Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

  1. Bakri MM, Cannon RD, Holmes AR, Rich AM
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2014 Oct;43(9):704-10.
    PMID: 24931506 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12193
    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between expression of Candida albicans alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) genes in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from biopsies of leukoplakia.
  2. Siar CH, Ishak I, Ng KH
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2015 May;44(5):378-85.
    PMID: 25155411 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12247
    The ameloblastoma is a benign but locally aggressive odontogenic neoplasm with a high recurrence rate. While significant progress has been made in our understanding regarding the role of tumoral vasculature relative to the diverse behavioral characteristics of this tumor, no attention has been paid to a distinct subset of blood vessels entrapped within its epithelial compartment. As vascular niches are known to influence tumoral growth, clarification of these vessels is important. The objectives of this study were to investigate the morphologic characteristics of intra-epithelially entrapped blood vessels (IEBVs) in ameloblastoma and to speculate on their relevance.
  3. Siar CH, Ishak I, Ng KH
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2015 Jan;44(1):51-8.
    PMID: 25059841 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12203
    Ameloblastoma is a benign but locally infiltrative odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a high risk for recurrence. Podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelium marker, putatively promotes collective cell migration and invasiveness in this neoplasm. However, its role in the recurrent ameloblastoma (RA) remains unclear. As morphological, signaling, and genetic differences may exist between primary and recurrent tumors, clarification of their distribution patterns is of relevance.
  4. Siar CH, Ng KH
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2014 Jan;43(1):45-52.
    PMID: 23560539 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12065
    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via the mechanism of transcription repression is a crucial process for the induction of invasiveness in many human tumors. Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a locally infiltrative behavior. Twist, an EMT promoter, has been implicated in its invasiveness. The roles of the other transcription factors remain unclarified.
  5. Siar CH, Nagatsuka H, Han PP, Buery RR, Tsujigiwa H, Nakano K, et al.
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2012 Apr;41(4):332-9.
    PMID: 22077561 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2011.01104.x
    Canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways modulate diverse cellular processes during embryogenesis and post-natally. Their deregulations have been implicated in cancer development and progression. Wnt signaling is essential for odontogenesis. The ameloblastoma is an odontogenic epithelial neoplasm of enamel organ origin. Altered expressions of Wnts-1, -2, -5a, and -10a are detected in this tumor. The activity of other Wnt members remains unclarified.
  6. Siar CH, Nakano K, Han PP, Nagatsuka H, Ng KH, Kawakami T
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2010 Aug 1;39(7):552-8.
    PMID: 20337864 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2009.00871.x
    In mammals, the Notch gene family encodes four receptors (Notch1-4), and all of them are important for cell fate decisions. Notch signaling pathway plays an essential role in tooth development. The ameloblastoma, a benign odontogenic epithelial neoplasm, histologically recapitulates the enamel organ at bell stage. Notch has been detected in the plexiform and follicular ameloblastoma. Its activity in the desmoplastic ameloblastoma is unknown.
  7. Takebe Y, Tsujigiwa H, Katase N, Siar CH, Takabatake K, Fujii M, et al.
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2017 Jan;46(1):67-75.
    PMID: 27327904 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12467
    BACKGROUND: Tumor parenchyma-stromal interactions affect the properties of tumors and their dynamics. Our group previously showed that secreted frizzled related protein (sFRP)-2 impairs bone formation and promotes bone invasion in ameloblastoma. However, the effects of the secreted growth factors CCN2, TGF-β, and BMP4 on stromal tissues in ameloblastoma remain unclear.

