Displaying all 12 publications

  1. Robert SD, Ismail AA, Wan Rosli WI
    J Nutr Metab, 2014;2014:964873.
    PMID: 25276421 DOI: 10.1155/2014/964873
    This study determined the effects of fenugreek on postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) and satiety among overweight and obese individuals. Fourteen subjects were studied in the morning after overnight fasts on four separate occasions. Glycaemic responses elicited by 50 g carbohydrate portions of white bread and jam with or without 5.5 g of fenugreek and fried rice with or without 5.5 g fenugreek were determined over 2 h. The primary endpoint was the incremental area under the plasma glucose response curve (IAUC). Adding fenugreek to both foods significantly reduced the IAUC compared to the food alone: white bread and jam, 180 ± 22 versus 271 ± 23 mmol × min/L (P = 0.001); fried rice, 176 ± 20 versus 249 ± 25 mmol × min/L (P = 0.001). Fenugreek also significantly reduced the area under the satiety curve for white bread with jam (134 ± 27 versus 232 ± 33 mm × hr, P = 0.01) and fried rice (280 ± 37 versus 379 ± 36 mm × hr, P = 0.01). It is concluded that fenugreek significantly decreased the PPG response and increased satiety among overweight and obese individuals.
  2. Ghazi HF, Isa ZM, Shah SA, Abdal Qader MA, Hasan TN, Al-Abed AA
    J Nutr Metab, 2014;2014:686934.
    PMID: 25243083 DOI: 10.1155/2014/686934
    Introduction. The neighborhoods where the children live play an important role in their development physically and mentally. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between neighborhood safety and child nutritional status in Baghdad city, Iraq. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Baghdad city, Iraq, among 400 primary school children from 4 schools. BMI-for-age Z score was used to assess the nutritional status of the children. Newly developed questionnaires on neighborhood safety were distributed to the parents to answer them. Results. In this study, males were more predominant than females with 215 participants compared to 185 females. A total of 49% were normal weight, 38.8% either overweight or obese, and only 12.2% underweight. There was a significant relationship between father education, father and mother working status, family income, and children nutritional status (P = 0.10, 0.009, <0.001, 0.37), respectively. The association between neighborhood safety variables and child nutritional status was significant except for worrying about child safety and thinking of leaving the neighborhood (P = 0.082, 0.084), respectively. Conclusion. Nutritional status of school children continues to be a public health issue in Iraq especially Baghdad city. There was a significant association between neighborhood safety and children nutritional status.
  3. Shahril MR, Wan Dali WP, Lua PL
    J Nutr Metab, 2013;2013:658642.
    PMID: 24069535 DOI: 10.1155/2013/658642
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students.
  4. Ibrahim M, Mikail MA, Ahmed IA, Abdul Ghani R
    J Nutr Metab, 2018;2018:8406193.
    PMID: 30524759 DOI: 10.1155/2018/8406193
    Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading and the most critical type of chronic disease. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of CVD. Inflammation has been progressively acknowledged as a vital and central player in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Baccaurea angulata is an underutilized fruit of the island of Borneo. It was obtained from Bau, Sarawak, Malaysia. In our previous studies, B. angulata did not only increase antioxidant enzyme activities, but also slowed the lipid peroxidation process in high-cholesterol-fed rabbits. It was hypothesized that B. angulata fruit would exert an anti-inflammatory effect. This study, therefore, aimed at evaluating and comparing the effects of three different B. angulata whole fruit (WF) juice doses on 11 serum inflammatory biomarkers of atherosclerosis.

    Methods: Thirty-five male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into seven groups (n=5). Group CH was fed 1% cholesterol diet only, group C1 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0.5 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice, group C2 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.0 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice, group C3 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.5 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice, group N was fed standard pellet only, group N1 was fed standard pellet and 0.5 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice, and group N2 was fed standard pellet and 1.0 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice for 12 weeks.

    Results: The administration of the various juices reduced the concentrations of induced serum inflammatory biomarkers.

    Conclusion: This protective effect of B. angulata fruit against cardiovascular risk might be due to its polyphenol content.

