Displaying all 19 publications

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  1. Seow LL, Toh CG, Wilson NH
    J Dent, 2015 Jan;43(1):126-32.
    PMID: 25448436 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2014.10.001
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the recovery of cuspal stiffness and fracture resistance in endodontically treated maxillary premolars restored with bonded ceramic inlays and onlays of various designs.
    METHODS: Seventy intact premolars were selected for this study; six cavity designs were investigated: (i) mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) inlay (I), (ii) MOD inlay with palatal cusp coverage (IPC), (iii) MOD onlay (O), (iv) MOD inlay with pulp chamber extension (IPE), (v) MOD inlay with palatal cusp coverage and pulp chamber extension (IPCPE), and (vi) MOD onlay with pulp chamber extension (OPE). Intact teeth acted as control. Strain gauges were attached to the buccal and palatal surfaces of the teeth to measure cuspal stiffness under static loading. All specimens were eventually subjected to compressive load to failure. Cuspal stiffness and fracture resistance data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test.
    RESULTS: The I and IPE restorations restored cuspal stiffness to 75% of the sound tooth value. The O and OPE restored teeth had stiffness values greater than that of a sound tooth. The I, IPC, O, IPE, IPCPE and OPE restored teeth demonstrated fracture strength values of 938N±113 N (s.d.), 1073N±176 N and 1317N±219 N, 893N±129 N, 1062N±153 N and 1347N±191 N respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the all-ceramic onlay or inlay with palatal cusp coverage provided best biomechanical advantage in restoring an endodontically treated maxillary premolar tooth.
    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The onlay approach which is more conservative compared to full coverage restoration is considered an appropriate approach to the restoration of endodontically treated maxillary premolars. The addition of a pulpal extension to the all-ceramic restorations, apart from being technically challenging, was not found to offer any biomechanical advantage to the restored teeth.
    KEYWORDS: Endodontically treated teeth; Fracture strengths; Inlay; Onlay; Pulp chamber extension; Strains
  2. Masood M, Masood Y, Newton T
    J Dent, 2014 Mar;42(3):249-55.
    PMID: 24373852 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2013.12.004
    This study sought to assess the impact of posterior cross-bite on OHRQoL in young people aged 15-25 and to determine whether the impact on higher domains of Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (physical disability, psychological disability, social disability and handicap) is a direct function of the cross-bite or mediated through the lower domains of OHIP-14 (functional limitation, pain and discomfort).
  3. Saidin S, Abdul Kadir MR, Sulaiman E, Abu Kasim NH
    J Dent, 2012 Jun;40(6):467-74.
    PMID: 22366313 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.02.009
    The aim of this study was to analyse micromotion and stress distribution at the connections of implants and four types of abutments: internal hexagonal, internal octagonal, internal conical and trilobe.
  4. Wan Hassan WN, Stephenson PA, Waddington RJ, Sloan AJ
    J Dent, 2012 May;40(5):406-15.
    PMID: 22342686 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.02.002
    Root resorption is a ubiquitous although undesirable sequela to orthodontic treatment. Current methods to investigate the pathophysiology have certain limitations. In pursuit to understand and develop treatment modalities for orthodontically induced root resorption, the ability to manipulate cells within their natural extracellular matrix in a three dimensional organotypic model is invaluable. The study aimed to develop a laboratory-based organotypic model to investigate the effect of orthodontic forces on the periodontium.
  5. Alawjali SS, Lui JL
    J Dent, 2013 Aug;41 Suppl 3:e53-61.
    PMID: 23103847 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.10.008
    This study was to compare the effect of three different one-step polishing systems on the color stability of three different types of nanocomposites after immersion in coffee for one day and seven days and determine which nanocomposite material has the best color stability following polishing with each of the one-step polishing system.
  6. Fathilah AR, Himratul-Aznita WH, Fatheen AR, Suriani KR
    J Dent, 2012 Jul;40(7):609-15.
    PMID: 22521700 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.04.003
    C. tropicalis and C. krusei have emerged as virulent species causing oral infections. Both have developed resistance to commonly prescribed azole antifungal agents.
  7. Omar H, Atta O, El-Mowafy O, Khan SA
    J Dent, 2010;38 Suppl 2:e95-9.
    PMID: 20493232 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2010.05.006
    To determine the effect of thickness of porcelain veneers constructed from CAD-CAM on their final color when two resin cements were used.
  8. Boyle DK, Forsyth A, Bagg J, Stroubou K, Griffiths CE, Burke FJ
    J Dent, 2002 Jul-Aug;30(5-6):233-41.
    PMID: 12450714
    Glove wearing during patient treatment has been central to dental surgery infection control for over 15 years. However, little is known about the cutaneous effects of glove wearing on the hands of dental healthcare workers (DHCWs). The objective of this project was to assess the hand skin health of DHCWs before and after wearing gloves of two types and to compare this with a control group of non-DHCWs.
  9. Hasmun N, Vettore MV, Lawson JA, Elcock C, Zaitoun H, Rodd HD
    J Dent, 2020 07;98:103372.
    PMID: 32437856 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2020.103372
    OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical and psychosocial predictors of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children with molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) following aesthetic treatment of incisor opacities.

