We investigated the relationship of the maxillary central incisors to the incisive papilla in wearers of complete dentures. First, image analyzer software was used to examine the relationship of the midpoint of the incisive papilla to the labial surface of the maxillary central incisors on occlusal photographs of 120 maxillary casts from dentate Malaysian adults. Then, an Alma denture gauge was used to identify the position of the labial surface of the maxillary central incisors in relation to the midpoint of the incisive papilla in complete dentures from 51 patients who requested replacement dentures at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. The mean incisor distance to the incisive papilla in dentate adults was 9.59 ± 1.00 mm, while the mean incisor distance to the incisive papilla in complete dentures was 6.34 ± 1.87 mm. Thus, in our sample of edentulous patients, the anterior teeth in complete dentures were positioned approximately 3 mm closer to the incisive papilla, as compared with the position of the central incisors in natural dentition, and did not duplicate the position of the natural anterior teeth.
Cluster headache is a neurovascular disorder characterized by attacks of severe and strictly unilateral pain presenting in and around the orbit and temporal area. Attacks occur in series lasting for weeks or months separated by remission periods. An individual attack lasts 15-180 min with a frequency of once every other day to as often as 8 times per day. Ipsilateral radiation of the headache to orofacial regions, including the teeth, is not unusual. The area of involvement may obscure the diagnosis and lead to irreversible and unnecessary dental treatment. A case in which cluster attacks occurred immediately after a dental procedure is described.
The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of salivary cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) before, during and after acute exercise. Acute exercise was induced using a standard treadmill test with Bruce protocol in ten physically active male participants. Unstimulated saliva was collected before, during and after exercise. The levels of salivary cortisol and TNF-alpha were assessed by enzyme immunoassays. Salivary NO was determined by the Griess reagent. The results showed that both salivary cortisol and TNF-alpha increased and peaked at 14 min during exercise and then decreased. The levels of NO were increased up to 1 h after exercise and subsequently lowered after 24 h. The results of the present study suggest that acute exercise may induce high levels of salivary cortisol, TNF-alpha and NO.
The anterior loop is defined as where the mental neurovascular bundle crosses anterior to the mental foramen then doubles back to exit the mental foramen. It cannot be seen clinically but can be detected in 11-60% of panoramic radiographs. As this anatomical structure is important in determining the placement position of endosseous implants in the mandibular premolar region, a pilot study was undertaken to determine its visibility on dental panoramic radiographs in dentate subjects of various age groups. One or more anterior loops were visible in 39 (40.2%) radiographs encompassing 66 sites (34.4%). Interestingly, anterior loops were most commonly observed bilaterally, followed by on the right side of the mandible only. An anterior loop on the left side only was observed in just 1 radiograph. Visibility of anterior loops reduced as the age of subjects increased. More than half (58.1%) of subjects aged 20-29 years exhibited at least one anterior loop; this gradually reduced to only 15 percent of subjects aged 50 and older. There was no association between visualization of the anterior loop and subject gender.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of six groups of antibiotics and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in a membrane filter model. Two-day-old E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) biofilm was exposed to ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, erythr omycin, oxytetracycline, vancomycin, vancomycin followed by gentamicin, Ca(OH)(2), and phosphate-buffered saline (control). After 1 h of exposure, the antimicrobial activity was neutralized by washing each disc five times in PBS, and then the colony-forming units of the remaining viable bacteria on each disc were counted. The results revealed that only erythromycin, oxytetracycline and Ca(OH)2 showed 100% biofilm kill. An ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc test (P < 0.05) detected significant differences among the test agents, except in the ampicillin group versus the co-trimoxazole group. It is concluded that erythromycin, oxytetracycline and Ca(OH)2 are 100% effective in eliminating E. faecalis biofilm, whereas ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, vancomycin, and vancomycin followed by gentamicin are ineffective.
