HIGHLIGHT: There were conflicting results regarding sexual dimorphism and population characterization of the palatal rugae patterns. All rugae showed positional changes, increased lengths, and lower numbers, but no significant shape changes with growth. The lengths, numbers, and positions of the rugae were affected by orthodontic treatment, especially their lateral points, but their individual characteristics did not change.
CONCLUSION: The diversity in rugae patterns and their potential for sex discrimination among different populations showed differing results due to individual variations and the complex influence of genetic, growth, and environmental factors on their morphology.
HIGHLIGHT: This review aimed to summarize the preclinical and clinical findings on the effects of vitamin E on periodontitis. The current literature suggests that vitamin E could improve the periodontal status by correcting redox status imbalance, reducing inflammatory responses, and promoting wound healing, thus highlighting the potential of vitamin E in the management of periodontitis.
CONCLUSION: Direct evidence for the use of vitamin E supplementation or treatment of periodontitis in humans is still limited. More well-designed and controlled studies are required to ascertain its effectiveness.