    METHODS: Participants were 7- to 16-year-old children referred to a UK Dental Hospital for management of incisor opacities. Prior to treatment (To), participants completed validated questionnaires to assess OHRQoL and overall health status (C-OHIP-SF19), and self-concept (Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children [SPPC]). Interventions for MIH included microabrasion, resin infiltration, tooth whitening or composite resin restoration. Children were reviewed after six months (T1) when they re-completed the C-OHIP-SF19 and SPPC questionnaires. The relationships of predictors with improvement of children's OHRQoL (T1-To) and children's overall health status at T1 were assessed using linear and ordinal logistic regression respectively, guided by the Wilson and Cleary's theoretical model.

    RESULTS: Of 103 participants, 86 were reviewed at T1 (83.5 % completion rate). Their mean age was 11-years (range = 7-16) and 60 % were female. Total and domain OHRQoL scores significantly increased (improved OHRQoL) following MIH treatment. There was a significant positive change in SPPC physical appearance subscale score between To and T1. A higher number of anterior teeth requiring aesthetic treatment were associated with poor improvement of socio-emotional wellbeing at T1 (Coef =-0.43). Higher self-concept at To was associated with greater improvement of socio-emotional wellbeing at T1 (ß = 3.44). Greater orthodontic treatment need (i.e. higher IOTN-AC score) at T0 was linked to worse overall oral health at T1 (OR = 0.43).

    CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial factors and dental clinical characteristics were associated with change in children's OHRQoL following minimal interventions for incisor opacities.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: MIH is a common condition and clinicians should be aware of the negative impacts some children experience, particularly those with multiple anterior opacities, poor tooth alignment and low self-concept. However, simple, minimally invasive treatments can provide good clinical and psychosocial outcomes and should be offered to children reporting negative effects.

  10. Roberts AD, Brackley CA
    J Dent, 1996 Sep;24(5):339-43.
    PMID: 8916648
    OBJECTIVES: A survey of general dental practitioners and dental surgery assistants was carried out to ascertain their preferences and opinions on powder-free hydrogel-coated gloves compared with starch-powdered gloves. The aim was to relate the survey findings to laboratory measurements of the frictional characteristics of glove inner surfaces and their water absorptive capability.

    METHODS: The survey was carried out using a questionnaire given to local dental practitioners. Glove friction and water absorption measurements were made using specially designed equipment.

    RESULTS: The survey showed that a selected group of dentist and dental surgery assistants preferred hydrogel-coated gloves, particularly for damp donning, durability and long-term wear comfort. Laboratory measurements showed that the hydrogel coating gave a low friction coefficient against damp skin. The coating was durable, and absorbed water more readily than other treatments.

    CONCLUSION: A survey of dental practitioners and dental surgery assistants and laboratory measurements indicates that hydrogel-coated gloves have superior properties, and are preferred to other non-sterile glove types.

  11. Sultan T, Cheah CW, Ibrahim NB, Asif MK, Vaithilingam RD
    J Dent, 2020 Oct;101:103455.
    PMID: 32828845 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2020.103455
    OBJECTIVES: This clinical study assessed and compared the linear and volumetric changes of extraction sockets grafted with a combination of Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) and Calcium Sulfate (CS) (PRF-CS), and extraction sockets grafted with a combination of PRF and xenograft (X) (PRF-X).

