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  1. Berahim Z, Moharamzadeh K, Rawlinson A, Jowett AK
    J. Periodontol., 2011 May;82(5):790-7.
    PMID: 21080786 DOI: 10.1902/jop.2010.100533
    Cell-based therapy using autologous cells has been suggested as a potential approach for periodontal tissue regeneration. Spheroid systems are a form of three-dimensional cell culture that promotes cell matrix interaction, which could recapitulate the aspect of cell homeostasis in vivo. The aim of this study is to assess the interaction of periodontal fibroblast spheroids with synthetic and collagen-based membranes that have been used in guided tissue regeneration.
  2. Chai WL, Moharamzadeh K, Brook IM, Emanuelsson L, Palmquist A, van Noort R
    J. Periodontol., 2010 Aug;81(8):1187-95.
    PMID: 20450401 DOI: 10.1902/jop.2010.090648
    In dental implant treatment, the long-term prognosis is dependent on the biologic seal formed by the soft tissue around the implant. The in vitro investigation of the implant-soft tissue interface is usually carried out using a monolayer cell-culture model that lacks a polarized-cell phenotype. This study developed a tissue-engineered three-dimensional oral mucosal model (3D OMM) to investigate the implant-soft tissue interface.
  3. Abd Rahman F, Mohd Ali J, Abdullah M, Abu Kasim NH, Musa S
    J. Periodontol., 2016 07;87(7):837-47.
    PMID: 26846966 DOI: 10.1902/jop.2016.150610
    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the effects of aspirin (ASA) on the proliferative capacity, osteogenic potential, and expression of growth factor-associated genes in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs).

    METHODS: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from PDL tissue were isolated from human premolars (n = 3). The MSCs' identity was confirmed by immunophenotyping and trilineage differentiation assays. Cell proliferation activity was assessed through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Polymerase chain reaction array was used to profile the expression of 84 growth factor-associated genes. Pathway analysis was used to identify the biologic functions and canonic pathways activated by ASA treatment. The osteogenic potential was evaluated through mineralization assay.

    RESULTS: ASA at 1,000 μM enhances osteogenic potential of PDLSCs. Using a fold change (FC) of 2.0 as a threshold value, the gene expression analyses indicated that 19 genes were differentially expressed, which includes 12 upregulated and seven downregulated genes. Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), interleukin-2, bone morphogenetic protein-10, VEGFC, and 2 (FGF2) were markedly upregulated (FC range, 6 to 15), whereas pleotropin, FGF5, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1 were markedly downregulated (FC 32). Of the 84 growth factor-associated genes screened, 35 showed high cycle threshold values (≥35).

    CONCLUSIONS: ASA modulates the expression of growth factor-associated genes and enhances osteogenic potential in PDLSCs. ASA upregulated the expression of genes that could activate biologic functions and canonic pathways related to cell proliferation, human embryonic stem cell pluripotency, tissue regeneration, and differentiation. These findings suggest that ASA enhances PDLSC function and may be useful in regenerative dentistry applications, particularly in the areas of periodontal health and regeneration.

  4. Lappin DF, Robertson D, Hodge P, Treagus D, Awang RA, Ramage G, et al.
    J. Periodontol., 2015 Nov;86(11):1249-59.
    PMID: 26252750 DOI: 10.1902/jop.2015.150149
    BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is a major complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between glycated hemoglobin and circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5) in non-smoking patients suffering from T1DM, with and without periodontitis. In addition, to determine the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in the presence and absence of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 expression by THP-1 monocytes and OKF6/TERT-2 cells.

    METHODS: There were 104 participants in the study: 19 healthy volunteers, 23 patients with periodontitis, 28 patients with T1DM, and 34 patients with T1DM and periodontitis. Levels of blood glucose/glycated hemoglobin (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry [IFCC]) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Levels of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 in plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vitro stimulation of OKF6/TERT-2 cells and THP-1 monocytes was performed with combinations of AGE and P. gingivalis LPS. Changes in expression of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 were monitored by ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    RESULTS: Patients with diabetes and periodontitis had higher plasma levels of IL-8 than patients with periodontitis alone. Plasma levels of IL-8 correlated significantly with IFCC units, clinical probing depth, and attachment loss. AGE and LPS, alone or in combination, stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 expression in both OKF6/TERT-2 cells and THP-1 monocytes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma levels of IL-8 potentially contribute to the cross-susceptibility between periodontitis and T1DM. P. gingivalis LPS and AGE in combination caused significantly greater expression of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 from THP-1 monocytes and OKF6/TERT-2 cells than LPS alone.

