METHODS: Retrospective review of all cases with NEC Bell's stage 2 and 3 that were treated in a single center between 2009 and 2015. Data on patient demographics, clinical parameters, laboratory findings and surgical status were recorded. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to evaluate optimal cutoffs and predictive values.
RESULTS: Overall, 151 neonates with NEC were identified. Of these, 132 (87.4%) had confirmed NEC Bell's stage 2. The median gestational age was 28.4 (range, 23.1-39.0) weeks and 69 (52.3%) had a birth weight of ≤1000 g. Sixty-eight (51.5%) underwent surgery, showing a sustained reduction in SA over time with significantly lower median SA levels compared to 64 (48.5%) cases that responded well to medical treatment (18.3 ± 3.7 g/L vs. 26.0 ± 2.0 g/L; P
METHOD: We performed a multi centerrandomized controlled trial involving three regional pediatricsurgical units. We included children who presented with umbilical granuloma from December 2018 to May 2020. Children who received treatment prior to index visit were excluded. They were randomly allocated to receive NaCl (twice/day application for 5 days by caregiver) or CuSO4 (single application by clinician). Demographic data, compliance in the NaCl group by pill counting method, treatment outcomes, and complications were recorded. Treatment success was defined as complete lesion resolution. Partial or no response was considered treatment failure. Subsequent treatment then reverted to the respective center's routine management.
RESULT: We recruited 70 participants with 6 dropouts (2 defaulters, 1 vitellointestinal duct, 3 urachal remnants), leaving 64 subjects for final analysis: 31 NaCl, 33 CuSO4. Compliance rate of 77.4% was recorded for NaCl, with 6 (20%) 'poor compliance' participants stopping therapy before completion owing to complete resolution. NaCl group had a significantly higher complete resolution rate (90.4%) compared to CuSO4 (69.7%), p = 0.040. No NaCl participant developed complications versus 9% (n = 3) in CuSO4 (periumbilical superficial skin burn).
CONCLUSION: Table salt is an ideal treatment choice for umbilical granuloma as it is effective, safe, and readily available.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.
METHODS: We prospectively recruited all neonates who had CDH repair in four hospitals in Malaysia from June 2018 to October 2020. Intra vesical pressure was used as a proxy for IAP and was measured for 5 consecutive days post surgery. The daily median value was used for analysis. We categorized IAP as <11 mmHg (no IAH), 11-15 mmHg (IAH), and >15 mmHg (severe IAH). Incidence of IAH, its effects on the duration of ventilatory support, and gastrointestinal function were studied.
RESULTS: There were 24 neonates included in this study. They were operated between day 1 and 6 of life (median: 4 days old). IAH was detected within the first 3 days post surgery, with 83% occurring on day one. Those requiring ventilatory support for more than 3 days contributed the largest proportion of IAH (n = 17, 71%). There was strong correlation between days of IAH and duration of ventilation (p
METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective observational study in a Malaysian tertiary referral center. Children with intussusception admitted between year 2012 and 2016 were included and medical records reviewed. Factors associated with success or failure of USGHR were identified using multivariable logistic regression.
RESULTS: Of the 172 cases included, 151 cases (87.8%) underwent USGHR, of whom 129 cases were successfully reduced (success rate of 85.4%). One perforation (0.7%) was reported. Age more than 3years old (aOR=7.16; 95% CI=1.07-47.94; p=0.042), anemia (aOR=10.12; 95% CI=1.12-91.35; p=0.039), thrombocytosis (aOR=11.21; 95% CI=2.06-64.33; p=0.005) and ultrasound findings of free fluid (aOR=9.39; 95% CI=1.62-54.38; p=0.012) and left-sided intussusception (aOR=8.18;95% CI=1.22-54.90, p=0.031) were independently associated with USGHR irreducibility. Symptom duration, blood in stool, vomiting and other clinical presentations, however, showed no association.
CONCLUSIONS: USGHR with water is effective in the non-operative management of pediatric intussusception. Prolonged symptom duration need not necessarily preclude USGHR. The findings of anemia and thrombocytosis as independent predictors of USGHR irreducibility deserve further study.
