Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 80 in total

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  1. Isayama H, Nakai Y, Rerknimitr R, Khor C, Lau J, Wang HP, et al.
    PMID: 27044023 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.13394
    Walled-off necrosis (WON) is a relatively new term for encapsulated necrotic tissue after severe acute pancreatitis. Various terminologies such as pseudocyst, necroma, pancreatic abscess and infected necrosis were previously used in the literature, resulting in confusion. The current and past terminologies must be reconciled to meaningfully interpret past data. Recently, endoscopic necrosectomy was introduced as a treatment option and is now preferred over surgical necrosectomy when the expertise is available. However, high-quality evidence is still lacking, and there is no standard management strategy for WON. The consensus meeting aimed to clarify the diagnostic criteria for WON and the role of endoscopic interventions in its management. In the Consensus Conference, 25 experts from 8 Asian countries took an active role and examined key clinical aspects of WON diagnosis and endoscopic management. Statements were crafted based on literature review and expert opinion, employing the modified Delphi method. All statements were substantiated by the level of evidence and the strength of the recommendation. We created 27 consensus statements for WON diagnosis and management, including details of endoscopic procedures. When there was not enough solid evidence to support the statements, this was clearly acknowledged to facilitate future research. Proposed management strategies were formulated and are illustrated using flow charts. These recommendations, which are based on the best current scientific evidence and expert opinion, will be useful for guiding endoscopic management of WON. Part 1 of this statement focused on the epidemiology, diagnosis and timing of intervention.
  2. Koh JC, Loo WM, Goh KL, Sugano K, Chan WK, Chiu WY, et al.
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2016 Aug;31(8):1405-13.
    PMID: 27010240 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.13385
    The incidence of obesity is increasing in Asia, with implications on gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases. The Gut and Obesity in Asia Workgroup comprises regional experts with the aim of studying relationship between obesity and the GI and liver diseases in Asia. Through literature review and the modified Delphi process, consensus statements examining the impact of obesity on esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colorectal, and liver diseases, exploring relationship between gut microbiome and obesity, and assessing obesity therapies have been produced by the Gut and Obesity in Asia Workgroup. Sixteen experts participated with 9/15 statements having strong consensus (>80% agreement). The prevalence of obesity in Asia is increasing (100% percentage agreement in brackets), and this increased prevalence of obesity will result in a greater burden of obesity-related GI and liver diseases (93.8%). There was consensus that obesity increases the risk of gastric cancer (75%) and colorectal neoplasia (87.5%). Obesity was also associated with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma (66.7%) and pancreatic cancer (66.7%) in Asia. The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Asia is on the rise (100%), and the risk of NAFLD in Asia (100%) is increased by obesity. Obesity is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (93.8%). Regarding therapy, it was agreed that bariatric surgery was an effective treatment modality for obesity (93.8%) but there was less agreement on its benefit for NAFLD (62.5%). These experts' consensus on obesity and GI diseases in Asia forms the basis for further research, and its translation into addressing this emerging issue.
  3. Isayama H, Nakai Y, Rerknimitr R, Khor C, Lau J, Wang HP, et al.
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2016 Sep;31(9):1555-65.
    PMID: 27042957 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.13398
    Walled-off necrosis (WON) is a new term for encapsulated necrotic tissue after severe acute pancreatitis. Various terminologies such as pseudocyst, necroma, pancreatic abscess, and infected necrosis were previously used in the literature, resulting in confusion. The current and past terminologies must be reconciled to meaningfully interpret past data. Recently, endoscopic necrosectomy was introduced as a treatment option and is now preferred over surgical necrosectomy when the expertise is available. However, high-quality evidence is still lacking, and there is no standard management strategy for WON. The consensus meeting aimed to clarify the diagnostic criteria for WON and the role of endoscopic interventions in its management. In the Consensus Conference, 27 experts from eight Asian countries took an active role and examined key clinical aspects of WON diagnosis and endoscopic management. Statements were crafted based on literature review and expert opinion, employing the modified Delphi method. All statements were substantiated by the level of evidence and the strength of the recommendation. We created 27 consensus statements for WON diagnosis and management, including details of endoscopic procedures. When there was not enough solid evidence to support the statements, this was clearly acknowledged to facilitate future research. Proposed management strategies were formulated and are illustrated using flow charts. These recommendations, which are based on the best current scientific evidence and expert opinion, will be useful for guiding endoscopic management of WON. Part 2 of this statement focused on the endoscopic management of WON.
  4. Al Batran R, Al-Bayaty F, Abdulla MA, Al-Obaidi MM, Hajrezaei M, Hassandarvish P, et al.
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2013 Aug;28(8):1321-9.
    PMID: 23611708 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.12229
    Corchorus olitorius is a medicinal plant traditionally utilized as an antifertility, anti-convulsive, and purgative agent. This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of C. olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in adult Sprague Dawley rats.
  5. Zain SM, Mohamed Z, Mahadeva S, Cheah PL, Rampal S, Chin KF, et al.
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2013 May;28(5):873-9.
    PMID: 23278404 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.12104
    Genetic polymorphism has been implicated as a factor for the occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study attempted to assess whether polymorphisms in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene and its combined effect with patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3/adiponutrin) are associated with risk of NAFLD.
  6. Chan WK, Tan AT, Vethakkan SR, Tah PC, Vijayananthan A, Goh KL
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2013 Aug;28(8):1375-83.
    PMID: 23517307 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.12204
    BACKGROUND AND AIM:
    There is currently no published study comparing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated factors among diabetics of different ethnicity in the Asia-Pacific region.

