AIM: Aging-associated CI can impair the ability of individuals to perform a VF test and compromise the reliability of the results. We evaluated the association between neurocognitive impairment and VF reliability indices in glaucoma patients.
METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Kuala Pilah, Malaysia, and included 113 eyes of 60 glaucoma patients with no prior diagnosis of dementia. Patients were monitored with the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer using a 30-2 SITA, standard protocol, and CI was assessed using the clock drawing test (CDT). The relationships between the CDT score, MD, pattern standard deviation, Visual Field Index (VFI), fixation loss (FL), false-positive values, and FN values were analyzed using the ordinal regression model.
RESULTS: Glaucoma patients older than 65 years had a higher prevalence of CI. There was a statistically significant correlation between CDT scores and glaucoma severity, FL, FN, and VFI values (rs=-0.20, P=0.03; rs=-0.20, P=0.04; rs=-0.28, P=0.003; rs=0.21, P=0.03, respectively). In a multivariate model adjusted for age and glaucoma severity, patients with lower FN were significantly less likely to have CI (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.93) and patients with higher MD were more likely to have CI (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.16); false positive, FL, pattern standard deviation, and VFI showed no significant correlation.
CONCLUSION: Cognitive decline is associated with reduced VF reliability, especially with higher FN rate and overestimated MD. Screening and monitoring of CI may be important in the assessment of VF progression in glaucoma patients.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, including 24-hour ocular perfusion pressure and risk of progression in patients with baseline central VF defect, as compared with those with peripheral VF defect in NTG.
DESIGN: This was a prospective, longitudinal study.
METHODS: A total of 65 NTG patients who completed 5 years of follow-up were included in this study. All the enrolled patients underwent baseline 24-hour intraocular pressure and blood pressure monitoring via 2-hourly measurements in their habitual position and had ≥5 reliable VF tests during the 5-year follow-up. Patients were assigned to two groups on the basis of VF defect locations at baseline, the central 10 degrees, and the peripheral 10- to 24-degree area. Modified Anderson criteria were used to assess global VF progression over 5 years. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to compare the elapsed time of confirmed VF progression in the two groups. Hazard ratios for the association between clinical risk factors and VF progression were obtained by using Cox proportional hazards models.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the patients with baseline central and peripheral VF defects in terms of demography, clinical, ocular and systemic hemodynamic factors. Eyes with baseline defects involving the central fields progressed faster (difference: βcentral=-0.78 dB/y, 95% confidence interval=-0.22 to -1.33, P=0.007) and have 3.56 times higher hazard of progressing (95% confidence interval=1.17-10.82, P=0.025) than those with only peripheral defects.
CONCLUSION: NTG patients with baseline central VF involvement are at increased risk of progression compared with those with peripheral VF defect.
METHODOLOGY: We performed a cross-sectional cohort study on healthy subjects and patients with glaucoma. The AngioVue Enhanced Microvascular Imaging System was used to capture the optic nerve head and macula images during one visit. En face segment images of the macular and optic disc were studied in layers. Microvascular density of the optic nerve head and macula were quantified by the number of pixels measured by a novel in-house developed software. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were used to determine the accuracy of differentiating between glaucoma and healthy subjects.