  5. Othman F, Ambak R, Siew Man C, Mohd Zaki NA, Ahmad MH, Abdul Aziz NS, et al.
    J Nutr Metab, 2019;2019:6781597.
    PMID: 31192010 DOI: 10.1155/2019/6781597
    Dietary consumption and other environmental factors are known factors associated with sodium intake. However, little is known about the influence of energy intake on this relationship. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with high sodium intake assessed from urine sodium excretion and the influence of energy intake. A nationwide, cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 to 2016 among Malaysian health staff (MySalt 2015). A total of 1027 participants from 1568 targeted participants aged 18 years and older that were randomly selected were included in this study. Sodium intake was determined by measuring sodium excretion in the 24 hr urine test. Dietary, sociodemography, and anthropometry variables as associated risk factors were assessed. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between high sodium intake (≥2000 mg/day urinary sodium) and potential risk factors. The prevalence of high sodium intake in this study was 70.1% (n=733). High sodium intake was associated with male (OR 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41, 2.64), Bumiputera Sarawak ethnicity (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09, 0.62), and energy-adjusted sodium intake (mg/d) (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.39). Our results suggested that sex, ethnicity, and energy-adjusted sodium consumption were strong risk factors associated with high sodium intake independent from energy and other potential confounding factors.
  6. Rashid MR, Nor Aripin KN, Syed Mohideen FB, Baharom N, Omar K, Md Taujuddin NMS, et al.
    J Nutr Metab, 2019;2019:3176018.
    PMID: 30863635 DOI: 10.1155/2019/3176018
    Background: Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) poses a higher risk of diabetes. Honey has been reported to improve metabolic abnormalities including lowering hyperglycemia. This study is sought at determining the effect of Malaysian Kelulut honey (KH) on fasting glucose levels and metabolic parameters in IFG patients.
    Methods: This quasi-experimental intervention study of 30-day duration was conducted among 60 adult patients with IFG. They were allocated into taking 30 g/day KH group (experimental group, n=30) and not taking KH group (control group, n=30). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose, and lipid profile levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein) were measured before and after treatment.
    Results: There was no significant difference in all measured variables at day 30 compared to day 1 within both groups. Similarly, all measured variables neither at day 1 nor at day 30 had shown a statistically significant difference between the groups.
    Conclusions: Daily intake of 30 g KH for 30 days resulted in insignificant effect on fasting glucose, fasting lipid profiles, and other metabolic parameters in patients with IFG. Further studies that employ longer study duration are needed to ascertain the finding.
    Study site: Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) Specialist Centre, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, and Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia.
  7. Mitra SR, Tan PY, Amini F
    J Nutr Metab, 2019;2019:8718795.
    PMID: 31007954 DOI: 10.1155/2019/8718795
    Gene-diet interaction studies have reported that individual variations in phenotypic traits may be due to variations in individual diet. Our study aimed to evaluate (i) the association of ADRB2 rs1042713 with obesity and obesity-related metabolic parameters and (ii) the effect of dietary nutrients on these associations in Malaysian adults. ADRB2 genotyping, dietary, physical activity, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected from 79 obese and 99 nonobese individuals. Logistic regression revealed no association between ADRB2 rs1042713 and obesity (p=0.725). However, the carriers of G allele (AG + GG genotypes) of rs1042713 were associated with increased odds of insulin resistance, 2.83 (CI = 1.04-7.70, adjusted p=0.042), in the dominant model, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Obese individuals carrying the G allele were associated with higher total cholesterol (p=0.011), LDL cholesterol levels (p=0.008), and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (p=0.048), compared to the noncarriers (AA), even after adjusting for potential confounders. Irrespective of obesity, the carriers of GG genotype had significantly lower fasting glucose levels with low saturated fatty acid intake (<7.3% of TE/day) (4.92 ± 0.1 mmol/L vs 5.80 ± 0.3 mmol/L, p=0.011) and high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio (≥0.8/day) (4.83 ± 0.1 mmol/L vs 5.93 ± 0.4 mmol/L, p=0.006). Moreover, the carriers of GG genotype with high polyunsaturated fatty acid intake (≥6% of TE/day) had significantly lower HOMA-IR (1.5 ± 0.3 vs 3.0 ± 0.7, p=0.026) and fasting insulin levels (6.8 ± 1.6 µU/mL vs 11.4 ± 2.1 µU/mL, p=0.036). These effects were not found in the noncarriers (AA). In conclusion, G allele carriers of ADRB2 rs1042713 were associated with increased odds of insulin resistance. Obese individuals carrying G allele were compromised with higher blood lipid levels. Although it is premature to report gene-diet interaction on the regulation of glucose and insulin levels in Malaysians, we suggest that higher quantity of PUFA-rich food sources in regular diet may benefit overweight and obese Malaysian adults metabolically. Large-scale studies are required to replicate and confirm the current findings in the Malaysian population.
  8. Ahmad MH, Salleh R, Siew Man C, Pardi M, Che Abdul Rahim N, Shahril N, et al.
    J Nutr Metab, 2021;2021:6639935.
    PMID: 33953978 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6639935
    Background: Malaysia is predicted to become an ageing population by 2035. Malnutrition among the elderly is one of growing concern. This study aims to identify the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated factors among the elderly in Malaysia.

