Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Nah SA, Tan HL, Tamba RP, Aziz DA, Azzam N
    J Pediatr Surg, 2011 Feb;46(2):424-7.
    PMID: 21292104 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2010.11.045
    Necrotizing enterocolitis has a wide clinical spectrum of manifestation. We report a novel method of managing focal isolated perforation in necrotizing enterocolitis by using diagnostic laparoscopy to localize the site of perforation and by making a microincision over the perforation to perform exteriorization or limited resection and primary anastomosis.
  2. Wong CS, Cheah FC
    J Pediatr Surg, 2012 Dec;47(12):2336-40.
    PMID: 23217901 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.09.029
    Cephalhematoma is normally a self-limiting condition affecting 1%-2% of live births, especially following instrumental forceps delivery. The sub-periosteal bleed is characteristically limited by the cranial sutures. Although benign in most instances, this condition may, in a small proportion of cases, be complicated by hyperbilirubinemia or scalp infection. We describe a case of cephalhematoma in a newborn infant infected with Escherichia coli resulting in an extensive deep seated scalp abscess. The infection was also systemic causing E. coli septicemia and initial assessment assumed local extension including bone and meningeal to cause skull osteomyelitis and meningitis respectively. Further investigations and multiple-modality imaging with ultrasound, CT scan and bone scintigraphy outlined the involvement as limited to the scalp, resulting in a shorter antibiotic treatment period and earlier discharge from hospital. The infant recovered well with parenteral antibiotics, saucerization of the abscess and a later skin grafting procedure.
  3. Tan HL, Nah SA, Budianto II, Sehat S, Tamba R
    J Pediatr Surg, 2012 Dec;47(12):2294-7.
    PMID: 23217892 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.09.022
    Octyl cyanoacrylate has been used for many years for simple skin closure, but its use in hypospadias repair and as a urethral stent fixator has not been previously reported. We report our experience.
  4. Quah BS, Hashim I, Simpson H
    J Pediatr Surg, 1999 Mar;34(3):512-4.
    PMID: 10211672
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia through the foramen of Bochdalek may present after infancy. A 21/2-year-old Malay girl presented with acute respiratory distress. Chest examination showed reduced chest expansion and decreased breath sounds on the left side. Chest radiograph showed a large "cyst" in the left chest, which was thought to be a lung cyst under tension. Tube thoracostomy resulted in clinical improvement. Results of a barium study showed that the cyst perforated by the thoracostomy tube was the stomach, which had herniated through a Bochdalek diaphragmatic defect. Surgical repair of the diaphragmatic defect and closure of the perforated stomach was performed successfully. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia should be included in the differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in young children. Nasogastric tube placement must be considered as an early diagnostic or therapeutic intervention when the diagnosis is suspected.
  5. Ramanujam TM, Ramesh JC, Goh DW, Wong KT, Ariffin WA, Kumar G, et al.
    J Pediatr Surg, 1999 Nov;34(11):1684-6.
    PMID: 10591570
    Here the first case in the literature of both mesenchymal hamartoma and malignant mesenchymoma occurring in a 6-year-old male child, at different times and at different sites in the liver, and also the possible malignant transformation of a mesenchymal hamartoma is reported. The tumor developed from a lesion in the right lobe that was overlooked initially during a left lateral segmentectomy at 18 months of age for a mesenchymal hamartoma. Malignant mesenchymoma is a rare and aggressive tumor. The origin of this tumor is not well understood. There has been no direct support to the hypothesis that malignant mesenchymoma may be the malignant counterpart of mesenchymal hamartoma. The authors provide clinical and histopathologic evidence in our case that suggests the possibility of malignant mesenchymoma arising from a mesenchymal hamartoma. This case emphasizes the need for complete removal of mesenchymal hamartoma and the need for long-term follow-up to detect multifocal lesion or malignant transformation.
  6. Ramesh JC, Ramanujam TM, Yik YI, Goh DW
    J Pediatr Surg, 1999 Nov;34(11):1691-4.
    PMID: 10591572
    The authors evaluated the safety and benefits of 1-stage pull-through in comparison with staged repair of Hirschsprung's disease under circumstances prevailing in a developing country.
  7. Quah BS, Indudharan R, Hashim I, Simpson H
    J Pediatr Surg, 1998 Dec;33(12):1817-9.
    PMID: 9869060
    Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) without atresia is rare and usually presents with symptoms from birth. In this report, a 9-year-old boy presented with productive cough of 4 month's duration and was shown to have a right lung abscess seen on chest radiograph. His parents denied earlier respiratory symptoms or illnesses. Rigid bronchoscopy showed a fistulous opening of about 1 mm in diameter in the posterior wall of the trachea about 16 cm from the upper incisor teeth. Cannulation with a ureteral catheter demonstrated that the fistulous opening communicated with the esophageal lumen. The tracheoesophageal fistula was 1 cm long and was divided through a right supraclavicular incision. The postoperative period was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. This case demonstrated that TEF should be considered in any patient presenting with chronic respiratory problems even after a prolonged symptom-free period.
  8. Sharif SP, Friedmacher F, Amin A, Zaki RA, Hird MF, Khashu M, et al.
    J Pediatr Surg, 2020 Dec;55(12):2625-2629.
    PMID: 32771214 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.07.003
    PURPOSE: To investigate whether serum albumin (SA) concentration can predict the need for surgical intervention in neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).