    METHODS: Five single maxillary premolar extraction sockets received PRF-CS grafts and five single maxillary premolar sockets received PRF-X grafts. Linear (horizontal and vertical) measurements were accomplished using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images and volumetric changes were assessed using MIMICS software. Soft tissue level changes were measured using Stonecast models. All measurements were recorded at baseline (before extraction) and at 5-months post-extraction.

    RESULTS: Significant reduction in vertical and horizontal dimensions were observed in both groups except for distal bone height (DBH = 0.44 ± 0.45 mm, p = 0.09) and palatal bone height (PBH = 0.39 ± 0.34 mm, p = 0.06) in PRF-X group. PRF-CS group demonstrated mean horizontal shrinkage of 1.27 ± 0.82 mm (p = 0.02), when compared with PRF-X group (1.40 ± 0.85 mm, p = 0.02). Vertical resorption for mesial bone height (MBH = 0.56 ± 0.25 mm, p = 0.008), buccal bone height (BBH = 1.62 ± 0.91 mm, p = 0.01) and palatal bone height (PBH = 1.39 ± 0.87 mm, p = 0.02) in PRF-CS group was more than resorption in PRF-X group (MBH = 0.28 ± 0.14 mm, p = 0.01, BBH = 0.63 ± 0.39 mm, p = 0.02 and PBH = 0.39 ± 0.34 mm, p = 0.06). Volumetric bone resorption was significant within both groups (PRF-CS = 168.33 ± 63.68 mm3, p = 0.004; PRF-X = 102.88 ± 32.93 mm3, p = 0.002), though not significant (p = 0.08) when compared between groups. In PRF-X group, the distal soft tissue level (DSH = 1.00 ± 0.50 mm, p = 0.03) demonstrated almost 2 times more reduction when compared with PRF-CS group (DSH = 1.00 ± 1.00 mm, 0.08). The reduction of the buccal soft tissue level was pronounced in PRF-CS group (BSH = 2.00 ± 2.00 mm, p = 0.06) when compared with PRF-X group (BSH = 1.00 ± 1.50 mm, p = 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: PRF-CS grafted sites showed no significant difference with PRF-X grafted sites in linear and volumetric dimensional changes and might show clinical benefits for socket augmentation. The study is officially registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Registration (NCT03851289).

  12. Sidhu P, Sultan OS, Math SY, Malik NA, Wilson NHF, Lynch CD, et al.
    J Dent, 2021 07;110:103683.
    PMID: 33957189 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2021.103683
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current and future teaching of posterior composite restorations in undergraduate curricula in Malaysian dental schools.

    METHODS: A 24-item validated questionnaire including closed and open questions on the teaching of posterior composites was emailed to faculty members in all 13 Dental Schools in Malaysia. Responses were compiled on Excel and analysed.

    RESULTS: All 13 dental schools responded to the survey yielding a 100 % response. All schools indicated the use of posterior composites for 2- and 3-surface cavities in premolars and molars. The didactic teaching time devoted to composites was greater than for amalgam (38 h vs 29 h). Clinically, most posterior restorations placed by students were composites (average 74.1 %, range 10 %-100 %); the remaining 25.9 % were amalgams (range, 0 %-50 %). Slot-type cavities were the preparation techniques most commonly taught (n = 11,84.6 %). The use of rubber dam for moisture control was mandatory in most schools (n = 11, 84.6 %). History of adverse reaction to composites was found to be the most common contraindication to composite placement. The phase down of teaching and use of amalgam in Malaysia is expected to occur within the next six years.

    CONCLUSION: The trend to increase the teaching of posterior composites reported for other countries is confirmed by the findings from Malaysian dental schools. Notwithstanding this trend, the use of amalgam is still taught, and future studies are required to investigate the implications of the phase down of amalgam in favour of posterior composites.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Notwithstanding the increase in the teaching of posterior composites there is a pressing need to update and refine clinical guidelines for the teaching of posterior composites globally.

  13. Elshereksi NW, Ghazali MJ, Muchtar A, Azhari CH
    J Dent, 2017 Jan;56:121-132.
    PMID: 27916635 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2016.11.012
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to fabricate and characterise silanated and titanated nanobarium titanate (NBT) filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture base composites and to evaluate the behaviour of a titanate coupling agent (TCA) as an alternative coupling agent to silane. The effect of filler surface modification on fracture toughness was also studied.

