Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

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  1. Takebe Y, Tsujigiwa H, Katase N, Siar CH, Takabatake K, Fujii M, et al.
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2017 Jan;46(1):67-75.
    PMID: 27327904 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12467
    BACKGROUND: Tumor parenchyma-stromal interactions affect the properties of tumors and their dynamics. Our group previously showed that secreted frizzled related protein (sFRP)-2 impairs bone formation and promotes bone invasion in ameloblastoma. However, the effects of the secreted growth factors CCN2, TGF-β, and BMP4 on stromal tissues in ameloblastoma remain unclear.

    MATERIALS AND RESULTS: Thirty-five paraffin-embedded ameloblastoma cases, ameloblastoma-derived cell lines (AM-1), and primary cultures of ameloblastoma stromal fibroblasts (ASF) were used. Immunohistochemistry, MTT assay, Western blotting, and RT-PCR were performed on these samples. Parenchyma-stromal CCN2 overexpression correlated significantly with fibrous-type stroma, but not with myxoid-type stroma, suggesting a role of CCN2 in fibrosis (P < 0.05). Recombinant CCN2 induction of enhanced ASF proliferation in AM-1 medium supports this view. Conversely, BMP4 and TGF-β were expressed in myxoid-type fibroblasts, but little expression was found in parenchyma. RANKL-positive and CD68-positive stromal cell populations were significantly greater in myxoid-type tumor areas than in fibrous-type tumor areas, while a higher Ki-67 labeling index was recorded in ameloblastoma with fibrous-type stroma. These data suggest that stromal properties influence bone resorption-related activities and growth rates, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the effects of secreted growth factors are governed by ameloblastoma parenchyma-stromal interactions. CCN2 promotes fibrogenesis independent of TGF-β signaling. Absence of CCN2 expression is associated with a phenotypic switch to a myxoid-type microenvironment that is conducive for TGF-β/BMP4 signaling to promote osteoclastogenesis.

  2. Prime SS, Cirillo N, Hassona Y, Lambert DW, Paterson IC, Mellone M, et al.
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2017 Feb;46(2):82-88.
    PMID: 27237745 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12456
    There is now compelling evidence that the tumour stroma plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cancers of epithelial origin. The pre-eminent cell type of the stroma is carcinoma-associated fibroblasts. These cells demonstrate remarkable heterogeneity with activation and senescence being common stress responses. In this review, we summarise the part that these cells play in cancer, particularly oral cancer, and present evidence to show that activation and senescence reflect a unified programme of fibroblast differentiation. We report advances concerning the senescent fibroblast metabolome, mechanisms of gene regulation in these cells and ways in which epithelial cell adhesion is dysregulated by the fibroblast secretome. We suggest that the identification of fibroblast stress responses may be a valuable diagnostic tool in the determination of tumour behaviour and patient outcome. Further, the fact that stromal fibroblasts are a genetically stable diploid cell population suggests that they may be ideal therapeutic targets and early work in this context is encouraging.
  3. Siar CH, Rahman ZA, Tsujigiwa H, Mohamed Om Alblazi K, Nagatsuka H, Ng KH
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2016 Sep;45(8):591-8.
    PMID: 26752341 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12417
    BACKGROUND: Cell migration and invasion through interstitial tissues are dependent upon several specialized characteristics of the migratory cell notably generation of proteolytic membranous protrusions or invadopodia. Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a locally infiltrative behaviour. Cortactin and MMT1-MMP are two invadopodia proteins implicated in its local invasiveness. Other invadopodia regulators, namely N-WASP, WIP and Src kinase remain unclarified. This study addresses their roles in ameloblastoma.

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: Eighty-seven paraffin-embedded ameloblastoma cases (20 unicystic, 47 solid/multicystic, 3 desmoplastic and 17 recurrent) were subjected to immunohistochemistry for expression of cortactin, N-WASP, WIP, Src kinase and F-actin, and findings correlated with clinicopathological parameters.