    METHODS: Retrospective review of all cases with NEC Bell's stage 2 and 3 that were treated in a single center between 2009 and 2015. Data on patient demographics, clinical parameters, laboratory findings and surgical status were recorded. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to evaluate optimal cutoffs and predictive values.

    RESULTS: Overall, 151 neonates with NEC were identified. Of these, 132 (87.4%) had confirmed NEC Bell's stage 2. The median gestational age was 28.4 (range, 23.1-39.0) weeks and 69 (52.3%) had a birth weight of ≤1000 g. Sixty-eight (51.5%) underwent surgery, showing a sustained reduction in SA over time with significantly lower median SA levels compared to 64 (48.5%) cases that responded well to medical treatment (18.3 ± 3.7 g/L vs. 26.0 ± 2.0 g/L; P 

  9. Chung KJ, Chin YM, Wong MS, Sanmugam A, Singaravel S, Nah SA
    J Pediatr Surg, 2022 Feb;57(2):261-265.
    PMID: 34838305 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.10.032
    BACKGROUND: Umbilical granuloma is a common infantile condition which usually responds to non operative management. Copper sulphate (CuSO4) is often used as chemical cauterization but can cause superficial skin burns. An alternative is table salt (NaCl), which osmotically dehydrates wet granulation tissue causing necrosis. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of NaCl versus CuSO4 in treating umbilical granuloma.

    METHOD: We performed a multi centerrandomized controlled trial involving three regional pediatricsurgical units. We included children who presented with umbilical granuloma from December 2018 to May 2020. Children who received treatment prior to index visit were excluded. They were randomly allocated to receive NaCl (twice/day application for 5 days by caregiver) or CuSO4 (single application by clinician). Demographic data, compliance in the NaCl group by pill counting method, treatment outcomes, and complications were recorded. Treatment success was defined as complete lesion resolution. Partial or no response was considered treatment failure. Subsequent treatment then reverted to the respective center's routine management.

    RESULT: We recruited 70 participants with 6 dropouts (2 defaulters, 1 vitellointestinal duct, 3 urachal remnants), leaving 64 subjects for final analysis: 31 NaCl, 33 CuSO4. Compliance rate of 77.4% was recorded for NaCl, with 6 (20%) 'poor compliance' participants stopping therapy before completion owing to complete resolution. NaCl group had a significantly higher complete resolution rate (90.4%) compared to CuSO4 (69.7%), p = 0.040. No NaCl participant developed complications versus 9% (n = 3) in CuSO4 (periumbilical superficial skin burn).

    CONCLUSION: Table salt is an ideal treatment choice for umbilical granuloma as it is effective, safe, and readily available.


  10. Thambusamy E, Thambidorai CR, Nah SA, Gan CS, Wang J, Singaravel S, et al.
    J Pediatr Surg, 2022 Feb;57(2):199-202.
    PMID: 34857376 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.10.029
    BACKGROUND: Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is seen in patients after congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) repair owing to reduction of thoracic contents into the relatively smaller abdominal cavity. In infants, IAP ≥11 mmHg is considered intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). We aim to determine the incidence of IAH and its relationship with duration of ventilatory support, and gastrointestinal function post CDH repair.

