METHODS: A randomized controlled study was carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia over a 12-month period. Fifty-four healthy term infants with severe hyperbilirubinemia were randomized to receive either solely enteral feeds (n = 27) or both enteral and intravenous (n = 27) fluid during phototherapy.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the mean birthweight, mean gestational age, ethnic distribution, gender distribution, modes of delivery and types of feeding between the two groups. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the mean indirect serum bilirubin (iSB) level at the time of admission to the NICU between the enteral (359 +/- 69 micromol/L [mean +/- SD]) and intravenous group (372 +/- 59 micromol/L; P = 0.4). The mean rates of decrease in iSB during the first 4 h of phototherapy were also not significantly different between the enteral group (10.4 +/- 4.9 micromol/L per h) and intravenous group (11.2 +/- 7.4 micromol/L per h; P = 0.6). There was no significant difference in the proportion of infants requiring exchange transfusion (P = 0.3) nor in the median duration of hospitalization (P = 0.7) between the two groups. No infant developed vomiting or abdominal distension during the study period.
CONCLUSION: Severely jaundiced healthy term infants had similar rates of decrease in iSB levels during the first 4 h of intensive phototherapy, irrespective of whether they received oral or intravenous fluid supplementation. However, using the oral route avoided the need for intravenous cannulae and their attendant complications.
METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional survey conducted from September to November 2001. Schoolchildren were recruited from primary schools that were selected randomly from a list of all primary schools in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, using random sampling numbers. Information concerning recurrent abdominal pain, socio-economic status, life events, demographic and other details was obtained using a combination of questionnaires and interviews. Academic achievement was assessed using a score based on the Malaysian Primary School Achievement Examination. An overall score at or above the mean was taken to indicate high academic achievement while a score below the mean indicated poor academic achievement.
RESULTS: A total of 1971 children were studied (958 boys and 1013 girls: 1047 Malays, 513 Chinese and 411 Indians). Of these children, 456 (23.1%) fulfilled the criteria for recurrent abdominal pain. Using the method of binary logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with poor academic performance: a low socio-economic status (odds ratio (OR) 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.35); male sex (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.26-2.05); the death of a close relative (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.73-2.85); the divorce or separation of parents (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.73-5.40); the commencement of work by the mother (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.02-1.76); hospitalization of the child in the 12 months prior to the study (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.12-3.01); lack of health-care consultation (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.36-2.36); missing breakfast (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.07-2.02); and lack of kindergarten education (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.04-1.75).
CONCLUSIONS: Many factors, such as socio-economic status and recent life events, were associated with poor academic performance. Recurrent abdominal pain did not correlate directly to academic performance. Stress may be a means by which various factors cause children to struggle academically.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey. A total of 3371 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to parents of children aged 7, 9 and 12 years attending four primary schools in the city. The ICD-10 definition of enuresis was used.
RESULTS: From an overall response rate of 73.8%, nocturnal enuresis was reported in 200 children (8%), primary nocturnal enuresis in 156 children (6.2%) and secondary nocturnal enuresis in 44 children (1.8%). Fifty-three percent of those with primary enuresis had a positive family history, and 54% had two or more wet nights per week. Eighty-seven percent had not sought any form of treatment despite 74% admitting to being embarrassed. Using logistic regression analysis, only three factors were significant predictors of primary nocturnal enuresis. These were: (i) younger age (P < 0.001); (ii) male sex (P < 0.033); and (iii) Indian ethnic group (P < 0.044) compared to Chinese.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in urban-dwelling Malaysian children is similar to that reported from Korea and Taiwan but appears to be lower than that reported from developed countries. Predictive factors associated with primary nocturnal enuresis included lower age group, male sex and Indian ethnicity.
RESULTS: Based on 517 cases of AFP reported during this 5-year period, the overall rate of AFP was 1.2 per 100 000 children below 15 years old. The major clinical diagnosis associated with AFP were Guillain-Barre syndrome (30.2%), central nervous system infection (16.2%), transverse myelitis (10.6%) non-polio enterovirus infection (6.2%), and hypokalaemic paralysis (5.2%). This unusual pattern with an excess of CNS infection and non-polio enterovirus infection was attributed to the outbreak of enterovirus 71 infection nation-wide in 1997. According to the WHO virological classification, there was no case of poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus. Three cases were 'polio compatible', there were no cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), while 62 cases (12.0%) were merely classified as 'non-polio AFP'.
