Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Ahamed NU, Ahmed N, Alqahtani M, Altwijri O, Ahmad RB, Sundaraj K
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2015 Jan;27(1):39-40.
    PMID: 25642033 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.27.39
    [Purpose] This study investigated the changes in the slope of EMG-time curves (relationship) at the maximal and different levels of dynamic (eccentric and concentric) and static (isometric) contractions. [Subjects and Methods] The subject was a 17 year-old male adolescent. The surface EMG signal of the dominant arm's biceps brachii (BB) was recorded through electrodes placed on the muscle belly. [Results] The results obtained during the contractions show that the regression slope was very close to 1.00 during concentric contraction, whereas those of eccentric and isometric contractions were lower. Significant differences were found for the EMG amplitude and time lags among the contractions. [Conclusion] The results show that the EMG signal of the BB varies among the three modes of contraction and the relationship of the EMG amplitude with a time lag gives the best fit during concentric contraction.
  2. Kumar NS, Omar B, Joseph LH, Hamdan N, Htwe O, Hamidun N
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2014 Aug;26(8):1205-7.
    PMID: 25202181 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.26.1205
    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of a digital weight scale relative to the Wii in limb loading measurement during static standing. [Methods] This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a public university teaching hospital. The sample consisted of 24 participants (12 with osteoarthritis and 12 healthy) recruited through convenient sampling. Limb loading measurements were obtained using a digital weight scale and the Nintendo Wii in static standing with three trials under an eyes-open condition. The limb load asymmetry was computed as the symmetry index. [Results] The accuracy of measurement with the digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test). The area under the ROC curve was found to be 0.67. Logistic regression confirmed the validity of digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii. The D statistics value from the K-S test was found to be 0.16, which confirmed that there was no significant difference in measurement between the equipment. [Conclusion] The digital weight scale is an accurate tool for measuring limb load asymmetry. The low price, easy availability, and maneuverability make it a good potential tool in clinical settings for measuring limb load asymmetry.
  3. Murugappan M, Murugappan S, Zheng BS
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2013 Jul;25(7):753-9.
    PMID: 24259846 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.25.753
    [Purpose] Intelligent emotion assessment systems have been highly successful in a variety of applications, such as e-learning, psychology, and psycho-physiology. This study aimed to assess five different human emotions (happiness, disgust, fear, sadness, and neutral) using heart rate variability (HRV) signals derived from an electrocardiogram (ECG). [Subjects] Twenty healthy university students (10 males and 10 females) with a mean age of 23 years participated in this experiment. [Methods] All five emotions were induced by audio-visual stimuli (video clips). ECG signals were acquired using 3 electrodes and were preprocessed using a Butterworth 3rd order filter to remove noise and baseline wander. The Pan-Tompkins algorithm was used to derive the HRV signals from ECG. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) was used to extract statistical features from the HRV signals using four wavelet functions: Daubechies6 (db6), Daubechies7 (db7), Symmlet8 (sym8), and Coiflet5 (coif5). The k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to map the statistical features into corresponding emotions. [Results] KNN provided the maximum average emotion classification rate compared to LDA for five emotions (sadness - 50.28%; happiness - 79.03%; fear - 77.78%; disgust - 88.69%; and neutral - 78.34%). [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that HRV may be a reliable indicator of changes in the emotional state of subjects and provides an approach to the development of a real-time emotion assessment system with a higher reliability than other systems.
  4. Wali MK, Murugappan M, Ahmad B
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2013 Sep;25(9):1055-8.
    PMID: 24259914 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.25.1055
    [Purpose] In earlier studies of driver distraction, researchers classified distraction into two levels (not distracted, and distracted). This study classified four levels of distraction (neutral, low, medium, high). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty Asian subjects (n=50, 43 males, 7 females), age range 20-35 years, who were free from any disease, participated in this study. Wireless EEG signals were recorded by 14 electrodes during four types of distraction stimuli (Global Position Systems (GPS), music player, short message service (SMS), and mental tasks). We derived the amplitude spectrum of three different frequency bands, theta, alpha, and beta of EEG. Then, based on fusion of discrete wavelet packet transforms and fast fourier transform yield, we extracted two features (power spectral density, spectral centroid frequency) of different wavelets (db4, db8, sym8, and coif5). Mean ± SD was calculated and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. A fuzzy inference system classifier was applied to different wavelets using the two extracted features. [Results] The results indicate that the two features of sym8 posses highly significant discrimination across the four levels of distraction, and the best average accuracy achieved by the subtractive fuzzy classifier was 79.21% using the power spectral density feature extracted using the sym8 wavelet. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that EEG signals can be used to monitor distraction level intensity in order to alert drivers to high levels of distraction.