    METHODS: We prospectively recruited all neonates who had CDH repair in four hospitals in Malaysia from June 2018 to October 2020. Intra vesical pressure was used as a proxy for IAP and was measured for 5 consecutive days post surgery. The daily median value was used for analysis. We categorized IAP as <11 mmHg (no IAH), 11-15 mmHg (IAH), and >15 mmHg (severe IAH). Incidence of IAH, its effects on the duration of ventilatory support, and gastrointestinal function were studied.

    RESULTS: There were 24 neonates included in this study. They were operated between day 1 and 6 of life (median: 4 days old). IAH was detected within the first 3 days post surgery, with 83% occurring on day one. Those requiring ventilatory support for more than 3 days contributed the largest proportion of IAH (n = 17, 71%). There was strong correlation between days of IAH and duration of ventilation (p 

  11. Lim RZM, Lee T, Ng JYZ, Quek KF, Abdul Wahab N, Amansah SL, et al.
    J Pediatr Surg, 2018 Nov;53(11):2312-2317.
    PMID: 29459045 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2018.01.004
    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Although ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction (USGHR) is increasingly used in managing pediatric intussusception, there is limited literature concerning its use in Malaysia. We aim to examine the experience and factors associated with the effectiveness of USGHR using water.

    METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective observational study in a Malaysian tertiary referral center. Children with intussusception admitted between year 2012 and 2016 were included and medical records reviewed. Factors associated with success or failure of USGHR were identified using multivariable logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Of the 172 cases included, 151 cases (87.8%) underwent USGHR, of whom 129 cases were successfully reduced (success rate of 85.4%). One perforation (0.7%) was reported. Age more than 3years old (aOR=7.16; 95% CI=1.07-47.94; p=0.042), anemia (aOR=10.12; 95% CI=1.12-91.35; p=0.039), thrombocytosis (aOR=11.21; 95% CI=2.06-64.33; p=0.005) and ultrasound findings of free fluid (aOR=9.39; 95% CI=1.62-54.38; p=0.012) and left-sided intussusception (aOR=8.18;95% CI=1.22-54.90, p=0.031) were independently associated with USGHR irreducibility. Symptom duration, blood in stool, vomiting and other clinical presentations, however, showed no association.

    CONCLUSIONS: USGHR with water is effective in the non-operative management of pediatric intussusception. Prolonged symptom duration need not necessarily preclude USGHR. The findings of anemia and thrombocytosis as independent predictors of USGHR irreducibility deserve further study.


  12. Nah SA, Sanmugam A, Singaravel S, Zahari Z, Aziz DA
    J Pediatr Surg, 2023 Feb;58(2):299-304.
    PMID: 36404187 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2022.10.032
    BACKGROUND: A shortage of specialist paediatric surgeons in Malaysia led to establishment of a national postgraduate training programme in 2004. We aimed to identify sociodemographic factors impacting training experience, and to define pressure points during training to inform targeted trainee support strategies.

    METHODS: We conducted an anonymized online survey in June 2021 on all programme graduates. Participants were asked for sociodemographic data, both current and during training. Likert scale responses were required for questions regarding adequacy of support received for family, health and personal issues during training. A free text response question soliciting suggestions for programme improvement was included. Data are reported as median (range). Chi-square/Fisher's exact tests for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U tests for continuous variables were used, with p<0.05 significance.

    RESULTS: Of 53 eligible participants, 52 (98%) responded, 24 (46%) were female. Marital status was similar between genders at entry, but female trainees were more likely to be unmarried on exit (p = 0.001), and less likely to have children while training (p = 0.017). Of the 6 female and 18 male trainees who had children while training, women were more likely to take parental leave (p = 0.01). The majority felt advice given regarding parental leave and managing training while having children were poor. In thematic analysis of free text answers, lack of hands-on experience was the most common concern.

    CONCLUSION: Factors related to marriage and parenthood significantly associate with gender amongst trainees in Malaysia despite both genders being well represented. Concerns regarding adequacy of hands-on training highlight the need for educational innovations such as simulation models.


