Nipah virus is a recently emergent paramyxovirus that is capable of causing severe disease in both humans and animals. The first outbreak of Nipah virus occurred in Malaysia and Singapore in 1999 and, more recently, outbreaks were detected in Bangladesh. In humans, Nipah virus causes febrile encephalitis with respiratory syndrome that has a high mortality rate. The reservoir for Nipah virus is believed to be fruit bats, and humans are infected by contact with infected bats or by contact with an intermediate animal host such as pigs. Person to person spread of the virus has also been described. Nipah virus retains many of the genetic and biologic properties found in other paramyxoviruses, though it also has several unique characteristics. However, the virologic characteristics that allow the virus to cause severe disease over a broad host range, and the epidemiologic, environmental and virologic features that favor transmission to humans are unknown. This review summarizes what is known about the virology, epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis and control of this novel pathogen.
The authors review common themes in the ecology of emerging viruses that cause neurological disease. Three issues emerge. First, 49% of emerging viruses are characterized by encephalitis or serious neurological clinical symptoms. Second, all of these viruses are driven to emerge by ecological, environmental, or human demographic changes, some of which are poorly understood. Finally, the control of these viruses would be enhanced by collaborative multidisciplinary research into these drivers of emergence. The authors highlight this review with a case study of Nipah virus, which emerged in Malaysia due largely to shifts in livestock production and alterations to reservoir host habitat. Collaboration between virologists, ecologists, disease modelers and wildlife biologists has been instrumental in retracing the factors involved in this virus's emergence.
The last decade of the 20th Century saw the introduction of an unprecedented number of encephalitic viruses emerge or spread in the Southeast Asian and Western Pacific regions (Mackenzie et al, 2001; Solomon, 2003a). Most of these viruses are zoonotic, either being arthropod-borne viruses or bat-borne viruses. Thus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has spread through the Indonesian archipelago to Papua New Guinea (PNG) and to the islands of the Torres Strait of northern Australia, to Pakistan, and to new areas in the Indian subcontinent; a strain of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was described for the first time in Hokkaido, Japan; and a novel mosquito-borne alphavirus, Me Tri virus, was described from Vietnam. Three novel bat-borne viruses emerged in Australia and Malaysia; two, Hendra and Nipah viruses, represent the first examples of a new genus in the family Paramyxoviridae, the genus Henipaviruses, and the third, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is new lyssavirus closely related to classical rabies virus. These viruses will form the body of this brief review.
Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic infection that causes intestinal and muscular illnesses in humans. Sarcocystosis was until recently considered rare in humans. To complete their life cycle, Sarcocystis species require both a definitive and an intermediate host. Humans are the definitive host when infected by one of two species: Sarcocystis hominis (from eating undercooked beef) or Sarcocystis suihominis (from eating uncooked pork). Infection with either of these species results in intestinal sarcocystosis, causing a self-limited disease characterized by nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Humans act as the intermediate host when infected by Sarcocystis nesbitti, resulting in the markedly different clinical picture of muscular sarcocystosis. Most documented cases of muscular sarcocystosis were assumed to be acquired in Malaysia, in addition to other regions of Southeast Asia and India. Published cases of muscular sarcocystosis from the Middle East, Central and South America, and Africa are all rare. Although the clinical presentation of muscular sarcocystosis remains to be fully characterized, fever, myalgia, and headache are among the most common symptoms. Here, we report a patient from sub-Saharan Africa with chronic Sarcocystis myopathy and well-controlled HIV-AIDS.
The association of dengue infection (DI) with atypical neurological manifestations was first reported in 1976. DENV-2 and DENV-3 serotypes are mostly related to neurological problems. DI has shown an overall risk of 21 autoimmune diseases, and 4% may develop neuromuscular complications. The pathogenetic mechanisms behind myasthenia gravis (MG) occurring during DI is thought to be linked to the neurotrophic effect of the infection. We report a unique case of DENV-1 infection presenting with bilateral ptosis and dysphagia in a previously healthy adult.
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive astrocytes brain tumor. Glioblastoma cancer stem cells and hypoxia conditions are well-known major obstacles in treatment. Studies have revealed that non-coding RNAs serve a critical role in glioblastoma progression, invasion, and resistance to chemo-radiotherapy. The present study examined the expression levels of microRNAs (in normoxic condition) and long non-coding RNAs (in normoxic and hypoxic conditions) in glioblastoma stem cells treated with the HSV-G47∆. The expression levels of 43 miRNAs and 8 lncRNAs isolated from U251-GBM-CSCs were analyzed using a miRCURY LNA custom PCR array and a quantitative PCR assay, respectively. The data revealed that out of 43 miRNAs that only were checked in normoxic condition, the only 8 miRNAs, including miR-7-1, miR-let-7b, miR-130a, miR-137, miR-200b, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-874, were markedly upregulated. The expression levels of lncRNAs, including LEF1 antisense RNA 1 (LEF1-AS1), metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 470 (LINC00470), tumor suppressor candidate 7 (TUSC7), HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR), nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1), and X inactive specific transcript (XIST), were markedly downregulated in the hypoxic microenvironment, and H19-imprinted maternally expressed transcript (H19) was not observed to be dysregulated in this environment. Under normoxic conditions, LEF1-AS1, MALAT1, LINC00470, H19, HOTAIR, NEAT1, and XIST were downregulated and TUSC7 was not targeted by HSV-G47∆. Overall, the present data shows HSVG47Δ treatment deregulates non-coding RNA expression in GBM-CSC tumor microenvironments.