Lichen planus, a chronic autoimmune, mucocutaneous disease affects the oral mucosa (oral lichen planus or OLP) besides the skin, genital mucosa, scalp and nails. An immune mediated pathogenesis is recognized in lichen planus although the exact etiology is unknown. The disease most commonly affects middle-aged females. Oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) which are considered variants of OLP, may be regarded as a disease by itself or as an exacerbation of an existing OLP, by the presence of medication (lichenoid drug reactions) or dental materials (contact hypersensitivity). OLP usually presents as white striations (Wickham's striae), white papules, white plaque, erythema, erosions or blisters. Diagnosis of OLP is established either by clinical examination only or by clinical examination with histopathologic confirmation. Direct immunofluorescence examination is only used as an adjunct to the above method of diagnosis and to rule out specific autoimmune diseases such as pemphigus and pemphigoid. Histopathologic features of OLP and OLR are similar with suggestions of certain discriminatory features by some authors. Topical corticosteroids are the treatment of choice for OLP although several other medications have been studied including retinoids, tacrolimus, cyclosporine and photodynamic therapy. Certain OLP undergo malignant transformation and the exact incidence and mechanisms are still controversial. In this paper, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and malignant transformation of OLP and OLR have been reviewed.
The adhesion of early settlers of dental plaque to the tooth surface has a role in the initiation of the development of dental plaque. The hydrophobic surface properties of the bacteria cell wall are indirectly responsible for the adhesion of the bacteria cell to the acquired pellicle on the tooth surfaces. In this study, the effect of aqueous extract of two plants (Psidium guajava and Piper betle) on the cell-surface hydro-phobicity of early settlers of dental plaque was determined in vitro. Hexadecane, a hydrocarbon was used to represent the hydrophobic surface of the teeth in the oral cavity. It was found that treatment of the early plaque settlers with 1 mg/ml extract of Psidium guajava reduced the cell-surface hydrophobicity of Strep. sanguinis, Strep. mitis and Actinomyces sp. by 54.1%, 49.9% and 40.6%, respectively. Treatment of these bacteria with the same concentration of Piper betle however, showed a comparatively lesser effect (< 10%). It was also observed that the anti-adhesive effect of the two extracts on the binding of the early plaque settlers to hexadecane is concentration dependent.
A study was conducted to compare the efficiency of crude aqueous (CA) and solvent extracts (CM) of clove on the caries-inducing properties of Streptococcus mutans. The cariogenic properties investigated included the cell adhesion, cell-surface hydrophobicity and glucan synthesis activities of S. mutans. There was a significant difference between the effect of the CA and CM extracts on the adhesion of S. mutans (P < 0.05) within a concentration range of 5-15 mg/ml, the CM extract demonstrating a slightly higher inhibitory effect. However, the effect of the CM extract on the cell-surface hydrophobicity of S. mutans was weaker than that of the CA extract. The two extracts were found to reduce the synthesis of water-insoluble glucan (WIG) by almost 50% at a concentration as low as 0.5 mg/ml and the CM extract exhibited a significantly higher inhibitory effect than the CA extract (P < 0.05). The present findings indicate that both the CA and CM extracts exert inhibitory effects on the cariogenic properties of S. mutans and that the CA extract is as equally effective as the CM extract.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial impact of enamel defects among 16-year-old school children on the island of Penang. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire survey and an oral examination, using the Modified Developmental Defects of Enamel Index (FDI, 1992). In all, 1024 subjects were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. About two-thirds of the sample (67.1%) had at least one tooth affected by enamel defects. Enamel opacities accounted for 85.6% of the total condition. Diffuse-type opacity predominated (63.5%). Among subjects who expressed dissatisfaction, 18.8% reported covering their mouths when smiling, 8.7% avoided going out with friends and 39.1% had consulted their dentists. About 17% of the subjects reported that their parents had complained about the color of their front teeth but only 5.7% had experienced being teased by their friends about the problem. Two-thirds of the subjects were affected by enamel defects involving at least one tooth; however, the esthetic perception and psychosocial impact of those affected were minor.
The turnaround time (TAT) for oral biopsies received for histological examination by the Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, for the years 1978, 1988 and 1998 was evaluated. For the three years studied, TATs for 61, 233 and 463 specimens were retrospectively analysed. Testing intervals, that is, from the dates the surgeons procured the specimens, the laboratories accessioned them and until the pathologists signed off the diagnoses, were used to calculate TAT. The performance level of the respective pathologists, the growth of tissue diagnostic services and the possible variables that influence TAT were also evaluated. As prompt diagnosis means prompt treatment, which in turn has a bearing on prognosis, the TAT pertinent to oral malignant tumors was emphasized. The mean TAT, its mode and median fell significantly in 1998 compared with the previous 2 years; it was lower for soft tissue than for hard tissue specimens, and lower for malignant, than for non-malignant specimens. The progression of tissue diagnostic services is up to a satisfactory level, as 88.89 % of biopsies could render diagnoses within a fair period of time in 1998.