  5. Siar CH, Toh CG, Romanos G, Swaminathan D, Ong AH, Yaacob H, et al.
    J. Periodontol., 2003 May;74(5):571-8.
    PMID: 12816287
    Today, one critical goal in implant placement is the achievement of optimal soft tissue integration. Reports thus far have demonstrated successful soft tissue preservation in delayed loaded implants placed in anterior jaws. The aim of this study was to histomorphometrically examine the soft tissues around immediately loaded implants placed in the macaque posterior mandible.
  6. Sosroseno W, Bird PS, Gemmell E, Seymour GJ
    J. Periodontol., 2002 Oct;73(10):1133-40.
    PMID: 12416770
    It has previously been suggested that CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in regulating the immune response to periodontal pathogens. The aim of the present study therefore was to determine delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), spleen cell proliferation, serum and splenic anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis antibody levels, and lesion sizes following challenge with viable P. gingivalis in CD4-depleted BALB/c mice immunized with P. gingivalis outer membrane proteins (OMP).
  7. Yusof ZW, Bakri MM
    J. Periodontol., 1993 Dec;64(12):1253-8.
    PMID: 8106955
    Cancer radiotherapy to the head and neck region results in short- and long-term radiation tissue injuries. Radiation bone injury is a long-term manifestation which could progress to osteoradionecrosis. A case of radiation tissue injury to the periodontium is presented. The possible pathogenesis of these events is described as they relate to the sequential radiographic changes observed over a period of 6 years until the involved teeth were exfoliated. The post-irradiation management of the teeth with advancing periodontal disease in the path of irradiation was by conservative means, including good personal oral hygiene care, scaling and root planing, periodic chlorhexidine irrigation, and topical fluoride application.
  8. Yusof ZA
    J. Periodontol., 1990 Dec;61(12):751-4.
    PMID: 2269916
    The objective of this report was to determine the radiographic patterns of alveolar bone loss in early-onset periodontitis (EOP) cases in a selected Malaysian population. The radiographs of 55 cases of EOP patients were examined and the radiographic patterns were classified as follows: Type I: bone destruction on first molars and/or incisors only; Type II: bone destruction on first molars and/or incisors and several additional teeth (less than 14 teeth); Type III: generalized bone destruction (greater than 14 teeth), but with involvement noticeably more extensive on the first molars and/or incisors; Type IV: generalized bone destruction (greater than 14 teeth), but with no more bone loss on the first molars and/or incisors than on other involved teeth. Sex, age, and missing teeth were also recorded. Out of 55 cases, 47 cases, 22 males and 25 females, were classified into the types mentioned above; the remaining 8 cases were excluded due to too many missing teeth. It was found that 7 (14.9%) were Type I; 12 (25.5%) were Type II; 7 (14.9%) were Type III; and 21 (44.7%) were Type IV. There was a predominance of first molar/incisor involvement in Types I, II, and III with the maxillary first molars most frequently involved followed by the mandibular central incisors. Type I occurred in the younger age group and Types II, III, and IV mainly in the older age group. It was concluded that EOP in this patient sample resembled that of western society.
  9. Ramachandra SS
    J. Periodontol., 2018 Mar 23.
    PMID: 29572836 DOI: 10.1002/JPER.17-0482
    This letter is in regard to the article "Risk of periodontal disease in patients with asthma: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study" authored by Shen and collaborators in the August 2017 issue of the Journal of Periodontology. We found the authors' results interesting and believe that addition of the following points may have enhanced the potential implications of their observations. The role of mast cells in asthma is well-established, and mast cells also appear to have a role in the initiation of the inflammatory cascade that leads to periodontal destruction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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