    RESULTS: Invadopodia proteins (except Src kinase) and F-actin were widely detected in ameloblastoma (cortactin: n = 73/87, 83.9%; N-WASP: n = 59/87; 67.8%; WIP: n = 77/87; 88.5%; and F-actin: n = 87/87, 100%). Protein localization was mainly cytoplasmic and/or membranous, and occasionally nuclear for F-actin. Cortactin, which functions as an actin-scaffolding protein, demonstrated significantly higher expression levels within ameloblastoma tumoral epithelium than in stroma (P < 0.05). N-WASP, which coordinates actin polymerization and invadopodia-mediated extracellular matrix degradation, was overexpressed in the solid/multicystic subtype (P < 0.05). WIP, an upstream regulator of N-WASP, and F-actin were significantly upregulated along the tumour invasive front compared to tumour centres (P < 0.05). Except for males with cortactin overexpression, other clinical parameters (age, ethnicity and anatomical site) showed no significant correlations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Present results suggest that local invasiveness of ameloblastoma is dependent upon the migratory potential of its tumour cells as defined by their distribution of cortactin, N-WASP and WIP in correlation with F-actin cytoskeletal dynamics.

  4. Sinon SH, Rich AM, Parachuru VP, Firth FA, Milne T, Seymour GJ
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2016 Jan;45(1):28-34.
    PMID: 25865410 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12319
    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and TLR-associated signalling pathway genes in oral lichen planus (OLP).
  5. Siar CH, Ishak I, Ng KH
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2015 Jan;44(1):51-8.
    PMID: 25059841 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12203
    Ameloblastoma is a benign but locally infiltrative odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a high risk for recurrence. Podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelium marker, putatively promotes collective cell migration and invasiveness in this neoplasm. However, its role in the recurrent ameloblastoma (RA) remains unclear. As morphological, signaling, and genetic differences may exist between primary and recurrent tumors, clarification of their distribution patterns is of relevance.
  6. Siar CH, Ishak I, Ng KH
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2015 May;44(5):378-85.
    PMID: 25155411 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12247
    The ameloblastoma is a benign but locally aggressive odontogenic neoplasm with a high recurrence rate. While significant progress has been made in our understanding regarding the role of tumoral vasculature relative to the diverse behavioral characteristics of this tumor, no attention has been paid to a distinct subset of blood vessels entrapped within its epithelial compartment. As vascular niches are known to influence tumoral growth, clarification of these vessels is important. The objectives of this study were to investigate the morphologic characteristics of intra-epithelially entrapped blood vessels (IEBVs) in ameloblastoma and to speculate on their relevance.
  7. Siar CH, Ng KH
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2014 Jan;43(1):45-52.
    PMID: 23560539 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12065
    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via the mechanism of transcription repression is a crucial process for the induction of invasiveness in many human tumors. Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a locally infiltrative behavior. Twist, an EMT promoter, has been implicated in its invasiveness. The roles of the other transcription factors remain unclarified.
  8. Ghazali N, Bakri MM, Zain RB
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2003 Aug;32(7):383-92.
    PMID: 12846784
    Some oral verrucal lesions may constitute parts of the clinicopathological spectrum of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL). Because of its idiopathic yet sinister nature, it is possible that PVL may exist in other populations. The aim of this study was to review the clinicopathological features of persistent, multifocal, oral verrucal lesions in Malaysian population.
  9. Siar CH, Nagatsuka H, Han PP, Buery RR, Tsujigiwa H, Nakano K, et al.
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2012 Apr;41(4):332-9.
    PMID: 22077561 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2011.01104.x
    Canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways modulate diverse cellular processes during embryogenesis and post-natally. Their deregulations have been implicated in cancer development and progression. Wnt signaling is essential for odontogenesis. The ameloblastoma is an odontogenic epithelial neoplasm of enamel organ origin. Altered expressions of Wnts-1, -2, -5a, and -10a are detected in this tumor. The activity of other Wnt members remains unclarified.
  10. Hedin CA, Axéll T
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 1991 Jan;20(1):8-12.
    PMID: 2002444
    At the faculties of dentistry in Chiang Mai, Thailand (CM), and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL), 234 and 233 consecutive out-patients were interviewed concerning tobacco and chewing habits and examined for the presence of oral melanin pigmentation. Tobacco was regularly used by 32% and 28% of the studied populations in CM and KL. Cigarette smoking was the predominant habit, but the chewing of betel and tea leaves (miang) and the smoking of banana leaf cigars (khi yo) was also registered. The genetically acquired pigmentation dominated. Although nearly all non-tobacco users in the Malay and Indian populations had oral melanin pigmentation, it was found that tobacco smokers had significantly more oral surfaces pigmented than non-tobacco users. Among Thais, the percentage of pigmented individuals was significantly higher among tobacco smokers. It was concluded that tobacco smoking stimulates oral melanocytes to a higher melanin production also in dark-skinned ethnic groups.
  11. Yaacob HB, Samaranayake LP
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 1989 Apr;18(4):236-9.
    PMID: 2769596
    A postal survey of 730 Malaysian dental practitioners was undertaken to assess their awareness and acceptance of the plasma derived hepatitis B vaccine. Only 32% of the 325 practitioners who responded had been vaccinated, 41% intended to be and 15% categorically refused vaccination. The main reservations about vaccine acceptance were fear of side effects including AIDS, cost of the vaccine and lack of information. Vaccine efficacy was not confirmed by serology in two-thirds of the vaccinees and two-fifths of the respondents were unaware that 5% of the vaccinees do not develop a successful antibody response after vaccination. Seventy-eight percent of dentists believed that their risk of contracting hepatitis B was high or very high while 71% recalled having received needle stick injuries in the 3 yr prior to the survey. Only 13% of respondents were aware of delta hepatitis while 63% were aware of non-A non-B hepatitis. The survey has highlighted the need for dissemination of information on hepatitis B vaccine among dentists in Malayasia.
  12. Kazakydasan S, Rahman ZA, Ismail SM, Abraham MT, Kallarakkal TG
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2016 Jul 15.
    PMID: 27417330 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12476
    Lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a well-known independent prognostic factor. However, the identification of occult tumour cells within the lymph nodes has remained a challenge for the pathologist as well as the clinician.
  13. Thomson PJ, Goodson ML, Smith DR
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2017 Nov;46(10):888-895.
    PMID: 28833670 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12625
    BACKGROUND: Oral potentially malignant disorders harbour variable and unpredictable risk for squamous carcinoma development. Whilst current management strategies utilise histopathological diagnoses, dysplasia grading and targeted intervention for "high-risk" lesions, clinicians are unable to predict malignant potential.