  5. Hamid MS, Ali MR, Yusof A
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2013 Aug;25(8):957-61.
    PMID: 24259893 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.25.957
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the active knee extension (AKE) test among healthy adults. [Subjects] Fourteen healthy participants (10 men and 4 women) volunteered and gave informed consent. [Methods] Two raters conducted AKE tests independently with the aid of a simple and inexpensive stabilizing apparatus. Each knee was measured twice, and the AKE test was repeated one week later. [Results] The interrater reliability intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) were 0.87 for the dominant knee and 0.81 for the nondominant knee. In addition, the intrarater (test-retest) reliability ICC3,1 values range between 0.78-0.97 and 0.75-0.84 for raters 1 and 2 respectively. The percentages of agreement within 10° for AKE measurements were 93% for the dominant knee and 79% for the nondominant knee. [Conclusion] The finding suggests the current AKE test showed excellent interrater and intrarater reliability for assessing hamstring flexibility in healthy adults.
  6. Khair NM, Hariharan M, Yaacob S, Basah SN
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2015 Aug;27(8):2649-53.
    PMID: 26357453 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.27.2649
    [Purpose] Computational intelligence similar to pattern recognition is frequently confronted with high-dimensional data. Therefore, the reduction of the dimensionality is critical to make the manifold features amenable. Procedures that are analytically or computationally manageable in smaller amounts of data and low-dimensional space can become important to produce a better classification performance. [Methods] Thus, we proposed two stage reduction techniques. Feature selection-based ranking using information gain (IG) and Chi-square (Chisq) are used to identify the best ranking of the features selected for emotion classification in different actions including knocking, throwing, and lifting. Then, feature reduction-based locality sensitivity discriminant analysis (LSDA) and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to transform the selected feature to low-dimensional space. Two-stage feature selection-reduction methods such as IG-PCA, IG-LSDA, Chisq-PCA, and Chisq-LSDA are proposed. [Results] The result confirms that applying feature ranking combined with a dimensional-reduction method increases the performance of the classifiers. [Conclusion] The dimension reduction was performed using LSDA by denoting the features of the highest importance determined using IG and Chisq to not only improve the effectiveness but also reduce the computational time.
  7. Nur NM, Dawal SZ, Dahari M, Sanusi J
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2015 Aug;27(8):2431-3.
    PMID: 26357421 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.27.2431
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of energy expenditure rate on work productivity performance at different levels of production standard time. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty industrial workers performed repetitive tasks at three different levels of production standard time, normal, hard, and very hard. Work productivity and energy expenditure rate were recorded during the experimental tasks. [Results] The work productivity target was not attainable for the hard and very hard production standard times. This was attributed to the energy expenditure rate, which increased as the level of production standard time became harder. The percentage change in energy expenditure rate for the very hard level (32.5%) relative to the normal level was twice that of the hard level (15.5%), indicating a higher risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders for the harder production standard time. The energy expenditure rate for the very hard production standard time (1.36 kcal/min) was found to exceed the maximum energy expenditure rate recommended for light repetitive tasks involving both arms (1.2 kcal/min). [Conclusion] The present study shows that working with an energy expenditure rate that is either equal to or above the maximum energy expenditure rate of the tasks results in decreased work productivity performance due to the onset of physical fatigue and a higher risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
  8. Nur NM, Dawal SZ, Dahari M, Sanusi J
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2015 Jul;27(7):2323-6.