TYPE OF STUDY: Treatment study LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.
METHODS: We conducted an anonymized online survey in June 2021 on all programme graduates. Participants were asked for sociodemographic data, both current and during training. Likert scale responses were required for questions regarding adequacy of support received for family, health and personal issues during training. A free text response question soliciting suggestions for programme improvement was included. Data are reported as median (range). Chi-square/Fisher's exact tests for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U tests for continuous variables were used, with p<0.05 significance.
RESULTS: Of 53 eligible participants, 52 (98%) responded, 24 (46%) were female. Marital status was similar between genders at entry, but female trainees were more likely to be unmarried on exit (p = 0.001), and less likely to have children while training (p = 0.017). Of the 6 female and 18 male trainees who had children while training, women were more likely to take parental leave (p = 0.01). The majority felt advice given regarding parental leave and managing training while having children were poor. In thematic analysis of free text answers, lack of hands-on experience was the most common concern.
CONCLUSION: Factors related to marriage and parenthood significantly associate with gender amongst trainees in Malaysia despite both genders being well represented. Concerns regarding adequacy of hands-on training highlight the need for educational innovations such as simulation models.
LEVEL OF STUDY: Level III.
METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective observational study. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit all HD patients who had definitive pullthrough from January 2019 to December2020 in our institution. High-resolution anorectal manometry (HRAM) was used to record anal resting pressure (ARP), length of high-pressure zone (HPZ), and presence/absence of recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR). The Paediatric Incontinence/Constipation Scoring System (PICSS) was scored for all participants. PICSS is a validated questionnaire with scores mapped to an age-specific normogram to denote constipation, incontinence, and their combinations. Non-parametric and chi-square tests at significance p<0.05 were conducted to examine the relationship between PICSS categories and manometry findings. Ethical approval was obtained.
RESULTS: There were 32 participants (30 boys). Median age at participation was 26.5 months (range: 13.8-156). Twenty-four (75%) had transanal pullthrough, 8(25%) underwent Duhamel procedure. PICSS scored 10(31.3%) as normal, 8(25%) as constipation, 10(31.3%) as incontinent, and 4(12.5%) as mixed. RAIR was present in 12 patients (37.5%). HPZ, maximum ARP, mean ARP were comparable across all PICSS groups without statistically significant differences. Presence of RAIR was not significantly associated with any PICSS groups (p = 0.13).
CONCLUSION: Bowel function does not appear to be significantly associated with HRAM findings after definitive pullthrough for HD, but our study is limited by small sample size. RAIR was present in 37.5% patients after pullthrough.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II.
METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study in tertiary care hospitals from 14 countries across Asia and Ibero-America. We included patients <5 years old who were admitted to participating pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We performed descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression for risk factors of AHT.
RESULTS: 47 (12%) out of 392 patients were diagnosed with AHT. Compared to those with accidental injuries, children with AHT were more frequently < 2 years old (42, 89.4% vs 133, 38.6%, p
METHODS: Systematic review of qualitative studies from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and Scopus databases (2008-2022) was conducted to identify the challenges and solutions of healthcare transition specific to ARM and HD. Thematic analyses are reported with reference to patient, healthcare provider and healthcare system.
RESULTS: Sixteen studies from 234 unique articles were included. Fourteen themes related to challenges and solutions, each, are identified. Most challenges identified are patient related. The key challenges pertain to: (1) patient's lack of understanding of their disorder, resulting in over-reliance on the pediatric surgical team and reluctance towards transitioning to adult services; (2) a lack of education and awareness among adult colorectal surgeons in caring for pediatric colorectal conditions and inadequate communication between pediatric and adult teams; and (3) a lack of structured transition program and joint-clinic to meet the needs of the transitioning patients. The key solutions are: (1) fostering young adult patient's autonomy and independence; (2) conducting joint pediatric-adult transition clinics; and (3) ensuring a structured and coordinated transition program is available using a standardized guideline.
CONCLUSION: A comprehensive framework related to barriers and solutions for pediatric colorectal transition is established to help benchmark care quality of transitional care services.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.
TYPE OF STUDY: Systematic review without meta-analysis.