    MATERIALS AND RESULTS: Thirty-five paraffin-embedded ameloblastoma cases, ameloblastoma-derived cell lines (AM-1), and primary cultures of ameloblastoma stromal fibroblasts (ASF) were used. Immunohistochemistry, MTT assay, Western blotting, and RT-PCR were performed on these samples. Parenchyma-stromal CCN2 overexpression correlated significantly with fibrous-type stroma, but not with myxoid-type stroma, suggesting a role of CCN2 in fibrosis (P < 0.05). Recombinant CCN2 induction of enhanced ASF proliferation in AM-1 medium supports this view. Conversely, BMP4 and TGF-β were expressed in myxoid-type fibroblasts, but little expression was found in parenchyma. RANKL-positive and CD68-positive stromal cell populations were significantly greater in myxoid-type tumor areas than in fibrous-type tumor areas, while a higher Ki-67 labeling index was recorded in ameloblastoma with fibrous-type stroma. These data suggest that stromal properties influence bone resorption-related activities and growth rates, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the effects of secreted growth factors are governed by ameloblastoma parenchyma-stromal interactions. CCN2 promotes fibrogenesis independent of TGF-β signaling. Absence of CCN2 expression is associated with a phenotypic switch to a myxoid-type microenvironment that is conducive for TGF-β/BMP4 signaling to promote osteoclastogenesis.

  8. Prime SS, Cirillo N, Hassona Y, Lambert DW, Paterson IC, Mellone M, et al.
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2017 Feb;46(2):82-88.
    PMID: 27237745 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12456
    There is now compelling evidence that the tumour stroma plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cancers of epithelial origin. The pre-eminent cell type of the stroma is carcinoma-associated fibroblasts. These cells demonstrate remarkable heterogeneity with activation and senescence being common stress responses. In this review, we summarise the part that these cells play in cancer, particularly oral cancer, and present evidence to show that activation and senescence reflect a unified programme of fibroblast differentiation. We report advances concerning the senescent fibroblast metabolome, mechanisms of gene regulation in these cells and ways in which epithelial cell adhesion is dysregulated by the fibroblast secretome. We suggest that the identification of fibroblast stress responses may be a valuable diagnostic tool in the determination of tumour behaviour and patient outcome. Further, the fact that stromal fibroblasts are a genetically stable diploid cell population suggests that they may be ideal therapeutic targets and early work in this context is encouraging.
  9. Siar CH, Rahman ZA, Tsujigiwa H, Mohamed Om Alblazi K, Nagatsuka H, Ng KH
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2016 Sep;45(8):591-8.
    PMID: 26752341 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12417
    BACKGROUND: Cell migration and invasion through interstitial tissues are dependent upon several specialized characteristics of the migratory cell notably generation of proteolytic membranous protrusions or invadopodia. Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a locally infiltrative behaviour. Cortactin and MMT1-MMP are two invadopodia proteins implicated in its local invasiveness. Other invadopodia regulators, namely N-WASP, WIP and Src kinase remain unclarified. This study addresses their roles in ameloblastoma.

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: Eighty-seven paraffin-embedded ameloblastoma cases (20 unicystic, 47 solid/multicystic, 3 desmoplastic and 17 recurrent) were subjected to immunohistochemistry for expression of cortactin, N-WASP, WIP, Src kinase and F-actin, and findings correlated with clinicopathological parameters.

    RESULTS: Invadopodia proteins (except Src kinase) and F-actin were widely detected in ameloblastoma (cortactin: n = 73/87, 83.9%; N-WASP: n = 59/87; 67.8%; WIP: n = 77/87; 88.5%; and F-actin: n = 87/87, 100%). Protein localization was mainly cytoplasmic and/or membranous, and occasionally nuclear for F-actin. Cortactin, which functions as an actin-scaffolding protein, demonstrated significantly higher expression levels within ameloblastoma tumoral epithelium than in stroma (P < 0.05). N-WASP, which coordinates actin polymerization and invadopodia-mediated extracellular matrix degradation, was overexpressed in the solid/multicystic subtype (P < 0.05). WIP, an upstream regulator of N-WASP, and F-actin were significantly upregulated along the tumour invasive front compared to tumour centres (P < 0.05). Except for males with cortactin overexpression, other clinical parameters (age, ethnicity and anatomical site) showed no significant correlations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Present results suggest that local invasiveness of ameloblastoma is dependent upon the migratory potential of its tumour cells as defined by their distribution of cortactin, N-WASP and WIP in correlation with F-actin cytoskeletal dynamics.

