 to 0.63 and 0.60 to 0.74, respectively. Therefore, results demonstrated that new algorithms and data processing methods need to be continuously explored and improved to obtain accurate measurements of LW to measure changes in LW, especially from WOW scales.
Novel antihypercholesterolemic bioactive peptides (BAP) from peptic camel whey protein hydrolysates (CWPH) were generated at different time, temperature, and enzyme concentration (%). Hydrolysates showed higher pancreatic lipase- (PL; except 3 CWPH) and cholesterol esterase (CE)-inhibiting potential, as depicted by lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC50 values) compared with nonhydrolyzed camel whey proteins (CWP). Peptide sequencing and in silico data depicted that most BAP from CWPH could bind active site of PL, whereas as only 3 peptides could bind the active site of CE. Based on higher number of reactive residues in the BAP and greater number of substrate binding sites, FCCLGPVPP was identified as a potential CE-inhibitory peptide, and PAGNFLPPVAAAPVM, MLPLMLPFTMGY, and LRFPL were identified as PL inhibitors. Molecular docking of selected peptides showed hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions between peptides and target enzymes. Thus, peptides derived from CWPH warrant further investigation as potential candidates for adjunct therapy for hypercholesterolemia.
The activation of phagocytosis is one important approach to clearing pathogenic cells in a host. This study evaluated the ability of probiotic lactobacilli to induce phagocytic activity as well as the clearance of a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. First, the activation of phagocytosis was found by using lyophilized dead cells. Probiotic Lactobacillus strains significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of macrophage cells, indicating that the probiotic lactobacilli have a remarkable ability to stimulate the macrophages. Essentially, 3 Lactobacillus strains tested did not have any critical toxic effect on the murine macrophage, and Lactobacillus johnsonii NBRC 13952 showed the least cytotoxic effect on the RAW264.7 macrophages. The expression of classically activated macrophage markers, IL-1β, and cluster of differentiation 80 increased by L. johnsonii NBRC 13952; however, there was no significant difference for IL-18. The highest phagocytic activity by macrophages was found in a condition in which the macrophage activated by L. johnsonii NBRC 13952 functions to kill the cells of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Correlating with the result, a high amount of hypodiploid DNA (SubG1) was detected from the macrophage cells stimulated by L. johnsonii NBRC 13952. Taken together, the results suggest that macrophages activated by the Lactobacillus strain can facilitate the phagocytosis of A. actinomycetemcomitans cells by linking with enhanced apoptotic activities. In conclusion, L. johnsonii NBRC 13952 has a certain role in activating the RAW264.7 macrophages, thereby counteracting the infection of A. actinomycetemcomitans.
We evaluated the acute (single-dose) and subacute (repeated-dose) oral toxicity of alcalase-hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate. Our acute study revealed no death or treatment-related complications, and the median lethal dose of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate was >2,500 mg/kg. In the subacute study, when the hydrolysate was fed at 3 different concentrations (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg), no groups showed toxicity changes compared with controls. Then, whey protein concentrate hydrolysate was orally administered to spontaneously hypertensive rats. Results revealed significant reductions in blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner, and dosing at 400 mg/kg led to significant blood pressure reduction (-47.8 mm Hg) compared with controls (blood pressure maintained) and the findings of previous work (-21 mm Hg). Eight peptides-RHPEYAVSVLLR, GGAPPAGRL, GPPLPRL, ELKPTPEGDL, VLSELPEP, DAQSAPLRVY, RDMPIQAF, and LEQVLPRD-were sequentially identified and characterized. Of the peptides, VLSELPEP and LEQVLPRD showed the most prominent in vitro angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibition with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 0.049 and 0.043 mM, respectively. These findings establish strong evidence for the in vitro and in vivo potential of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate to act as a safe, natural functional food ingredient that exerts antihypertensive activity.