    PMID: 26311974 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.27.2323
    [Purpose] This study investigated the variations in muscle fatigue, time to fatigue, and maximum task duration at different levels of production standard time. [Methods] Twenty subjects performed repetitive tasks at three different levels of production standard time corresponding to "normal", "hard" and "very hard". Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activity. [Results] The results showed that muscle activity was significantly affected by the production standard time level. Muscle activity increased twice in percentage as the production standard time shifted from hard to very hard (6.9% vs. 12.9%). The muscle activity increased over time, indicating muscle fatigue. The muscle fatigue rate increased for the harder production standard time (Hard: 0.105; Very hard: 0.115), which indicated the associated higher risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Muscle fatigue was also found to occur earlier for hard and very hard production standard times. [Conclusion] It is recommended that the maximum task duration should not exceed 5.6, 2.9, and 2.2 hours for normal, hard, and very hard production standard times, respectively, in order to maintain work performance and minimize the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
  9. Paungmali A, Henry LJ, Sitilertpisan P, Pirunsan U, Uthaikhup S
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2016 Jan;28(2):635-40.
    PMID: 27064327 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.28.635
    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of lumbopelvic stabilization training on tissue blood flow changes in the lumbopelvic region and lumbopelvic stability compared to placebo treatment and controlled intervention among patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 25 participants (7 males, 18 females; mean age, 33.3 ± 14.4 years) participated in this within-subject, repeated-measures, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison trial. The participants randomly underwent three types of interventions that included lumbopelvic stabilization training, placebo treatment, and controlled intervention with 48 hours between sessions. Lumbopelvic stability and tissue blood flow were measured using a pressure biofeedback device and a laser Doppler flow meter before and after the interventions. [Results] The repeated-measures analysis of variance results demonstrated a significant increase in tissue blood flow over the lumbopelvic region tissues for post- versus pre-lumbopelvic stabilization training and compared to placebo and control interventions. A significant increase in lumbopelvic stability before and after lumbopelvic stabilization training was noted, as well as upon comparison to placebo and control interventions. [Conclusion] The current study supports an increase in tissue blood flow in the lumbopelvic region and improved lumbopelvic stability after core training among patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.
  10. Justine M, Ruzali D, Hazidin E, Said A, Bukry SA, Manaf H
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2016 Mar;28(3):916-22.
    PMID: 27134384 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.28.916
    [Purpose] To compare the lower limb joint range of motion and muscle length between different types of foot posture, and determine the correlation of range of motion and muscle length with balance performance. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety individuals (age, 65.2±4.6 years) were assessed using the Foot Posture Index to determine their type of foot (Normal [0 to +5], pronated [+6 to +9], and supinated [-1 to -4]; n=30 per group). The range of motion (goniometer), muscle length (goniometer and tape measure), and balance performance (functional reach test and four square step test) were measured for each participant. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's rank-order correlation. [Results] No significant differences were found in range of motion, muscle length, and balance performance among different types of foot posture, except for right and left ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. Balance performance was significantly correlated with selected muscle length and range of motion, especially in the supinated foot. [Conclusion] Range of motion and muscle length of the lower limb may be associated with balance performance in older adults with foot deformities. These findings may guide physiotherapists in choosing intervention based on specific assessments for older adults with foot deformity.
  11. Kamil NS, Dawal SZ
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2015 Jun;27(6):1967-70.
    PMID: 26180359 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.27.1967
    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of postural angle on back muscle activity during a computer task in aging women. [Subjects] Seventeen women ≥50 years old participated. [Methods] The participants were instructed to perform computer-related tasks for 20 minutes on a workstation that simulated typical office working conditions. Back posture was measured from the measured trunk and pelvic angles. Electromyography activities were recorded simultaneously from the cervical erector spinae, longissimus, and multifidus muscles. [Results] The lowest mean percentages of maximum voluntary contraction for the cervical erector spinae and longissimus muscles were obtained when the upper trunk and pelvic angles were between 0° to -5° from the sagittal plane. The back muscle activities increased as the upper trunk and pelvic angles exceeded 0°. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations between upper trunk angle and cervical erector spinae and longissimus muscle activities. Similarly, pelvic angle was significantly correlated with cervical erector spinae and multifidus muscle activities. [Conclusion] A neutral back posture minimizes muscle activities in aging women performing computer tasks.