    Methods: Data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2018 was analysed. This survey applied a multistage stratified cluster sampling design to ensure national representativeness. Malnutrition was identified using a validated Mini Nutrition Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF). Variables on sociodemographic, health status, and dietary practices were also obtained. The complex sampling analysis was used to determine the prevalence and associated factors of at-risk or malnutrition among the elderly.

    Result: A total of 3,977 elderly completed the MNA-SF. The prevalence of malnutrition and at-risk of malnutrition was 7.3% and 23.5%, respectively. Complex sample multiple logistic regression found that the elderly who lived in a rural area, with no formal or primary level of education, had depression, Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) dependency, and low quality of life (QoL), were underweight, and had food insecurity and inadequate plain water intake were at a significant risk of malnutrition (malnutrition and at-risk), while Chinese, Bumiputra Sarawak, and BMI more than 25 kgm-2 were found to be protective.

    Conclusions: Currently, three out of ten elderly in Malaysia were at-risk or malnutrition. The elderly in a rural area, low education level, depression, IADL dependency, low QoL, underweight, food insecurity, and inadequate plain water intake were at risk of malnutrition in Malaysia. The multiagency approach is needed to tackle the issue of malnutrition among the elderly by considering all predictors identified from this study.

  9. Bo MS, Cheah WL, Lwin S, Moe Nwe T, Win TT, Aung M
    J Nutr Metab, 2018;2018:7027624.
    PMID: 30116641 DOI: 10.1155/2018/7027624
    Background: Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) was found to be one of the strongest markers in predicting the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study was to determine the AIP and its relationship with other CVD risk factors.

    Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among 349 staff of a public university in Sarawak. Data were collected using questionnaire, blood sampling, and anthropometric and blood pressure measurement. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20.

    Results: A total of 349 respondents participated with majority females (66.8%), aged 38.5 ± 7.82 years. Nearly 80% of the respondents were overweight and obese, 87.1% with high and very high body fat, and 46.9% with abnormal visceral fat. For AIP category, 8.9% were found to be in intermediate and 16.4% were at high risk. Elevated lipid profile showed that total cholesterol (TC) is 15.5%, low density lipoprotein (LDL) is 16.1%, and triglyceride (TG) is 10.6%. AIP was significantly correlated with body mass index (r=0.25), visceral fat (r=0.37), TC (r=0.22), LDL (0.24), HDL (r=-0.72), TG (r=0.84), glucose (r=0.32), systolic blood pressure (r=0.22), and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.28).

    Conclusion: It indicated that AIP is associated with other CVD risk factors. Modification of lifestyle is strongly recommended.

  10. Muhammad HFL, Sulistyoningrum DC, Huriyati E, Lee YY, Manan Wan Muda WA
    J Nutr Metab, 2019;2019:9606054.
    PMID: 30719347 DOI: 10.1155/2019/9606054
    Background: Coffee is suggested as an alternative option for weight loss but the relationship between coffee consumption and adiposity in population-based studies is still controversial. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between coffee intake and adiposity in adults and to test whether uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene variation was able to affect this relationship.

    Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in male and female adults living in the urban area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Adiposity was determined based on body weight, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, and waist and hip circumference. Data on coffee consumption and other dietary components were collected using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire along with other caffeine-containing beverages such as tea, chocolate, and other beverages. The -866 G/A UCP2 gene variation was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The correlation between coffee intake and adiposity was tested using linear regression test with adjustment for sex, age, energy intake, table sugar intake, and total caffeine intake.

