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  1. Elkalmi RM, Hassali MA, Ibrahim MI, Jamshed SQ, Al-Lela OQ
    J Patient Saf, 2014 Jun;10(2):81-7.
    PMID: 24618640 DOI: 10.1097/PTS.0000000000000051
    This study was designed to explore awareness and attitudes of community pharmacists toward the national ADR reporting system activities in the northern states of Malaysia.
  2. Hassali MA, Al-Haddad M, Shafie AA, Tangiisuran B, Saleem F, Atif M, et al.
    J Patient Saf, 2012 Jun;8(2):76-80.
    PMID: 22561848 DOI: 10.1097/PTS.0b013e31824aba86
    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the perceptions of general practitioners (GPs) from the state of Penang toward the feasibility of implementing the medication reconciliation program in Malaysia.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study using a validated, self-completed anonymous 18-item questionnaire was undertaken over a period of 2 months in 2010. The study was conducted in the state of Penang, Malaysia. A letter consisting of survey questionnaires and prepaid return envelope were mailed to 429 GPs identified from the Private Medical Practice Control Department Registry.
    RESULTS: A total of 86 responses were received with response rate of 20.1%. Majority (90.1%) of the respondents agreed that medication reconciliation can be a feasible strategy to improve medication safety, and 97.7% confirmed that having an accurate up-to-date list of the patient's previous medication will be useful in the rational prescribing process. However, about half (56.9%) of them felt that standardization of the medication reconciliation process in all clinics will be difficult to achieve. Three quarters (73.2%) of the respondents believed that the involvement of GPs alone is insufficient, and 74.5% agreed that this program should be expanded to community pharmacy setting. More than 90% of the respondents agreed upon the medication reconciliation card proposed by the researchers.
    CONCLUSIONS: General practitioners in Penang are generally in favor of the implementation of medication reconciliation program in their practice. Because medication reconciliation has been shown to reduce many medicine-related problems, it is thus worth considering the feasibility of nationwide implementation of such program.
  3. Dhamanti I, Leggat S, Barraclough S, Liao HH, Abu Bakar N
    J Patient Saf, 2021 06 01;17(4):e299-e305.
    PMID: 32217924 DOI: 10.1097/PTS.0000000000000622
    OBJECTIVES: Incident reporting is one of the tools used to improve patient safety that has been widely used in health facilities in many countries. Incident reporting systems provide functionality to collect, analyze, and disseminate lessons learned to the wider community, whether at the hospital or national level. The aim of this study was to compare the patient safety incident reporting systems of Taiwan, Malaysia, and Indonesia to identify similarities, differences, and areas for improvement.

    METHODS: We searched the official Web sites and homepages of the responsible leading patient safety agencies of the three countries. We reviewed all publicly available guidelines, regulatory documents, government reports that included policies, guidelines, strategy papers, reports, evaluation programs, as well as scientific articles and gray literature related to the incident reporting system. We used the World Health Organization components of patient safety reporting system as the guidelines for comparison and analyzed the documents using descriptive comparative analysis.

    RESULTS: Taiwan had the most incidents reported, followed by Malaysia and Indonesia. Taiwan Patient Safety Reporting (TPR) and the Malaysian Reporting and Learning System had similar attributes and followed the World Health Organization components for incident reporting. We found differences between the Indonesian system and both of TPR and the Malaysian system. Indonesia did not have an external reporting deadline, analysis and learning were conducted at the national level, and there was a lack of transparency and public access to data and reports. All systems need to establish a clear and structured incident reporting evaluation framework if they are to be successful.

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared with TPR and Malaysian system, the Indonesian patient safety incident reporting system seemed to be ineffective because it failed to acquire adequate national incident reporting data and lacked transparency; these deficiencies inhibited learning at the national level. We suggest further research on the implementation at the hospital level to see how far national guidelines and policy have been implemented in each country.

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