    METHODS: Silanated, titanated and pure NBT at 5% were incorporated in PMMA matrix. Neat PMMA matrix served as a control. NBT was sonicated in MMA prior to mixing with the PMMA. Curing was carried out using a water bath at 75°C for 1.5h and then at 100°C for 30min. NBT was characterised via Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis before and after surface modification. The porosity and fracture toughness of the PMMA nanocomposites (n=6, for each formulation and test) were also evaluated.

    RESULTS: NBT was successfully functionalised by the coupling agents. The TCA exhibited the lowest percentage of porosity (0.09%), whereas silane revealed 0.53% porosity. Statistically significant differences in fracture toughness were observed among the fracture toughness values of the tested samples (p<0.05). While the fracture toughness of untreated samples was reduced by 8%, an enhancement of 25% was achieved after titanation. In addition, the fracture toughness of the titanated samples was higher than the silanated ones by 10%.

    CONCLUSION: Formation of a monolayer on the surface of TCA enhanced the NBT dispersion, however agglomeration of silanated NBT was observed due to insufficient coverage of NBT surface. Such behaviour led to reducing the porosity level and improving fracture toughness of titanated NBT/PMMA composites. Thus, TCA seemed to be more effective than silane.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Minimising the porosity level could have the potential to reduce fungus growth on denture base resin to be hygienically accepTable Such enhancements obtained with Ti-NBT could lead to promotion of the composites' longevity.

  14. Stamm TA, Omara M, Bakerc SR, Foster Page L, Thomson WM, Benson PE, et al.
    J Dent, 2020 02;93:103267.
    PMID: 31866414 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2019.103267
    OBJECTIVE: To be fit-for-purpose, oral health-related quality of life instruments must possess a range of psychometric properties which had not been fully examined in the 16-item Short Form Child Perceptions Questionnaire for children aged 11 to 14 years (CPQ11-14 ISF-16). We used advanced statistical approaches to determine the CPQ's measurement accuracy, precision, invariance and dimensionality and analyzed whether age range could be extended from 8 to 15 years.

    METHODS: Fit to the Rasch model was examined in 6648 8-to-15-year-olds from Australia, New Zealand, Brunei, Cambodia, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand, Germany, United Kingdom, Brazil and Mexico.

    RESULTS: In all but two items, the initial five answer options were reduced to three or four, to increase precision of the children's selection. Items 10 (Shy/embarrassed) and 11 (Concerned what others think) showed an 'extra' dependency between item scores beyond the relationship related to the underlying latent construct represented by the instrument, and so were deleted. Without these two items, the CPQ was unidimensional. The three oral symptoms items (4 Food stuck in teeth, 3 Bad breath and 1 Pain) were required for a sufficient person-item coverage. In three out of 14 items (21 %), Europe and South America showed regional differences in the patterns of how the answer options were selected. No differential item functioning was detected for age.

    CONCLUSION: Except for a few modifications, the present analysis supports the combination of items, the cross-cultural validity of the CPQ with 14 items and the extension of the age range from 8 to 15 years.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The valid, reliable, shortened and age-extended version of the CPQ resulting from this study should be used in routine care and clinical research. Less items and a wider age range increase its usability. Symptoms items are needed to precisely differentiate between children with higher and lower quality of life.

  15. Lam WYH, Tse AKL, Tew IM, Man WHC, Botelho MG, Pow EHN
    J Dent, 2020 06;97:103343.
    PMID: 32339601 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2020.103343
    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to examine the tooth wear status of nasopharyngeal-carcinoma (NPC) patients who had received radiotherapy at least 5-year previously, and to investigate the salivary parameters that may be associated with the tooth wear.

    METHODS: Tooth wear status of NPC survivors were clinically assessed using the Exact Tooth Wear Index. A tooth was graded to have severe wear when more than one-third of its buccal/occlusal/lingual surface had dentine loss. At the subject-level, percentages of anterior/posterior/all teeth with severe wear were calculated. Age, number of teeth, flow-rate/buffering capacity/pH of stimulated whole (SWS) and parotid (SPS) saliva's were collected. Correlation and multiple-linear regression tests were performed at the significance level α = 0.05.