  10. Sinon SH, Rich AM, Parachuru VP, Firth FA, Milne T, Seymour GJ
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2016 Jan;45(1):28-34.
    PMID: 25865410 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12319
    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and TLR-associated signalling pathway genes in oral lichen planus (OLP).
  11. Ghazali N, Bakri MM, Zain RB
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2003 Aug;32(7):383-92.
    PMID: 12846784
    Some oral verrucal lesions may constitute parts of the clinicopathological spectrum of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL). Because of its idiopathic yet sinister nature, it is possible that PVL may exist in other populations. The aim of this study was to review the clinicopathological features of persistent, multifocal, oral verrucal lesions in Malaysian population.
  12. Zain RB, Ikeda N, Gupta PC, Warnakulasuriya S, van Wyk CW, Shrestha P, et al.
    J Oral Pathol Med, 1999 Jan;28(1):1-4.
    PMID: 9890449
    A variety of betel/areca nut/tobacco habits have been reviewed and categorized because of their possible causal association with oral cancer and various oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and on account of their widespread occurrence in different parts of the world. At a recent workshop in Kuala Lumpur it was recommended that "quid" be defined as "a substance, or mixture of substances, placed in the mouth or chewed and remaining in contact with the mucosa, usually containing one or both of the two basic ingredients, tobacco and/or areca nut, in raw or any manufactured or processed form." Clear delineations on contents of the quid (areca nut quid, tobacco quid, and tobacco and areca nut quid) are recommended as absolute criteria with finer subdivisions to be added if necessary. The betel quid refers to any quid wrapped in betel leaf and is therefore a specific variety of quid. The workshop proposed that quid-related lesions should be categorized conceptually into two categories: first, those that are diffusely outlined and second, those localized at the site where a quid is regularly placed. Additional or expanded criteria and guidelines were proposed to define, describe or identify lesions such as chewer's mucosa, areca nut chewer's lesion, oral submucous fibrosis and other quid-related lesions. A new clinical entity, betel-quid lichenoid lesion, was also proposed to describe an oral lichen planus-like lesion associated with the betel quid habit.
  13. Yadav M, Arivananthan M, Chandrashekran A, Tan BS, Hashim BY
    J Oral Pathol Med, 1997 Oct;26(9):393-401.
    PMID: 9385576
    Archival oral tissues comprising 51 squamous cell carcinomas, 18 non-malignant lesions and 7 normal mucosa samples were investigated for human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6)-encoded antigens and HHV-6 DNA. The virus-specific antigens were detected by an immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibodies. Two further techniques used for HHV-6 DNA detection included the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with virus-specific primers and in situ hybridization using digoxigenin-labelled oligonucleotides specific for HHV-6A and HHV-6B genotypes. A high proportion (79-80%) of the squamous cell carcinomas were positive for HHV-6 with the various detection methods. In cases of lichen planus and leukoplakia a high prevalence rate (67-100%) was noted with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques but a lower proportion (22-33%) was detected with the PCR method. All 7 normal tissues tested were negative for HHV-6. The HHV-6 variant B was found in 60% of the oral carcinoma tissues analysed. The study demonstrates the frequent presence of HHV-6 in neoplastic and non-malignant lesions of the oral cavity. While the role of HHV-6 in oral mucosal tissues remains to be determined, the in vitro tumorigenic potential of the virus suggests a possible role in the etiopathogenesis of oral lesions.
  14. Yaacob HB, Samaranayake LP
    J Oral Pathol Med, 1989 Apr;18(4):236-9.
    PMID: 2769596
    A postal survey of 730 Malaysian dental practitioners was undertaken to assess their awareness and acceptance of the plasma derived hepatitis B vaccine. Only 32% of the 325 practitioners who responded had been vaccinated, 41% intended to be and 15% categorically refused vaccination. The main reservations about vaccine acceptance were fear of side effects including AIDS, cost of the vaccine and lack of information. Vaccine efficacy was not confirmed by serology in two-thirds of the vaccinees and two-fifths of the respondents were unaware that 5% of the vaccinees do not develop a successful antibody response after vaccination. Seventy-eight percent of dentists believed that their risk of contracting hepatitis B was high or very high while 71% recalled having received needle stick injuries in the 3 yr prior to the survey. Only 13% of respondents were aware of delta hepatitis while 63% were aware of non-A non-B hepatitis. The survey has highlighted the need for dissemination of information on hepatitis B vaccine among dentists in Malayasia.
  15. Hedin CA, Axéll T
    J Oral Pathol Med, 1991 Jan;20(1):8-12.
    PMID: 2002444
    At the faculties of dentistry in Chiang Mai, Thailand (CM), and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL), 234 and 233 consecutive out-patients were interviewed concerning tobacco and chewing habits and examined for the presence of oral melanin pigmentation. Tobacco was regularly used by 32% and 28% of the studied populations in CM and KL. Cigarette smoking was the predominant habit, but the chewing of betel and tea leaves (miang) and the smoking of banana leaf cigars (khi yo) was also registered. The genetically acquired pigmentation dominated. Although nearly all non-tobacco users in the Malay and Indian populations had oral melanin pigmentation, it was found that tobacco smokers had significantly more oral surfaces pigmented than non-tobacco users. Among Thais, the percentage of pigmented individuals was significantly higher among tobacco smokers. It was concluded that tobacco smoking stimulates oral melanocytes to a higher melanin production also in dark-skinned ethnic groups.
  16. Thomson PJ, Goodson ML, Smith DR
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2018 Jul;47(6):557-565.
    PMID: 29663518 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12716
    BACKGROUND: Clinically identifiable potentially malignant disorders (PMD) precede oral squamous cell carcinoma development. Oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) are specific precursor lesions believed to exhibit both treatment resistance and a high risk of malignant transformation (MT).