    METHODS:
    Cross-sectional study of consecutive patients in the Diabetic Clinic in University of Malaya Medical Centre. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire were used to assess physical activity and dietary intake, respectively. Diagnosis of NAFLD was ultrasound-based and following exclusion of significant alcohol intake.

    RESULTS:
    Data for 399 patients were analyzed (mean age 62.3 ± 10.5 years, 43.1% men). The racial distribution was Chinese 43.6%, Indian 33.1%, Malay 22.3%, and others 1.0%. The prevalence of NAFLD was 49.6%. On univariate analysis, factors associated with NAFLD were age < 65 years, race, obesity, central obesity, glycated hemoglobin ≥ 7.0%, and elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. Patients with low physical activity were more likely to have NAFLD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-2.63, P = 0.020). The prevalence of NAFLD was highest among Malays (60.7%), followed by Indians (51.5%), and lowest among Chinese (42.0%) consistent with higher prevalence of central obesity and higher percentage calorie intake from fat in the former groups of patients. On multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with NAFLD were central obesity (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.29-3.75, P = 0.004) and elevated serum ALT level (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.21-3.25, P = 0.007).

    CONCLUSIONS:
    NAFLD was seen in half of a cohort of diabetic patients and was independently associated with central obesity and elevated serum ALT level. Prevalence of NAFLD was different and paralleled the difference in prevalence of central obesity and in percentage calorie intake from fat among the different ethnic groups.

    © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

    KEYWORDS:
    diabetes mellitus; dietary intake; epidemiology; ethnicity; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; physical activity
    Study site: Diabetic clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
  7. Mazlyn MM, Nagarajah LH, Fatimah A, Norimah AK, Goh KL
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2013 Jul;28(7):1141-7.
    PMID: 23432408 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.12168
    Evidence suggests that probiotics reduce certain constipation-related symptoms. Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota has never been tested as treatment for functional constipation in otherwise-healthy subjects. To evaluate the efficacy of this probiotic among adults with functional constipation was aimed.
  8. Lee YY, Waid A, Tan HJ, Chua SB, Whitehead WE
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2012 Apr;27(4):746-50.
    PMID: 22004172 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2011.06943.x
    The Malay language is widely used within the "Malay Archipelago" particularly in Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore and Brunei with a combined population of 300 million. There are no reliable data on the epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in the Malay speaking population because the Rome Diagnostic Questionnaire has not been translated and validated for the Malay language. The current study aimed to translate and validate the Rome III IBS Diagnostic Questionnaire, Red Flag and Psychosocial Alarm questionnaires into the Malay language.
  9. Mahadeva S, Goh KL
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2011 Apr;26 Suppl 3:49-52.
    PMID: 21443710 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2011.06656.x
    OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND:
    The role of psychological disturbance in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia is uncertain. We aimed to examine for differences in anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between adults with organic (OD) and functional dyspepsia (FD).