    METHODS: Detailed, retrospective clinico-pathological analysis of potentially malignant lesions undergoing malignant transformation, from a 590 patient cohort treated by interventional laser surgery and followed for a mean of 7.3 years, was undertaken. Clinical outcome was documented at study census date (31 December 2014).

    RESULTS: A total of 99 patients (16.8%) developed cancer: 71 (12%) seen "unexpectedly" upon excision and 28 (4.8%) progressing to malignancy at a median of 87.3 months post-surgery. Thirty "unexpected" excisions were micro-invasive (42.3%) arising primarily in severely dysplastic precursors (75%) at ventro-lateral tongue and floor of mouth sites (54.5%); 1 patient (1.4%) had a cancer-related death, whilst 58 (81.7%) were disease free. A total of 19 of 28 "progressive" cancers (67.9%) arose at new sites, with erythroleukoplakia a significant predictor of malignancy (P = .0019). Nine (32.1%) developed at the same precursor site, with 6 (77.7%) on the ventro-lateral tongue and floor of mouth. Three (10.7%) were micro-invasive, 9 patients (32.1%) died from metastatic disease and 12 (42.9%) were disease free (P < .001).

    CONCLUSION: Squamous carcinoma may arise at the site of a precursor lesion as transformation or new-site development via field cancerisation. Whilst interventional surgery facilitates early diagnosis and treatment of occult disease, thus reducing risk from same-site transformation, new-site cancer is a significant long-term risk for patients with potentially malignant disorder.

  14. Thomson PJ, Goodson ML, Smith DR
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2017 Nov;46(10):902-910.
    PMID: 28891106 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12641
    BACKGROUND: Contemporary potentially malignant disorder management is based upon provisional histological diagnosis followed by interventional surgery to excise or ablate 'high-risk' mucosal lesions. Although the majority of patients achieve disease-free status post-treatment, others develop further or persistent disease unresponsive to intervention.