    Results: In all subjects, coffee intake was inversely correlated with body weight (β = -0.122, p=0.028), BMI (β = -0.157, p=0.005), and body fat (β = -0.135, p=0.009). In subjects with AA + GA genotypes, coffee intake was inversely correlated with body weight (β = -0.155, p=0.027), BMI (β = -0.179, p=0.010), and body fat (β = -0.148, p=0.021). By contrast, in subjects with GG genotype, coffee intake was not correlated with body weight (β = -0.017, p=0.822), BMI (β = -0.068, p=0.377), and body fat (β = -0.047, p=0.504).

    Conclusion: We showed that coffee intake was negatively correlated with adiposity, and this was independent of total caffeine intake. Additionally, we showed that the -866 G/A UCP2 gene variation influences the relationship between coffee intake and adiposity.

  11. Yahya MJ, Ismail PB, Nordin NB, Akim ABM, Binti Md Yusuf WS, Adam NLB, et al.
    J Nutr Metab, 2019;2019:8736215.
    PMID: 30719346 DOI: 10.1155/2019/8736215
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high incidence of nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of a genetic polymorphism of carnosinase (CNDP1-D18S880 and -rs2346061), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3-rs1799983), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD-rs4880) genes with the development of diabetic nephropathy among Malaysian type 2 diabetic patients. A case-control association study was performed using 652 T2DM patients comprising 227 Malays (without nephropathy = 96 and nephropathy = 131), 203 Chinese (without nephropathy = 95 and nephropathy = 108), and 222 Indians (without nephropathy = 136 and nephropathy = 86). DNA sequencing was performed for the D18S880 of CNDP1, while the rest were tested using DNA Sequenom MassARRAY to identify the polymorphisms. DNA was extracted from the secondary blood samples taken from the T2DM patients. The alleles and genotypes were tested using four genetic models, and the best mode of inheritance was chosen based on the least p value. The rs2346061 of CNDP1 was significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy among the Indians only with OR = 1.94 and 95% CI = (1.76-3.20) and fitted best the multiplicative model, while D18S880 was associated among all the three major races with the Malays having the strongest association with OR = 2.46 and 95% CI = (1.48-4.10), Chinese with OR = 2.26 and 95% CI = (1.34-3.83), and Indians with OR = 1.77 and 95% CI = (1.18-2.65) in the genotypic multiplicative model. The best mode of inheritance for both MnSOD and NOS3 was the additive model. For MnSOD-rs4880, the Chinese had OR = 2.8 and 95% CI = (0.53-14.94), Indians had OR = 2.4 and 95% CI = (0.69-2.84), and Malays had OR = 2.16 and 95% CI = (0.54-8.65), while for NOS3-rs1799983, the Indians had the highest risk with OR = 3.16 and 95% CI = (0.52-17.56), followed by the Chinese with OR = 3.55 and 95% CI = (0.36-35.03) and the Malays with OR = 2.89 and 95% CI = (0.29-28.32). The four oxidative stress-related polymorphisms have significant effects on the development of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes patients. The genes may, therefore, be considered as risk factors for Malaysian subjects who are predisposed to T2DM nephropathy.
  12. Ayensu J, Larbie C, Annan RA, Lutterodt H, Edusei A, Loh SP, et al.
    J Nutr Metab, 2020;2020:8061365.
    PMID: 32322416 DOI: 10.1155/2020/8061365
    Edible insects have emerged as an inexpensive alternative source of protein for reducing the burden of malnutrition worldwide. However, there is a dearth of evidence on its efficacy, and thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of edible insect consumption on the nutritional status of female Wistar albino rats. The study assessed the subchronic effect of palm weevil larvae (PWL) and orange-fleshed sweet potato- (OFSP-) enriched biscuits (fortified biscuits (FB), plain biscuits (PB), biscuits fortified with PWL (PWB), and biscuits fortified with OFSP only (SPB)) as a model to predict the potential of PWL to improve the nutritional status of pregnant women in Ghana. Twenty-five female Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to five experimental groups to receive one of the five feed supplements for 28 days. After which, the effects of treatment on haematological and biochemical parameters including lipid profile were assessed. No significant differences were observed with haematological (Hb) parameters. However, total cholesterol levels of the FB, PB, PWB, and SPB were significantly higher than in the N group. Apart from elevated total cholesterol concentrations, biscuits fortified with PWL had no adverse effects and can be a nutritious snack for maintaining acceptable HB levels.
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