METHODS: A total of 164 T2DM and 165 controls were recruited and their genotypes for ABCA1 gene polymorphisms were determined based on the real time high resolution melting analysis.
RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the subjects in terms of age, BMI, FPG, HbA1c, HDL, LDL, and TG (P < 0.05). There was a significant association between HOM of R219K (P = 0.005), among Malaysian subjects; moreover, allele frequency revealed the significant difference in A allele of R219K (P = 0.003). But, there was no significant difference in genotypic and allelic frequencies of C69T and R230C polymorphism.
CONCLUSION: R219K polymorphism of ABCA1 gene can be considered as a genetic risk factor for T2DM subjects among Malaysians.
Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to assess the effect of health-related and psychosocial correlates on HRQOL of IDDM patients in Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited from five governmental diabetic clinics. Patients with insulin use only, IDDM diagnosed at least 1 year earlier, were identified from clinical registers. The sample was then age stratified for 20-64 years, and severe complications (e.g., end-stage renal failure, hemodialysis, and liver cirrhosis) were excluded; a total of 1003 participants were enrolled in the study. Multivariate regression analysis was used to predict the response.
Results: A total of 853 (100%) participants were enrolled and completed the study. Women exhibited significantly higher/better mental health (p < 0.013) and health perception scores (p < 0.001) despite high prevalence of impaired role (49.2%), social (24.2%), and physical (40.5%) functionings as compared to men. Women with longer diabetes exposure and uncontrolled glycemic levels (HbA1c) have poorer HRQOL. Availability of social support showed no significant association with either HRQOL or diabetes distress levels. Diabetes distress levels remained not associated with social support. Women also showed significantly higher association with health perception (15% versus 13% men, p < 0.001) and mental health (13% versus 11% men, p < 0.001) in diabetes-specific psychosocial factors. Thus, among women alone, diabetes-related specific and psychosocial factors explained 15% and 13% of variations in HRQOL extents, respectively.
Conclusion: Women exhibit extensive and significant patterns with health-related factors and diabetes-specific psychosocial factors (self-efficacy, social support, and DLC) to improve HRQOL. Also, women have significantly high reported distress levels and low social functioning compared to men.
Methods: A total of 25,130 newly diagnosed T2D subjects were included in this study. All T2D subjects were enrolled consecutively from the Chronic Disease Surveillance System (CDSS) of Ningbo. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) stratified by BMI categories and height quartiles were used to estimate the incident risk of IS in T2D subjects.
Results: In total, 22,795 subjects completed the follow-up. Among them, 1268 newly diagnosed IS cases were identified, with 149,675 person-years. The SIRs of normal BMI (18.5-24.0 kg/m2), overweight (24.0-28.0 kg/m2), and obese (≥28.0 kg/m2) in overall subjects were 2.56 (95% CI 1.90-3.13), 2.13 (95% CI 1.90-3.13), and 1.87 (95% CI 1.29-2.43), respectively (Ptrend < 0.01), comparing to the general population of Ningbo. For each 1 kg/m2 increment in BMI, the SIR was 0.948 (95% CI 0.903-0.999). For height quartiles, the SIRs of male subjects in quartile 1 (<160 cm), quartile 2 (161-165 cm), quartile 3 (165-170 cm), and quartile 4 (≥171 cm) were 2.27 (95% CI 1.99-2.56), 2.01 (95% CI 1.67-2.45), 1.37 (95% CI 1.05-1.68), and 0.91 (95% CI 0.40-1.32), respectively (Ptrend < 0.01). While for female subjects, the SIRs in quartile 1 (<155 cm), quartile 2 (156-160 cm), quartile 3 (161-165 cm), and quartile 4 (≥166 cm) were 3.57 (95% CI 3.11-3.49), 2.96 (95% CI 2.61-3.31), 1.94 (95% CI 1.51-2.36), and 1.71 (95% CI 0.95-2.47), respectively (Ptrend < 0.01).
Conclusion: Compared to the general population of Ningbo, T2D subjects had a higher incident risk of IS. Furthermore, the IS incident risk was not only higher in newly diagnosed T2D subjects with normal BMI but also lower in taller newly diagnosed T2D subjects.
Methods: 53 women with GDM (30 managed with diet only (GDM-diet) and 23 treated with insulin (GDM-insulin)) and 43 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGDM) were studied, with GIP and GLP-1 levels measured at 24-28 weeks (E1), prior (E2) and after (E3) delivery, and postpuerperium (E4).
Results: Basal GIP was shown to be low in GDM groups compared to NGDM in E1, and in E4 for GDM-diet. GLP-1 was low in GDM groups during pregnancy and afterwards. At E1, serum GIP and GLP-1 were inversely associated with GDM and participants with lower levels of GIP (<0.23 ng/mL) and GLP-1 (<0.38 ng/mL) had a 6 (95% CI 2.5-14.5)- and 7.6 (95% CI 3.0-19.1)-fold higher risk of developing GDM compared with the higher level, respectively. In the postpuerperium, when there is a drop in β-cell function, participants with previous GDM (pGDM) presented lower GLP-1 (in both GDM subgroups) and lower GIP in GDM-diet subgroup compared to controls.
Conclusion: There is an independent, inverse association between fasting incretins and higher risk of GDM. Furthermore, lowered levels of these peptides may play an important role in the abnormality of glucose regulation following pregnancy.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) using outpatient population diabetic patients. Demographic data on social and clinical characteristics were collected from participants. Several questionnaires were administered, including the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) to measure depressive symptoms, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) to assess anxiety symptoms, the Big Five Inventory (BFI) to evaluate personality traits, and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) to assess QOL. Multivariate binary logistic regression was performed to determine the predictors of poor glycaemic control.
Results: 300 patients with diabetes mellitus were recruited, with the majority (90%) having type 2 diabetes. In this population, the prevalence of poor glycaemic control (HbA1C ≥ 7.0%) was 69%, with a median HbA1C of 7.6% (IQR = 2.7). Longer duration of diabetes mellitus and a greater number of days of missed medications predicted poor glycaemic control, while older age and overall self-perception of QOL protected against poor glycaemic control. No psychological factors were associated with poor glycaemic control.
Conclusion: This study emphasizes the importance of considering the various factors that contribute to poor glycaemic control, such as duration of diabetes, medication adherence, age, and QOL. These findings should be used by clinicians, particularly when planning a multidisciplinary approach to the management of diabetes.
Method: The data of 4622 patients with T2DM who had a history of stroke was obtained from the Malaysian National Stroke Registry. Univariate analysis was performed to differentiate between genders with and without stroke recurrence in terms of demographics, first stroke attack presentations, and other clinical characteristics. The significant factors determined from the univariate analysis were further investigated using logistic regression.
Results: Ischemic heart diseases were found significantly associated with the stroke recurrence in males (OR = 1.738; 95% CI: 1.071-2.818) as well as female (OR = 5.859; 95% CI: 2.469-13.752) diabetic patients. The duration of hypertension, as well as the duration of diabetes, has been associated with the recurrence in both male and female subjects (p value < 0.05). Smoking status has an impact on the stroke recurrence in male subjects, while no significant association was observed among their peers.
Conclusions: Most of the predictive factors contributing to the recurrence of stroke in type 2 diabetic Malaysian population with a history of stroke are modifiable, in which IHD was the most prominent risk factor in both genders. The impact of optimizing the management of IHD as well as blood glucose control on stroke recurrence may need to be elucidated. No major differences in recurrent stroke predictors were seen between genders among the Malaysian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had a previous history of stroke.