    METHODS: A detailed, retrospective clinico-pathological review of treatment resistant potentially malignant lesions, from a 590 patient cohort treated by CO2 laser surgery and followed for a mean of 7.3 years, was undertaken. Clinical outcome was determined at study census date (31 December 2014).

    RESULTS: A total of 87 patients (15%) exhibited PMD disease resistant to treatment: 34 (6%) became disease free following further treatment, whilst 53 (9%) had persistent disease despite intervention. Disease-free patients were younger, changed lesion appearance from erythroleukoplakia to leukoplakia (P = .004), developed further lesions at new sites, demonstrated reduction in dysplasia severity with time and required multiple treatments to achieve disease-free status (P = .0005). In contrast, persistent disease patients were older, male, often presented with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) on gingival and alveolar sites, displayed less severe dysplasia initially and underwent laser ablation rather than excision (P = .027).

    CONCLUSION: Despite clinico-pathological profiling of treatment resistant patients, the precise inter-relationship between the inherent nature of potentially malignant disease and the external influence of treatment intervention remains obscure.

  15. Goodson ML, Smith DR, Thomson PJ
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2017 Nov;46(10):896-901.
    PMID: 28833675 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12627
    BACKGROUND: Oral potentially malignant disorders (PMD) harbour unpredictable risk for squamous cell carcinoma development. Current management requires tissue biopsy for histopathology characterisation, dysplasia grading and targeted intervention to "high-risk" lesions, although evidence-based guidelines are limited and diagnoses subjective. This study investigated the use of adjunctive oral brush biopsy techniques during the management of PMD in a UK hospital population.

    METHODS: Retrospective review of a 310 PMD patient cohort presenting to Maxillofacial Surgery in Newcastle upon Tyne with new, single-site lesions between December 2009 and May 2014. Patients underwent Orcellex® brush biopsy and liquid-based cytology examination in addition to conventional biopsy techniques, with management proceeding along established care pathways. Patient demographics, cytology data, most significant histopathology diagnoses and clinical outcome were all documented at the study census date (31.12.15).

    RESULTS: A total of 170 male & 140 female patients (age range 18-91 years), exhibiting primarily leukoplakia (86.5%) at floor of mouth and ventrolateral tongue sites (44.9%), were identified. Management comprised: observation (49.7%), laser surgery (44.9%), antifungal treatment (3.5%) and Head & Neck clinic referral following cancer diagnosis (1.9%). Clinical outcomes were as follows: disease free (51.3%), persistent PMD (42.3%) and malignant transformation (6.4%). Histology and cytology diagnoses strongly correlated (r = .305). Treatment modality, lesion site, histology and cytology diagnoses were the best predictors of clinical outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: Orcellex® brush cytology provides reliable diagnoses consistent with conventional histopathology and offers less invasive, adjunctive assessment appropriate for long-term monitoring of patients in specialist clinics.

  16. Bakri MM, Cannon RD, Holmes AR, Rich AM
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2014 Oct;43(9):704-10.
    PMID: 24931506 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12193
    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between expression of Candida albicans alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) genes in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from biopsies of leukoplakia.
  17. Siar CH, Nakano K, Han PP, Nagatsuka H, Ng KH, Kawakami T
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2010 Aug 1;39(7):552-8.
    PMID: 20337864 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2009.00871.x
    In mammals, the Notch gene family encodes four receptors (Notch1-4), and all of them are important for cell fate decisions. Notch signaling pathway plays an essential role in tooth development. The ameloblastoma, a benign odontogenic epithelial neoplasm, histologically recapitulates the enamel organ at bell stage. Notch has been detected in the plexiform and follicular ameloblastoma. Its activity in the desmoplastic ameloblastoma is unknown.
  18. Thomson PJ, Goodson ML, Smith DR
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2018 Jul;47(6):557-565.
    PMID: 29663518 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12716
    BACKGROUND: Clinically identifiable potentially malignant disorders (PMD) precede oral squamous cell carcinoma development. Oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) are specific precursor lesions believed to exhibit both treatment resistance and a high risk of malignant transformation (MT).