RESULTS: A total of 24 (32 eyes) glaucoma subjects (57.5±9.5-y old) and 29 (58 eyes) age-matched controls (51.17±13.5-y old) were recruited. Optic disc and macula scans were performed showing a greater mean vessel density (VD) in healthy compared with glaucoma subjects. The control group had higher VD than the glaucoma group at the en face segmented layers of the optic disc (optic nerve head: 0.209±0.05 vs. 0.110±0.048, P<0.001; vitreoretinal interface: 0.086±0.045 vs. 0.052±0.034, P=0.001; radial peripapillary capillary: 0.146±0.040 vs. 0.053±0.036, P<0.001; and choroid: 0.228±0.074 vs. 0.165±0.062, P<0.001). Similarly, the VD at the macula was also greater in controls than glaucoma patients (superficial retina capillary plexus: 0.115±0.016 vs. 0.088±0.027, P<0.001; deep retina capillary plexus: 0.233±0.027 vs. 0.136±0.073, P<0.001; outer retinal capillary plexus: 0.190±0.057 vs. 0.136±0.105, P=0.036; and choriocapillaris: 0.225±0.053 vs. 0.153±0.068, P<0.001. The AUROC was highest for optic disc radial peripapillary capillary (0.96), followed by nerve head (0.92) and optic disc choroid (0.76). At the macula, the AUROC was highest for deep retina (0.86), followed by choroid (0.84), superficial retina (0.81), and outer retina (0.72).
CONCLUSIONS: Microvascular density of the optic disc and macula in glaucoma patients was reduced compared with healthy controls. VD of both optic disc and macula had a high diagnostic ability in differentiating healthy and glaucoma eyes.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 150 Malay PACG patients between April 2014 and August 2016. Ocular examination was performed including Humphrey visual field (HVF) 24-2 analysis assessment. On the basis of the 2 consecutive reliable HVFs, the severity of glaucoma was scored according to modified Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) by 2 masked investigators and classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Those with retinal diseases, neurological diseases, memory problem, and myopia ≥4 diopters were excluded. Their smoking status and details were obtained by validated questionnaire from Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES). The duration of smoking, number of cigarettes per day, and pack/year was also documented. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted.
RESULTS: There was a significant association between education level and severity of PACG (P=0.001). However, there was no significant association between cigarette smoking and severity of glaucoma (P=0.080). On the basis of multivariate analysis, a linear association was identified between cigarette smoked per day (adjusted b=0.73; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.45; P<0.001) and body mass index (adjusted b=0.32; 95% CI: 0.07, 1.35; P=0.032) with AGIS score.
CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant association between cigarette smoking and severity of PACG. Cigarette smoked per day among the smokers was associated with severity of PACG. However, because of the detrimental effect of smoking, cessation of smoking should be advocated to PACG patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 100 eyes from 50 patients on long-term intranasal steroids (>2 y) for allergic rhinitis and 90 eyes from 45 controls were included in this study. Patients on other forms of steroids and risk factors for glaucoma were excluded. IOP was measured and nonmydriatic stereoscopic optic disc photos were taken for each eye. The vertical cup-to-disc ratio and the status of the optic disc were evaluated.
RESULTS: The mean IOP for intranasal steroids group was significantly higher (15.24±2.31 mm Hg) compared to the control group (13.91±1.86 mm Hg; P=0.000). However, there were no significant differences in the vertical cup-to-disc ratio and the status of glaucomatous optic disc changes between the groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged use of intranasal steroids cause statistical significant increase in IOP in patients with allergic rhinitis although no significant glaucomatous disc changes were seen. We suggest patients on long-term use of intranasal steroid have a yearly eye examination to be monitored for IOP elevation and those with additional risk factors for glaucoma is closely monitored for glaucoma.
METHODS: Scanning electron microscopy was performed on P50 and P200 devices. Bench-top flow studies were performed to find the resistances of the devices. Devices were also incorporated into a perfused, ex vivo porcine sclera model to test and compare their control of pressure, with and without overlying scleral flaps, and with trabeculectomies.
RESULTS: The luminal dimensions of the P200 device were 206.4±3.3 and 204.5±0.9 μm at the subconjunctival space and anterior chamber ends, respectively. Those of the P50 device were 205.0±5.8 and 206.9±3.7 μm, respectively. There were no significant differences between the P200 and P50 devices (all P>0.05). The resistances of the P200 and P50 devices were 0.010±0.001 and 0.054±0.002 mm Hg/μL/min, respectively (P<0.05). Equilibrium pressures with overlying scleral flaps were 17.81±3.30 mm Hg for the P50, 17.31±4.24 mm Hg for the P200, and 16.28±6.67 mm Hg for trabeculectomies (P=0.850).