  13. Tan WS, Md Hasan Z, Sanmugam A, Singaravel S, Abdullah MY, Nah SA
    J Pediatr Surg, 2023 Feb;58(2):241-245.
    PMID: 36384936 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2022.10.031
    INTRODUCTION: Anorectal manometry may be useful to objectively evaluate anorectal function following definitive pullthrough for Hirschsprung Disease (HD) but there is little published data. Our study aims to investigate anorectal manometry findings and their association with bowel function.

    METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective observational study. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit all HD patients who had definitive pullthrough from January 2019 to December2020 in our institution. High-resolution anorectal manometry (HRAM) was used to record anal resting pressure (ARP), length of high-pressure zone (HPZ), and presence/absence of recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR). The Paediatric Incontinence/Constipation Scoring System (PICSS) was scored for all participants. PICSS is a validated questionnaire with scores mapped to an age-specific normogram to denote constipation, incontinence, and their combinations. Non-parametric and chi-square tests at significance p<0.05 were conducted to examine the relationship between PICSS categories and manometry findings. Ethical approval was obtained.

    RESULTS: There were 32 participants (30 boys). Median age at participation was 26.5 months (range: 13.8-156). Twenty-four (75%) had transanal pullthrough, 8(25%) underwent Duhamel procedure. PICSS scored 10(31.3%) as normal, 8(25%) as constipation, 10(31.3%) as incontinent, and 4(12.5%) as mixed. RAIR was present in 12 patients (37.5%). HPZ, maximum ARP, mean ARP were comparable across all PICSS groups without statistically significant differences. Presence of RAIR was not significantly associated with any PICSS groups (p = 0.13).

    CONCLUSION: Bowel function does not appear to be significantly associated with HRAM findings after definitive pullthrough for HD, but our study is limited by small sample size. RAIR was present in 37.5% patients after pullthrough.


  14. Yock-Corrales A, Lee JH, Domínguez-Rojas JÁ, Caporal P, Roa JD, Fernandez-Sarmiento J, et al.
    J Pediatr Surg, 2023 Sep 30.
    PMID: 37867044 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2023.09.038
    INTRODUCTION: We aimed to identify clinical characteristics, risk factors for diagnosis, and describe outcomes among children with AHT.

    METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study in tertiary care hospitals from 14 countries across Asia and Ibero-America. We included patients <5 years old who were admitted to participating pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We performed descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression for risk factors of AHT.

    RESULTS: 47 (12%) out of 392 patients were diagnosed with AHT. Compared to those with accidental injuries, children with AHT were more frequently < 2 years old (42, 89.4% vs 133, 38.6%, p 

  15. Plascevic J, Shah S, Tan YW
    J Pediatr Surg, 2023 Nov 02.
    PMID: 37996349 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2023.10.066
    BACKGROUND: The literature on transitional care in anorectal malformation (ARM) and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is diverse and heterogeneous. There is a lack of standards and guidelines specific to transitional care in these conditions. We aim to establish and systematically categorize challenges and solutions related to colorectal transition care.

    METHODS: Systematic review of qualitative studies from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and Scopus databases (2008-2022) was conducted to identify the challenges and solutions of healthcare transition specific to ARM and HD. Thematic analyses are reported with reference to patient, healthcare provider and healthcare system.

    RESULTS: Sixteen studies from 234 unique articles were included. Fourteen themes related to challenges and solutions, each, are identified. Most challenges identified are patient related. The key challenges pertain to: (1) patient's lack of understanding of their disorder, resulting in over-reliance on the pediatric surgical team and reluctance towards transitioning to adult services; (2) a lack of education and awareness among adult colorectal surgeons in caring for pediatric colorectal conditions and inadequate communication between pediatric and adult teams; and (3) a lack of structured transition program and joint-clinic to meet the needs of the transitioning patients. The key solutions are: (1) fostering young adult patient's autonomy and independence; (2) conducting joint pediatric-adult transition clinics; and (3) ensuring a structured and coordinated transition program is available using a standardized guideline.

    CONCLUSION: A comprehensive framework related to barriers and solutions for pediatric colorectal transition is established to help benchmark care quality of transitional care services.


    TYPE OF STUDY: Systematic review without meta-analysis.

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