    METHODS: A retrospective review of 590 PMD patients treated in Northern England by CO2 laser surgery between 1996 and 2014 was carried out. Lesions exhibiting lichenoid or proliferative verrucous features were identified from the patient database and their clinicopathological features and outcome post-treatment determined at the study census date of 31 December 2014.

    RESULTS: One hundred and 98 patients were identified as follows: 118 OLL and 80 PVL, most frequently leukoplakia at ventrolateral tongue and floor of mouth sites, equally distributed between males and females. Most exhibited dysplasia on incision biopsy (72% OLL; 85% PVL) and were treated by laser excision rather than ablation (88.1% OLL; 86.25% PVL). OLL were more common in younger patients (OLL 57.1 year; PVL 62.25 years; P = .008) and more likely than PVL to present as erythroleukoplakia (OLL 15.3%; PVL 2.5%; P = .003). Whilst no significant difference was seen between OLL and PVL achieving disease-free status (69.5% and 65%, respectively; P = .55), this was less than the overall PMD cohort (74.2%). MT was identified in 2 OLL (1.7%) and 2 PVL (2.5%) during follow-up.

    CONCLUSION: One-third of PMD cases showed features of OLL or PVL, probably representing a disease presentation continuum. Post-treatment disease-free status was less common in OLL and PVL, although MT was infrequent.

  19. Goodson ML, Smith DR, Thomson PJ
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2019 Sep;48(8):662-668.
    PMID: 31125457 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12881
    BACKGROUND: Nomograms are graphical calculating devices used to predict risk of malignant transformation (MT) or response to treatment during cancer management. To date, a nomogram has not been used to predict clinical outcome during oral potentially malignant disorder (PMD) treatment. The aim of this study was to create a nomogram for use by clinicians to predict the probability of MT, thereby facilitating accurate assessment of risk and objective decision-making during individual patient management.

    METHODS: Clinico-pathological data from a previously treated cohort of 590 newly presenting PMD patients were reviewed and clinical outcomes categorized as disease free, persistent PMD or MT. Multiple logistic regression was used to predict the probability of MT in the cohort using age, gender, lesion type, site and incision biopsy histopathological diagnoses. Internal validation and calibration of the model was performed using the bootstrap method (n = 1000), and bias-corrected indices of model performance were computed.

    RESULTS: Potentially malignant disorders were predominantly leukoplakias (79%), presenting most frequently at floor of mouth and lateral tongue sites (51%); 99 patients (17%) developed oral squamous cell carcinoma during the study period. The nomogram performed well when MT predictions were compared with patient outcome data, demonstrating good bias-corrected discrimination and calibration (Dxy  = 0.58; C = 0.790), with a sensitivity of 87% and specificity 63%, and a positive predictive value of 32% and negative predictive value 96%.

    CONCLUSION: The "Newcastle Nomogram" has been developed to predict the probability of MT in PMD, based on an internally validated statistical model. Based upon readily available and patient-specific clinico-pathological data, it provides clinicians with a pragmatic diagrammatic aid for clinical decision-making during diagnosis and management of PMD.

  20. Arzmi MH, Dashper S, McCullough M
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2019 Aug;48(7):546-551.
    PMID: 31183906 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12905
    The oral microbiome is composed of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity, which are critical components of health and disease. Disruption of the oral microbiome has been proven to influence the course of oral diseases, especially among immunocompromised patients. Oral microbiome is comprised of inter-kingdom microorganisms, including yeasts such as Candida albicans, bacteria, archaea and viruses. These microorganisms can interact synergistically, mutualistically and antagonistically, wherein the sum of these interactions dictates the composition of the oral microbiome. For instance, polymicrobial interactions can improve the ability of C albicans to form biofilm, which subsequently increases the colonisation of oral mucosa by the yeast. Polymicrobial interactions of C albicans with other members of the oral microbiome have been reported to enhance the malignant phenotype of oral cancer cells, such as the attachment to extracellular matrix molecules (ECM) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Polymicrobial interactions may also exacerbate an inflammatory response in oral epithelial cells, which may play a role in carcinogenesis. This review focuses on the role of polymicrobial interactions between C albicans and other oral microorganisms, including its role in promoting oral carcinogenesis.
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