    METHODS: A retrospective review of 590 PMD patients treated in Northern England by CO2 laser surgery between 1996 and 2014 was carried out. Lesions exhibiting lichenoid or proliferative verrucous features were identified from the patient database and their clinicopathological features and outcome post-treatment determined at the study census date of 31 December 2014.

    RESULTS: One hundred and 98 patients were identified as follows: 118 OLL and 80 PVL, most frequently leukoplakia at ventrolateral tongue and floor of mouth sites, equally distributed between males and females. Most exhibited dysplasia on incision biopsy (72% OLL; 85% PVL) and were treated by laser excision rather than ablation (88.1% OLL; 86.25% PVL). OLL were more common in younger patients (OLL 57.1 year; PVL 62.25 years; P = .008) and more likely than PVL to present as erythroleukoplakia (OLL 15.3%; PVL 2.5%; P = .003). Whilst no significant difference was seen between OLL and PVL achieving disease-free status (69.5% and 65%, respectively; P = .55), this was less than the overall PMD cohort (74.2%). MT was identified in 2 OLL (1.7%) and 2 PVL (2.5%) during follow-up.

    CONCLUSION: One-third of PMD cases showed features of OLL or PVL, probably representing a disease presentation continuum. Post-treatment disease-free status was less common in OLL and PVL, although MT was infrequent.

  17. Venkataswamy P, Samudrala Venkatesiah S, Rao RS, Banavar SR, Patil S, Augustine D, et al.
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2020 Dec 01.
    PMID: 33259689 DOI: 10.1111/jop.13144
    BACKGROUND: The prognosis of hyperproliferative skin lesions, such as psoriasis, basal cell carcinoma, and non-melanoma skin cancers, is significantly benefited from the levels of tazarotene-induced gene-1 (TIG3) expression and subsequent treatment with tazarotene. Such observations suggest that TIG3 could be used as a biomarker for apoptosis, differentiation, and proliferation. The current study aimed to evaluate the expression of TIG3 in normal oral mucosa (NOM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared with normal skin (NS) and skin squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) using immunohistochemistry.