    METHODOLOGY:
    A prospective, cross-sectional study of Malaysian adults undergoing oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (OGDS) for the primary indication of dyspepsia was conducted. Prior to OGDS, locally translated and validated versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI) and Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ) were administered.

    RESULTS:
    839 patients (mean age 49.6 ± 15.8 years, 55.7% female, ethnic division: Malays 30.5% , Chinese 38.4%, Indians 29.4%) were studied between June 2008 and March 2009. 472 (56.3%) and 367 (43.7%) patients had FD and OD respectively. There was no difference in the mean LDQ score between FD and OD patients (18.6 vs 18.1, P = 0.4). Moderate/severe anxiety was more prevalent in FD compared to OD patients (28.5% vs 23.1%, P = 0.05) but there was no significant difference in depression. Summary scores for the NDI revealed a lower mean value in FD patients compared to OD patients (68.6 ± 19.5 vs 71.4 ± 19.6, P = 0.04).

    CONCLUSION:
    Patients with FD have a lower HRQOL compared to those with OD, but this could not be attributed to differences in anxiety nor depression between both groups.
  10. Goh KL
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2011 Apr;26 Suppl 3:35-8.
    PMID: 21443706 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2011.06648.x
    Dyspepsia is perhaps the most common gastrointestinal disease universally. The prevalence of dyspepsia ranges from 7-40% in population based studies worldwide. These figures vary with definition of dyspepsia used and also with the survey methodology. As with Western studies, functional dyspepsia (FD) predominates in Asia. With a decline in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, the proportion of FD is set to increase further. Studies have shown FD to account for 50-70% of cases of uninvestigated dyspepsia. In Malaysia dyspepsia has been reported in up to 15% of a rural and 25% of an urban population. No racial differences were seen in the rural survey. In the urban survey, Malays and Indians were found to have significantly more dyspepsia than Chinese. No clear explanation can be found for these racial differences. In clinical practice, Malays seem to complain a lot of wind and bloating in the "stomach." This is interesting to note when you compare it with the prevalence of H. pylori which is distinctly less common amongst Malays compared to the Indians and Chinese. As with many Asian populations, many Malaysians do not consult for complains of dyspepsia. Many will self medicate and others may even bear with their complains. This is probably true in the rural population. Traditional medications are often used and these are often ethnic based. Different types of lotions for example are used for massaging the putative area in the abdomen by Malay, Chinese and Indian patients. Moxibustion and acupuncture is still practiced by Chinese traditional physicians for treatment of dyspepsia. The notion that mood disorders may underlies dyspepsia is still poorly accepted by a less educated or rural population who consider a psychiatric consultation a taboo. Amongst urban dwellers where Westernized medical care is readily available and the awareness of potential serious disease like cancer is higher, consultation for dyspepsia is certainly higher. Indeed a higher education level has been identified as independent risk factors for dyspepsia in both an urban and rural population survey in Malaysia. With greater consultation for dyspepsia, there has also been a higher demand and utilization of endoscopy services for investigation of gastrointestinal diseases in the country.
  11. Goh KL
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2011 Jan;26 Suppl 1:2-10.
    PMID: 21199509 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2010.06534.x
    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), previously uncommon in Asia, has now become an important disease in the region. Although much variability exists between studies, most endoscopy-based studies show a prevalence of erosive esophagitis of more than 10%. Symptom-based studies also show a prevalence of 6-10%. Two longitudinal follow-up studies on GERD symptoms have shown an increase with time, and several endoscopy-based time trend studies have also shown a significant increase in erosive reflux esophagitis. Studies on Barrett's esophagus have been confounded by the description of short (SSBE) and long segment (LSBE) Barrett's esophagus. Great variation in prevalence rates has been reported. SSBE vary from 0.1% to more than 20% while LSBE vary from 1-2%. Of the putative causative factors, obesity has been the most important. Many studies have linked GERD-esophagitis as well as occurrence of reflux symptoms with an increase in body mass index (BMI), obesity, especially visceral or central obesity, and metabolic syndrome. A decline in Helicobacter pylori infection with growing affluence in Asia has been broadly thought to result in healthier stomachs and a higher gastric acid output resulting in reflux disease. However, variable results have been obtained from association and H. pylori eradication studies.
  12. Qua CS, Goh KL
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2011 Aug;26(8):1333-7.
    PMID: 21443669 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2011.06732.x
    To determine the etiology of liver cirrhosis and risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a multiracial Asian population.
  13. Schmidt HM, Ha DM, Taylor EF, Kovach Z, Goh KL, Fock KM, et al.
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2011 Dec;26(12):1725-32.
    PMID: 21649724 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2011.06799.x
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The contribution of human genetic polymorphisms to Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer (GC) development remains unclear due to geographic variation in the association between specific host genetic polymorphisms and GC. In the current study we investigated the association between polymorphisms related to immune and cancer-related pathways and H. pylori infection among the major ethnicities, Chinese, Malay and Indian, resident in Singapore and Malaysia as well as the association between these polymorphisms and GC development in ethnic Chinese patients.

