To understand the effects of substitution patterns on photosensitizing the ability of boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY), two structural variations that either investigate the effectiveness of various iodinated derivatives to maximize the "heavy atom effect" or focus on the effect of extended conjugation at the 4-pyrrolic position to red-shift their activation wavelengths were investigated. Compounds with conjugation at the 4-pyrrolic position were less photocytotoxic than the parent unconjugated compound, while those with an iodinated BODIPY core presented better photocytotoxicity than compounds with iodoaryl groups at the meso-positions. The potency of the derivatives generally correlated well with their singlet oxygen generation level. Further studies of compound 5 on HSC-2 cells showed almost exclusive localization to mitochondria, induction of G(2)/M-phase cell cycle block, and onset of apoptosis. Compound 5 also extensively occluded the vasculature of the chick chorioallantoic membrane. Iodinated BODIPY structures such as compound 5 may have potential as new photodynamic therapy agents for cancer.
The core protein (HBcAg) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been shown to interact with the large surface antigen during HBV morphogenesis, and these interactions can be blocked by small peptides selected from either linear or constrained phage display peptide libraries. The association of HBcAg with peptide inhibitors was quantitatively evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The thermodynamic data show that the interaction between HBcAg and peptide MHRSLLGRMKGA is enthalpy-driven and occurs at a 3:1 stoichiometry and dissociation constant (Kd) value of 79.4 muM. However, peptide WSFFSNI displays a higher binding affinity for HBcAg with a Kd value of 18.5 muM when compared to peptide MHRSLLGRMKGA. A combinatorial approach using chemical cross-linking and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry shows that the Lys of peptide MHRSLLGRMKGA interacted either with D64, E77, or D78 of HBcAg.
Sixty-nine novel α,β-unsaturated carbonyl based compounds, including cyclohexanone, tetralone, oxime, and oxime ether analogs, were synthesized. The antiproliferative activity determined by using seven different human cancer cell lines provided a structure-activity relationship. Compound 8ag exhibited high antiproliferative activity against Panc-1, PaCa-2, A-549, and PC-3 cell lines, with IC50 value of 0.02 μM, comparable to the positive control Erlotinib. The ten most active antiproliferative compounds were assessed for mechanistic effects on BRAF(V600E), EGFR TK kinases, and tubulin polymerization, and were investigated in vitro to reverse efflux-mediated resistance developed by cancer cells. Compound 8af exhibited the most potent BRAF(V600E) inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.9 μM. Oxime analog 7o displayed the most potent EGFR TK inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 0.07 μM, which was analogous to the positive control. Some analogs including 7f, 8af, and 8ag showed a dual role as anticancer and MDR reversal agents.
Selected indole-based kratom alkaloids were evaluated for their opioid and adrenergic receptor binding and functional effects, in vivo antinociceptive effects, plasma protein binding, and metabolic stability. Mitragynine, the major alkaloid in Mitragyna speciosa (kratom), had higher affinity at opioid receptors than at adrenergic receptors while the vice versa was observed for corynantheidine. The observed polypharmacology of kratom alkaloids may support its utilization to treat opioid use disorder and withdrawal.
As part of a search for novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, the acetone extract of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, was shown to be active. Fractionation of the extract yielded inophyllums A, B, C, and E and calophyllolide (1a, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6), previously isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., a known source of nutrition for A. fulica. From a methanol/methylene chloride extract of C. inophyllum, the same natural products in considerably greater yield were isolated in addition to a novel enantiomer of soulattrolide (4), inophyllum P (2b), and two other novel compounds, inophyllums G-1 (7) and G-2 (8). The absolute stereochemistry of inophyllum A (1a) was determined to be 10(R), 11(S), 12(S) from a single-crystal X-ray analysis of its 4-bromobenzoate derivative, and the relative stereochemistries of the other inophyllums isolated from C. inophyllum were established by a comparison of their 1H NMR NOE values and coupling constants to those of inophyllum A (1a). Inophyllums B and P (2a and 2b) inhibited HIV reverse transcriptase with IC50 values of 38 and 130 nM, respectively, and both were active against HIV-1 in cell culture (IC50 of 1.4 and 1.6 microM). Closely related inophyllums A, C, D, and E, including calophyllic acids, were significantly less active or totally inactive, indicating certain structural requirements in the chromanol ring. Altogether, 11 compounds of the inophyllum class were isolated from C. inophyllum and are described together with the SAR of these novel anti-HIV compounds.