CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old Indian male with a past history of coronary artery bypass graft surgery, congestive heart failure, and diabetes mellitus complained of worsening shortness of breath for 2 weeks. Incidentally, a transthoracic echocardiography showed a "thumb-like" mass in his right atrium extending into his right ventricle through the tricuspid valve with each systole. Abdomen magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogenous lobulated mass in the upper and mid-pole of his right kidney with a tumor extending into his inferior vena cava and right atrium, consistent with our diagnosis of advanced renal cell carcinoma which was later confirmed by surgical excision and histology. Radical right nephrectomy, lymph nodes clearance, inferior vena cava cavatomy, and complete tumor thrombectomy were performed successfully. Perioperatively, he did not require cardiopulmonary bypass or deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. He had no recurrence during the follow-up period for more than 2 years after surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: Advanced extension of renal cell carcinoma can occur with no apparent symptoms and be detected incidentally. In rare circumstances, atypical presentation of renal cell carcinoma should be considered in a patient presenting with right atrial mass detected by echocardiography. Renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava and right atrium extension is a complex surgical challenge, but excellent results can be obtained with proper patient selection, meticulous surgical techniques, and close perioperative patient care.
CASE PRESENTATION: We described a 54-year-old Malay man with severe mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation who presented with a biatrial mass. Transthoracic/esophageal echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance detected a large, homogeneous right atrial mass typical of a thrombus, and a left atrial mass adhering to interatrial septum that mimicked atrial myxoma. The risk factors, morphology, location, and characteristics of the biatrial cardiac mass indicated a diagnosis of thrombi. However, our patient declined surgery. As a result, the nature of his cardiac masses was not specified by histology. Of note, his left atrial mass was completely regressed by long-term warfarin, leaving a residual right atrial mass. Thus, we affirmed the most probable diagnosis of cardiac thrombi. During the course of treatment, he had an episode of non-fatal ischemic stroke most probably because of a thromboembolism.
CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive characterization of cardiac mass is essential in clarifying the diagnosis and directing treatment strategy. Anticoagulation is a feasible treatment when the clinical assessment, risk factors, and imaging findings indicate a diagnosis of thrombi. After prolonged anticoagulation therapy, complete resolution of biatrial thrombi was achievable in our case.
CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 3-year-old Malay boy who presented with simple febrile seizure and had no neurological deficit, however, he was found to have microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase. An ADAMTS13 assay results showed zero activities (0%), and markedly high level of ADAMTS13 inhibitor (93.15 U/mL) confirming the diagnosis of secondary thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura. He received fresh frozen plasma infusions for 3 days and subsequently his platelet levels normalized. Serial ADAMTS13 assay results showed improvement. He was also given a short course of prednisolone after which the ADAMTS13 activity normalized (> 114%) at the end of prednisolone course.
CONCLUSIONS: At presentation, acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura in a very young child is commonly misdiagnosed as other conditions like idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Evans syndrome, atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome, or malignancy. ADAMTS13 assay should be performed early when thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura is suspected as this condition is associated with dire consequences.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 21-year-old local Sarawakian woman with partial molar pregnancy who presented with severe pre-eclampsia in which the baby was morphologically normal, delivered prematurely, and there was a single large placenta showing molar changes.
CONCLUSION: Even though the incidence of this condition is very rare, recognizing and diagnosing it is very important for patient care and it should be considered and looked for in patients presenting with pre-eclampsia.