The objective of this study was to determine the socio-demography (age, race and gender) of a group of Malaysian patients who were diagnosed as suffering from oral lichen planus (OLP). The occurrence of malignancy was also investigated. A total of 77 clinical and biopsy records of patients with OLP were studied. Females were affected more than males, with the female to male ratio being 2:1. Middle-aged Indian and Chinese females tend to be affected by OLP when compared with the rest of the population. Only 19 patients returned for further follow-up. One adult Indian female with a six-year history of lichenoid reaction showed the presence of malignancy.
Thirty-one patients treated at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, were assessed for their satisfaction following orthognathic surgery. The female to male ratio was 22:9 with an age range of 17 to 36. Almost all patients (97%) listed appearance as one of their rationales for surgery. More males (78%) than females (59%) wanted functional improvement, while more females (91%) than males (33%) hoped for improvement in self-confidence. All patients reported esthetic improvement while 68% each reported improvement in mastication and self-confidence. Slightly more than half (52%) chose esthetic improvement as the single most important factor resulting in satisfaction. Almost ninety percent of male patients claimed satisfaction with functional improvement, while 68% of those who found satisfaction in improved self-confidence were females. Eighty-seven percent rated their post-surgical changes as being well accepted by their family. The impact of these findings on the success of the surgery and the need to reinforce verbal communication with printed pamphlets are emphasized.
There is presently no line of distinction between oral lichen planus and other oral lichenoid lesions. The aim of this study is to determine using histomorphometry, the differences between these lesions. Paraffin sections from 7 normal buccal epithelium, 19 oral lichen planus (LP), 14 oral lichenoid lesions (LL) and 7 discoid lupus erythematosus-like lesions (DLE-ll) were selected. The nuclear volume (V(N)) and cellular-volume (V(CELL)) of the epithelium were assessed using an image analyser. The V(N) and V(CELL), derived for both basal and spinal strata in LP and DLE-ll were 2.3 times more than that of normal tissues. There was a significant difference between LP and LL (P < 0.005) and between LL and DLE-ll (P < 0.001), but not between LP and DLE-ll. In conclusion, there appears to be a difference between LP, LL and DLE-ll and V(N) and V(CELL) may serve as potential discriminators between these groups of lesions.
Stainless steel wrought wires used as clasp arms for removable partial dentures in Thailand were compared with those used in some other countries (in the as-received condition) in terms of flexibility, Vickers microhardness and composition. The results showed that there were significant differences (P< or =0.05) among the wires. A Japanese stainless steel wire (SK) was obviously different from the others. It had the lowest proportional limit and microhardness, but its flexibility was almost the same. The chemical composition of each wire was not greatly different. The wires were about 18-20 wt% chromium and 8-9 wt% nickel, except for the SK wire, which had about 12 wt% nickel.
One of the objectives of this short communication was to add to the literature on the prevalence of oral recurrent aphthous stomatitis (ORAS). This research is based on a total of 11,697 randomly selected Malaysian subjects with an age range of 25-115 years and a mean age of 44.5 +/- 13.9 years who were examined for oral mucosal lesions (ORAS). The prevalence of ORAS detected during the oral examination (average point prevalence) was found to be 0.5% (64 subjects). ORAS formed 5.7% of all lesions detected during the survey. The average point prevalence of ORAS was highest in the indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak (1.2%), followed by the Chinese (0.7%), the Malays (0.5%) and the Indians (0.1%). This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). A review of the English literature on the prevalence of ORAS revealed different prevalence types used by different researchers, namely average point prevalence (APP), self reported life-time prevalence (SLP) and self reported two-year prevalence (STP). The other objective of this paper was to present the different types of prevalence that have been reported in the literature and to discuss the usefulness of such prevalence types in relation to using epidemiology in deriving certain possible etiological associations.
