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  1. Chong JA, Mohamed AMFS, Pau A
    J Oral Biosci, 2020 09;62(3):249-259.
    PMID: 32619633 DOI: 10.1016/j.job.2020.06.003
    BACKGROUND: Palatal rugae are asymmetric ridges of connective tissue located behind the incisive papilla over the anterior hard palate. They serve as stable superimposition landmarks to assess tooth movement in orthodontics and as identification aids in forensic odontology. However, the stability of palatal rugae remains controversial. This review aimed to describe the genetic, growth, and environmental factors that may influence the palatal rugae patterns. A broad search of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was conducted. A total of 193 articles were identified, of which 73 met the selection criteria. Data were extracted into a table that presented the details of the study, sample description, and changes in the palatal rugae patterns.

    HIGHLIGHT: There were conflicting results regarding sexual dimorphism and population characterization of the palatal rugae patterns. All rugae showed positional changes, increased lengths, and lower numbers, but no significant shape changes with growth. The lengths, numbers, and positions of the rugae were affected by orthodontic treatment, especially their lateral points, but their individual characteristics did not change.

    CONCLUSION: The diversity in rugae patterns and their potential for sex discrimination among different populations showed differing results due to individual variations and the complex influence of genetic, growth, and environmental factors on their morphology.

  2. Shadisvaaran S, Chin KY, Shahida MS, Ima-Nirwana S, Leong XF
    J Oral Biosci, 2021 06;63(2):97-103.
    PMID: 33864905 DOI: 10.1016/j.job.2021.04.001
    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a noncommunicable inflammatory disease of the soft tissue and bone surrounding the teeth in the jaw, which affects susceptible individuals with poor oral hygiene. A growing interest has been seen in the use of dietary supplements and natural products for the treatment and prevention of periodontitis. Vitamin E consists of two major groups, namely tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are botanical lipophilic compounds with excellent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

    HIGHLIGHT: This review aimed to summarize the preclinical and clinical findings on the effects of vitamin E on periodontitis. The current literature suggests that vitamin E could improve the periodontal status by correcting redox status imbalance, reducing inflammatory responses, and promoting wound healing, thus highlighting the potential of vitamin E in the management of periodontitis.

    CONCLUSION: Direct evidence for the use of vitamin E supplementation or treatment of periodontitis in humans is still limited. More well-designed and controlled studies are required to ascertain its effectiveness.

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