    RESULT: Sixty-eight participants (mean age of 60.0 ± 8.9), 697 anterior and 686 posterior teeth were examined with a mean of 10-years post-radiotherapy. Severe tooth wear was found in 63 (92.6 percent) participants, 288 anterior and 83 posterior teeth. The mean percentage of anterior/posterior/all teeth with severe wear were 42.3 ± 28.1, 14.5 ± 19.9 and 30.0 ± 21.7. Anterior teeth, particularly the incisal surface of central incisors were most affected. The mean flow-rate of SWS and SPS were 0.1 ± 0.1 ml/min and 0.03 ± 0.07 ml/min respectively. Thirty (44.1 percent) and 48 (70.6 percent) participants were found to have low/no buffering capacity of SWS and SPS respectively. Multiple-regression analyses revealed the SWS flow-rate was associated with the percentage of anterior teeth with severe wear (p=0.03).

    CONCLUSION: Anterior tooth wear is a significant dental problem among NPC survivors and was associated with hypo-salivation.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Patients with hypo-salivation should be being monitored for tooth wear particularly on the anterior teeth.

  16. Choong EKM, Shu X, Leung KCM, Lo ECM
    J Dent, 2022 Dec;127:104351.
    PMID: 36280004 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2022.104351
    OBJECTIVES: To summarise evidence on the change in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) before and after rehabilitation with removable partial dentures (RPDs) amongst partially edentulous adults.

    DATA: Studies assessing OHRQoL amongst patients aged ≥18 years, before and after rehabilitation with RPDs of any type and design, were included. The quality of included studies was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tools. Meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effect model.

    SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL, up to March 29, 2022.

    STUDY SELECTION AND RESULTS: Thirteen studies were eligible and eight were included in the meta-analysis. The studies had moderate to serious risk of bias. There was a very low level of certainty that OHRQoL, as measured using OHIP-14, improved 3 months after RPDs were fitted (222 participants, MD: -12.0, 95% CI: -16.1, -7.9, p<0.001) and after 6 months (101 participants, MD: -10.5, 95% CI: -16.4, -4.6, p<0.001). At 12 months post-treatment, RPD rehabilitation did not result in statistically significant improvement in OHIP-14 scores (62 participants, MD: -12.7, 95% CI: -26.1, 0.6, p = 0.06). However, the assessment using OHIP-49 at 12 months showed significant improvement (87 participants, MD: -34.8, 95% CI: -41.9, -27.7, p<0.001), with low certainty of evidence.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on the limited evidence available, this review found that RPD rehabilitation appear to improve OHRQoL in the short term up to 6 months, with a very low level of certainty. The long-term effect of RPD treatment on OHRQoL after 12 months is inconclusive. There is currently insufficient evidence on the effect of RPD treatment on OHRQoL. This review highlights the need for more and better quality studies.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Data on RPD outcomes are summarised, aiding clinicians in providing evidence-based patient-centred care that matches patients' needs and expectations. Recommendations for future research were also highlighted.

    REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022328606.

  17. Masood M, Newton T, Bakri NN, Khalid T, Masood Y
    J Dent, 2017 Jan;56:78-83.
    PMID: 27825838 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2016.11.002
    OBJECTIVES: To identify the determinants of OHRQoL among older people in the United Kingdom.

    METHODS: A subset of elderly (≥65year) participants from the UK Adult Dental Health Survey 2009 data was used. OHRQoL was assessed by means of the OHIP-14 additive score. The number of missing teeth; presence of active caries, dental pain, root caries, tooth wear, periodontal pockets>4mm, loss of attachment>9mm; having PUFA>0 (presence of severely decayed teeth with visible pulpal involvement, ulceration caused by dislocated tooth fragments, fistula and abscess); and wearing a denture were used as predictor variables. Age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation and presence of any long standing illness were used as control variables. Multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression analysis was performed using R-project statistical software.

    RESULTS: A total of 1277 elderly participants were included. The weighted mean(SE) OHIP-14 score of these participants was 2.95 (0.17). Having active caries (IRR=1.37, CI=1.25;1.50), PUFA>0 (IRR=1.17, CI=1.05;1.31), dental pain (IRR=1.34, CI=1.20;1.50), and wearing dentures (IRR=1.30, CI=1.17;1.44), were significantly positively associated with OHIP-14 score. Having periodontal pockets>4mm, at least one bleeding site, and anterior tooth wear were not significantly associated with the OHIP-14 score.