CONCLUSION: Overall, these data suggest the absence of circulation of wild poliovirus in Malaysia from 1997 to 2001. The pattern of AFP in this study is different from other published reports.
METHODS: Retrospective review of cases of acute gastroenteritis admitted to the children's ward of the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 1996 and 1999.
RESULTS: During the study period, 333 cases (24%) of 1362 stool samples, obtained from children admitted with acute diarrhoea, were positive for rotavirus. Acute gastroenteritis constituted 8.2%, and rotavirus infection 1.6% of all the paediatric admissions each year. Of the 271 cases analysed, 72% of the affected population were less than 2 years of age. Peak incidence of admissions was between January to March, and September to October. Dehydration was common (92%) but electrolyte disturbances, lactose intolerance (5.2%), prolonged diarrhoea (2.6%) and cow's milk protein intolerance was uncommon. No deaths were recorded.
CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus infection was a common cause of childhood diarrhoea that required hospital admission in an urban setting in Malaysia.
METHOD: A prospective cohort study of 31 consecutive newborn infants with UAC-associated aortic thrombi which were detected by abdominal ultrasonography after removal of UAC. Twenty-two infants were treated with intravenous infusion of low dose (1000 U/h) streptokinase, while nine others were not treated due to various contra-indications. Thrombolysis occurred after a mean interval of 2.2 days (standard deviation (SD) = 1.8) in the treated infants. In the untreated infants, spontaneous thrombolysis occurred significantly later, after a mean interval of 16.9 days (SD = 14.7) (95% confidence intervals of difference between mean intervals - 26.0, - 3.4; P = 0.02). Only one treated infant developed mild bleeding directly attributed to streptokinase therapy.
CONCLUSION: Low dose streptokinase infusion was effective and safe in thrombolysing UAC-associated aortic thrombi.
METHODOLOGY: From a cohort of 151 eligible VLBW survivors born in Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital, 116 (76.8%) were prospectively followed up from birth till four years. A standardised neurological examination was performed at one and four years to determine the presence of impairment and cerebral palsy, respectively. Cognitive development was assessed using the Mental Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (MDI) at one year and the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WIPPSI-R) at four years. Motor coordination was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement-ABC). Mothers completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI) questionnaires. Logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with cerebral palsy, IQ scores, Movement-ABC and CBCL scores.
RESULTS: Factors associated with cerebral palsy were lower MDI scores at one year (P = 0.001) and late neonatal cranial ultrasound abnormalities (P = 0.036). Minor (P = 0.016) or major impairment (P = 0.003) at one year of age and a low level of paternal education (P = 0.01) were associated with poor motor function on the Movement-ABC scale. Lower levels of maternal education (P < 0.001), impairment at one year (P = 0.002) and late neonatal cranial ultrasound abnormalities (P = 0.039) predicted Full Scale IQ scores. Higher PSI scores (P = 0.001), younger mothers (P = 0.003) and late neonatal cranial ultrasound abnormalities (P = 0.009) were associated with worsened child behaviour scores on the CBCL scale.
CONCLUSION: Social factors and the caregiving environment were important determinants of cognitive and behavioural outcome. Cranial ultrasound abnormalities in the late neonatal period and the developmental status at one year might be useful in identifying high risk infants in need of long-term surveillance.
METHODOLOGY: The linear growth of 101 children with CP and of their healthy controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity was measured using upper-arm length (UAL). Nutritional parameters of weight, triceps skin-fold thickness and mid-arm circumference were also measured. Total caloric intake was assessed using a 24-h recall of a 3-day food intake and calculated as a percentage of the Recommended Daily Allowance. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine nutritional, medical and sociodemographic factors associated with poor growth (using z-scores of UAL) in children with CP.
RESULTS: Compared with the controls, children with CP had significantly lower mean UAL measurements (difference between means -1.1, 95% confidence interval -1.65 to - 0.59), weight (difference between means -6.0, 95% CI -7.66 to -4.34), mid-arm circumference (difference between means -1.3, 95% CI -2.06 to -0.56) and triceps skin-fold thickness (difference between means -2.5, 95% CI -3.5 to -1.43). Factors associated with low z-scores of UAL were a lower percentage of median weight (P < 0.001), tube feeding (P < 0.001) and increasing age (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: A large proportion of Malaysian children with CP have poor nutritional status and linear growth. Nutritional assessment and management at an early age might help this group of children achieve adequate growth.