    METHODS: Thirty-four polymorphisms in 26 genes were typed by mass spectrometry in 422 patients undergoing endoscopy (162 Chinese, 113 Indian and 87 Malay controls and 60 Chinese GC cases). Patients were assessed for evidence of H. pylori infection. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using logistic regression models.

    RESULT: The prevalence of 16 polymorphisms varied significantly among the ethnicities. In the Chinese subgroup, nominally significant associations were shown between (i) EBBR2+1963G (rs1801200) and H. pylori infection (per-allele OR: 0.48, 95% CI 0.23, 0.98, P = 0.04), (ii) PTGS2-1195G (rs689466) and an increased risk of GC on adjusting for H. pylori status (OR: 1.53, 95% CI 0.99, 2.37, P = 0.05), and (iii) IL1B-1473C (rs1143623) and a decreased risk of GC (OR: 0.64, 95% CI 0.41, 0.99, P = 0.05). Borderline significant associations were seen between IL2-330G (rs2069762) (OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.95, 2.15, P = 0.06) and IL13-1111T (rs1800925) (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.42, 1.01, P = 0.06) and H. pylori infection.

    CONCLUSION: These findings contribute to the understanding of the genetic variation between ethnicities, which may influence H. pylori susceptibility and the outcome of infection.

  14. Mahadeva S, Chan WK, Mohazmi M, Sujarita R, Goh KL
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2011 Nov;26(11):1669-76.
    PMID: 21649731 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2011.06806.x
    BACKGROUND AND AIM:
    Outcome measures for clinical trials in dyspepsia require an assessment of symptom response. There is a lack of validated instruments assessing dyspepsia symptoms in the Asian region. We aimed to translate and validate the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ) in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    METHODS:
    A Malay and culturally adapted English version of the LDQ were developed according to established protocols. Psychometric evaluation was performed by assessing the validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instruments in both primary and secondary care patients.

    RESULTS:
    Between April and September 2010, both Malay (n=166) and Malaysian English (n=154) versions were assessed in primary and secondary care patients. Both language versions were found to be reliable (internal consistency was 0.80 and 0.74 (Cronbach's α) for Malay and English, respectively; spearman's correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.98 for both versions), valid (area under receiver operating curve for accuracy of diagnosing dyspepsia was 0.71 and 0.77 for Malay and English versions, respectively), discriminative (median LDQ score discriminated between primary and secondary care patients in Malay (11.0 vs 20.0, P<0.0001) and English (10.0 vs 14.0, P=0.001), and responsive (median LDQ score reduced after treatment in Malay (17.0 to 14.0, P=0.08) and English (18.0 to 11.0, P=0.008) to dyspepsia.

    CONCLUSIONS:
    The Malaysian versions of the LDQ are valid, reliable and responsive instruments for assessing symptoms in a multi-ethnic Asian population with dyspepsia.
  15. Alwahaibi NY, Budin SB, Mohamed J, Alhamdani A
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2010 Apr;25(4):786-91.
    PMID: 20492335 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.06160.x
    Selenium's molecular mechanism for cancer chemoprevention remains unknown. We aimed to study the gene expression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), tumor growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and cyclin D1 and the effects of sodium selenite using preventive and therapeutic approaches in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.
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