    METHODS: Seventeen cases each of SSCC, OSCC, NOM, and NS were evaluated. Each section was immunohistochemically stained with a rabbit polyclonal TIG3 antibody. The entire procedure was blinded and evaluated by 5 observers. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test.

    RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in TIG3 protein expression in OSCC and SSCC compared with that in NOM and NS (P = 0.008). The progressive loss of expression was observed as the grade of both malignancies increased. However, there was no significant difference in the expression among the normal tissue groups and within SCC groups of similar grades.

    CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that the loss of TIG3 is an important event in carcinogenesis. TIG3 acts as a regulator of keratinocyte proliferation and terminal differentiation. Therefore, TIG3 could be a potential biomarker to differentiate aggressive and non-aggressive neoplasms.

  18. Jadhav KB, Nagraj SK, Arora S
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2020 Nov 21.
    PMID: 33220092 DOI: 10.1111/jop.13134
    BACKGROUND: miRNA is one of the advanced epigenetic molecular markers correlating with lymph node metastasis in patients with Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Numerous published papers are showing correlation of miRNA with metastasis. There is a need to analyze and validate such correlation.

    METHOD: English language literature in major databases from the last 20 years was searched using controlled vocabulary and keywords. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed for selection of studies. The quality assessment was done as per the QUADAS tool 2 by three independent reviewers. The metanalysis was performed by using random effect model. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was considered as the effect measure. Statistical software used was STATA version 13.1.

    RESULTS: With all inclusion and exclusion criteria, eight studies could qualify for metanalysis. The pooled estimate is found to be 0.13 (-0.35, 0.62), P = .585, which is statistically not significant. This indicates that there is a no significant difference in the fold change between metastasis and no metastasis groups. P-value of chi-square statistic for heterogeneity is

  19. Ashraf S, Al-Maweri SA, Alaizari N, Umair A, Ariffin Z, Alhajj MN, et al.
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2020 Nov;49(10):969-976.
    PMID: 32746493 DOI: 10.1111/jop.13093
    BACKGROUND: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common inflammatory disease, with unclear etiology. A number of studies have linked Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with OLP. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the available evidence regarding the potential association between EBV and OLP.

    METHODS: Online databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, and Google Scholar) were searched from date of inception till May 2020. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: 1) observational studies that assessed the relationship between EBV and OLP, 2) the study comprised OLP patients and control subjects, 3) diagnosis of OLP was confirmed histopathologically, and 4) articles were in English. Studies without control groups, experimental studies, case reports, and reviews were excluded. The fixed-effects model was performed for meta-analyses using RevMan 5.3 software.

    RESULTS: A total of 10 studies comprising 386 OLP cases and 304 controls were included. Of these, only 8 studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. The results of the quality assessment showed that only 2 studies were of high quality, while the remaining studies were of moderate quality. The results of the pooled eight studies revealed a significant positive association between EBV and OLP (OR = 4.41, 95% CI: [2.74, 7.11], P 

  20. Sathasivam HP, Nayar D, Sloan P, Thomson PJ, Odell EW, Robinson M
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2021 Feb;50(2):200-209.
    PMID: 33151583 DOI: 10.1111/jop.13121
    BACKGROUND: Oral potentially malignant disorders are a clinical conundrum as there are no reliable methods to predict their behaviour. We combine conventional oral epithelial dysplasia grading with DNA ploidy analysis to examine the validity of this approach to risk assessment in a cohort of patients with known clinical outcomes.

    METHODS: Sections from diagnostic biopsies were assessed for oral epithelial dysplasia using the WHO grading system, and DNA ploidy analysis was performed using established methods. Patients reviewed for a minimum of 5 years who did not develop oral squamous cell carcinoma were classified as "non-transforming" cases. Patients that developed oral squamous cell carcinoma ≥ 6 months after the initial diagnostic biopsy were classified as having "malignant transformation."

    RESULTS: Ninety cases were included in the study. Seventy cases yielded informative DNA ploidy results. Of these 70 cases, 31 progressed to cancer. Oral epithelial dysplasia grading and DNA ploidy status were both significantly associated with clinical outcome (P 

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