CONCLUSIONS: The luminal diameters of both devices are externally similar. The effective luminal diameter of the P50 is much larger than 50 μm. Both devices have low resistance values, making them unlikely to prevent hypotony on their own. They lead to similar equilibrium pressures as the trabeculectomy procedure when inserted under the scleral flap.
METHODS: Observational study. Nonglaucomatous patients on NIPD underwent systemic and ocular assessment including mean arterial pressure (MAP), body weight, serum osmolarity, visual acuity, IOP measurement, and ASOCT within 2 hours both before and after NIPD. The Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program (ZAAP) was used to measure ASOCT parameters including anterior chamber depth, anterior chamber width, anterior chamber area, anterior chamber volume, lens vault, angle opening distance, trabecular-iris space area, and angle recess area. T tests and Pearson correlation tests were performed with P<0.05 considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: A total of 46 eyes from 46 patients were included in the analysis. There were statistically significant reductions in IOP (-1.8±0.6 mm Hg, P=0.003), MAP (-11.9±3.1 mm Hg, P<0.001), body weight (-0.7±2.8 kg, P<0.001), and serum osmolarity (-3.4±2.0 mOsm/L, P=0.002) after NIPD. All the ASOCT parameters did not have any statistically significant changes after NIPD. There were no statistically significant correlations between the changes in IOP, MAP, body weight, and serum osmolarity (all P>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: NIPD results in reductions in IOP, MAP, body weight, and serum osmolarity in nonglaucomatous patients.
METHODS: The model exploits the principle of dynamic and geometric similarity, so while dimensions were up to 30× greater than actual, the flow had similar properties. Scleral flaps were represented by transparent 0.8- and 1.6-mm-thick silicone sheets on an acrylic plate. Dyed 98% glycerin, representing the aqueous humor was pumped between the sheet and plate, and the equilibrium pressure measured with a pressure transducer. Image analysis based on the principle of dye dilution was performed using MATLAB software.
RESULTS: The pressure drop across the flap was larger with thinner flaps, due to reduced rigidity and resistance. Doubling the surface area of flaps and reducing the number of sutures from 5 to 3 or 2 also resulted in larger pressure drops. Flow direction was affected mainly by suture number and position, it was less toward the sutures and more toward the nearest free edge of the flap. Posterior flow of aqueous humor was promoted by placing sutures along the sides while leaving the posterior edge free.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate a new physical model which shows how changes in scleral flap thickness and shape, and suture number and position affect pressure and flow in a trabeculectomy.
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression among patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and examine the relationship between depression and the severity of POAG in older adults.
METHODS: Three hundred and sixty patients with POAG aged ≥60 years were recruited from two tertiary centers located in an urban and sub-urban area. The participants were stratified according to the severity of their glaucoma based on the scores from the modified Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) to mild, moderate, severe, and end stage. Face-to-face interviews were performed using the Malay Version Geriatric Depression Scale 14 (mGDS-14) questionnaire. Depression is diagnosed when the score is ≥8. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the sub-scores between the groups. Multifactorial ANOVA was also applied with relevant confounding factors.
RESULTS: Depression was detected in 16% of older adults with POAG; a higher percentage of depression was seen in those with end-stage disease. There was a significant increase in the mean score of mGDS-14 according to the severity of POAG. There was evidence of an association between depression and severity of visual field defect (P<0.001). There was a significant difference in mGDS-14 score between the pairing of severity of POAG (mild-severe (P=0.003), mild-end stage (P<0.001), moderate-severe (P<0.001), and moderate-end stage (P<0.001)) after adjustment to living conditions, systemic disease, and visual acuity.
CONCLUSION: Ophthalmologists should be aware that older adults with advanced visual field defects in POAG may have depression. The detection of depression is important to ensure adherence and persistence to the treatment of glaucoma.