    CONCLUSION: Whereas previous research has suggested a moderate relationship between oral disease and quality of life in this large scale survey of older adults, the presence of active caries and the presence of one or more of the PUFA indicators are associated with impaired oral health related quality of life in older adults, but not indicators of periodontal status. The implication of this is that whilst focussing on prevention of disease, there is an ongoing need for oral health screening and treatment in this group.

  18. Zain E, Zakian CM, Chew HP
    J Dent, 2018 04;71:31-37.
    PMID: 29378225 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2018.01.009
    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting naturally occurring non-cavitated fissure caries (NCFC) in totality and at different loci by visually assessing cross-sectional OCT scans (B-scan) with an interpretation criterion. The secondary objective was to evaluate the agreement between dimensions of NCFC measured with OCT and polarized light microscopy (PLM).

    METHODS: 71 investigation sites of sound fissure and naturally occurring NCFC on human extracted premolars were identified and scanned with a swept-source OCT. The teeth were then sectioned bucco-lingually at the investigation sites and imaged using PLM. Two calibrated examiners trained on the B-scan NCFC visual interpretation criteria established for this study, assessed the investigation sites and results were validated against PLM.

    RESULTS: Detection sensitivity of B-scan for NCFC when fissures were assessed in totality, or on the slopes or walls separately are 0.98, 0.95, 0.94 and specificity are 0.95, 0.90, and 0.95. One-way ANOVA showed that width measurements of wall loci done with OCT and PLM were not statistically different. However, OCT height measurements of slope loci were statistically bigger with a constant bias of 0.08 mm (of which is not clinically significant) and OCT height measurements of wall loci were statistically smaller (0.57 mm) and Bland-Altman plots indicated presence of proportionate bias.

    CONCLUSION: Visual assessment of B-scans with the interpretation criteria resulted in both high specificity and sensitivity and were not affected by loci location. OCT width measurement of wall loci is in agreement with PLM.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Unanimous high sensitivity in this and previous studies indicate that visual assessment of B-scans reliably rule out NCFC. Detection accuracy was not affected by loci location. Width of wall loci and/or height of slope loci in OCT B-scan are to be used for monitoring NCFC but not height of wall loci.

  19. COVIDental Collaboration Group
    J Dent, 2021 Nov;114:103749.
    PMID: 34280498 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2021.103749
    OBJECTIVES: A multicentre survey was designed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on dental practice worldwide, estimate the COVID-19 related symptoms/signs, work attitudes and behaviour and the routine use of protective measures and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).

    METHODS: A global survey using a standardized questionnaire with research groups from 36 countries was designed. The questionnaire was developed and pretested during April 2020 and contained three domains: 1) Personal data; 2) COVID-19 positive rate and symptoms/signs presumably related to the coronavirus; 3) Working conditions and PPE adopted after the outbreak. Countries' data were grouped by the Country Positive Rate (CPR) during the survey period and by Gross-National-Income per capita. An ordinal multinomial logistic regression model was carried out with COVID-19 self-reported rate referred by dental professionals as dependent variable to assess the association with questionnaire items.

    RESULTS: A total of 52,491 questionnaires were returned with a male/female ratio of 0.63. Out of the total respondents, 7,859 dental professionals (15%) reported symptoms/signs compatible with COVID-19. More than half of the sample (n = 27,818; 53%) stated to use FFP2/N95 masks, while 21,558 (41.07%) used eye protection. In the bivariate analysis, CPR and N95/FFP2 were significantly associated (OR = 1.80 95%CI = 1.60/2.82 and OR = 5.20 95%CI = 1.44/18.80, respectively), while Gross-National-Income was not statistically associated with CPR (OR = 1.09 95%CI = 0.97/1.60). The same significant associations were observed in the multivariate analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Oral health service provision has not been significantly affected by COVID-19, although access to routine dental care was reduced due to country-specific temporary lockdown periods. While the dental profession has been identified at high-risk, the reported rates of COVID-19 for dental professionals were not significantly different to those reported for the general population in each country. These findings may help to better plan oral health care for future pandemic events.

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