This was a retrospective study of odontogenic keratocysts in people from the Singapore-Malaysian region. The purpose of this study was to present the clinicopathologic features of odontogenic keratocysts in the Oriental population and to compare these data with those from other reported studies. Biopsy records from 1981 to 1992 of 61 cases of odontogenic keratocysts from patients in Malaysia and Singapore showed that 42.6% of patients were female and 57.4% of patients were male. Among patients with cysts, 75.4% were Chinese, 6.6% were Malays, 9.8% were Indians and 8.2% were other ethnic groups. The mean age of these patients was 26.98 +/- 15.38 years with a peak incidence occurring in the second to fourth decades. The location of the lesions was more often in the mandible (65.5%) than the maxilla (31.0%). There was a marked predilection for lesions to occur in the posterior mandible. Histologically, 90.2% of the cysts were lined with a para-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium while only 3.3% of the cysts were lined with orthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Mixed para-keratinized and orthokeratinized epithelial linings were observed in 4 cases (6.5%). The cyst linings were mainly uninflamed (95.1%). Inflammation of the cyst wall was found in 42 cases (68.8%). Twelve (19.7%) cases contained keratin in the lumen. A satellite cyst was observed in only 6 cases (9.8%). In conclusion, most clinical and histological features seen in this study were similar to those found for Caucasians. The only clinical feature that was different was the peak age incidence, that ranged from the second to fourth decades, with an absence of a second peak. Odontogenic keratocysts presenting at the site of the dentigerous cyst were observed in 7 cases (11.5%).
Osteosarcomas are highly malignant neoplasms of bone that are challenging to diagnose. These neoplasms often show atypical behavior. In the initial phase they may present as nondescript bony swellings with an indolent growth rate, only to become overtly aggressive and malignant towards the later phase of the disease. Similarly, the histological growth pattern of this neoplasm can be quite diverse, presenting with areas that mimic benign myofibroblastic tumors, giant cell granulomatous conditions and partial encapsulation. The final diagnosis of an osteosarcoma is often reached after thorough sampling and examination of multiple biopsy specimens. All these clinical features and histological diagnostic difficulties were encountered in a case of osteosarcoma affecting the right mandible of a 62-year-old Chinese woman described here. The diagnostic lessons accrued from this case are discussed.
Osteoma is a benign tumour consisting of mature bone tissue. It is an uncommon lesion that occurs mainly in the bones of the craniofacial complex. Only a few cases involving the condylar process have been reported. An osteoma of the left condyle causing limited mouth-opening in a 32-year-old Malaysian Chinese female is reported here to alert the practitioner to consider this lesion as a diagnostic possibility in instances of trismus or limited-mouth opening.
The aqueous extracts of Piper betle and Psidium guajava were prepared and tested for their anti-adherence effect on the adhesion of early plaque settlers (Strep. mitis, Strep. sanguinis and Actinomyces sp.). The saliva-coated glass surfaces were used to simulate the pellicle-coated enamel surface in the oral cavity. Our results showed that the anti-adherence activities of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts towards the bacteria were different between the bacterial species. Psidium guajava was shown to have a slightly greater anti-adherence effect on Strep. sanguinis by 5.5% and Actinomyces sp. by 10% and a significantly higher effect on Strep. mitis (70%) compared to Piper betle. The three bacterial species are known to be highly hydrophobic, and that hydrophobic bonding seemed to be an important factor in their adherence activities. It is therefore suggested that the plant extracts, in expressing their anti-adherence activities, could have altered the hydrophobic nature of the bonding between the bacteria and the saliva-coated glass surfaces.
Though oral candidosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that commonly affects immunocompromised patients, little is known of its occurrence as a complication of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This paper reports a case of oral candidosis in a 20-year-old Indonesian woman with this lymphoproliferative disease. She presented with acute pseudomembranous candidosis on the dorsum and lateral borders of the tongue, bilateral angular cheilitis and cheilocandidosis. The latter is a rare clinical variant of oral candidosis, and the lesions affecting the vermilion borders presented as an admixture of superficial erosions, ulcers and white plaques. Clinical findings were confirmed with oral smears and swabs that demonstrated the presence of hyphae, pseudohyphae and blastospores, and colonies identified as Candida albicans. A culture from a saline rinse was also positive for multiple candidal colonies. Lip and oral lesions were managed with Nystatin. The lesions regressed with subsequent crusting on the lips, and overall reduction in oral thrush. As Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a neoplastic disease that produces a chronic immunosuppressive state, management of its oral complications, including those due to oral candidosis, is considered a long-term indication.