  12. Zolkefley MKI, Firwana YMS, Hatta HZM, Rowbin C, Nassir CMNCM, Hanafi MH, et al.
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2021 Jan;33(1):75-83.
    PMID: 33519079 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.33.75
    [Purpose] Understanding the essential mechanisms in post-stroke recovery not only provides important basic insights into brain function and plasticity but can also guide the development of new therapeutic approaches for stroke patients. This review aims to give an overview of how various variables of Magnetic Resonance-Diffusion Tensor Imaging (MR-DTI) metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA) can be used as a reliable quantitative measurement and indicator of corticospinal tract (CST) changes, particularly in relation to functional motor outcome correlation with a Fugl-Meyer assessment in stroke rehabilitation. [Methods] PubMed electronic database was searched for the relevant literature, using key words of diffusion tensor imaging (dti), corticospinal tract, and stroke. [Results] We reviewed the role of FA in monitoring CST remodeling and its role of predicting motor recovery after stroke. We also discussed the mechanism of CST remodeling and its modulation from the value of FA and FMA-UE. [Conclusion] Heterogeneity of post-stroke brain disorganization and motor impairment is a recognized challenge in the development of accurate indicators of CST integrity. DTI-based FA measurements offer a reliable and evidence-based indicator for CST integrity that would aid in predicting motor recovery within the context of stroke rehabilitation.
  13. Low ST, Balaraman T
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2017 Jul;29(7):1121-1124.
    PMID: 28744029 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.29.1121
    [Purpose] To find the physical activity level and fall risk among the community-dwelling Malaysian older adults and determine the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted in which, the physical activity level was evaluated using the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity questionnaire and fall risk with Fall Risk Assessment Tool. Subjects recruited were 132 community-dwelling Malaysian older adults using the convenience sampling method. [Results] The majority of the participants were under the category of under-active regular light-activities and most of them reported low fall risk. The statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test did not show a significant correlation between physical activity level and fall risk. [Conclusion] The majority of community-dwelling Malaysian older adults are performing some form of physical activity and in low fall risk category. But this study did not find any significant correlation between physical activity level and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia.
  14. Khamis NK, Deros BM
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2018 Jun;30(6):764-769.
    PMID: 29950761 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.30.764
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of seat pressure distribution measurements based on a specific posture to predict the pressure felt level when seated. [Subjects and Methods] To examine the relationship between body pressure data and the driver's perception, eleven subjects were selected to participate in a simulated driving experiment using a pressure mat as a direct measurement method to measure the seat pan's pressure distribution. The buttock-popliteal length was measured using an anthropometer, and the pressure felt ratings evaluated after the body pressure measurements were recorded. Accordingly, this was then followed by performing statistical analysis using seat pressure measurements, and the buttock-popliteal length as independent variables along with subjective ratings selected of the pressure felt by the drivers' as dependent variables. [Results] The findings of this study suggest that the direct measurements and anthropometric body data are positively correlated with the predictive model thereby confirming the validity of the model with an R2 value of 0.952. [Conclusion] The proposed model is expected to provide a useful reference value for new vehicle drivers by providing the pressure felt level based on direct and body measurements in a specific posture.
  15. Mahmod SR, Narayanan LT, Supriyanto E
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2018 Jul;30(7):933-937.
    PMID: 30034101 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.30.933
    [Purpose] This study examined how incremental cardiorespiratory exercise may affect the speech rate and Counting Talk Test (CTT)-estimated exercise intensity. [Participants and Methods] Twenty-four healthy adults performed the CTT while exercising on a treadmill at 6 stages of incremental exercise ranging from 40% to 85% of heart rate reserve (HRR). Each participant started walking on the treadmill at 3 to 4 km/h and 0% elevation to warm up. The increments of treadmill grades were adjusted until targeted heart rates corresponding to the percentages of HRR were reached. Then, the participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion while the treadmill grades were maintained for 2-minutes bouts of each exercise stage. At the last minute of the exercise stage, the CTT was performed within a single breath. [Results] The speech rates in the CTT appeared to vary significantly during exercise. Moreover, the CTT-estimated exercise intensity showed significant reductions at several exercise stages. [Conclusion] The CTT estimates exercise intensity semi-quantitatively throughout incremental exercise. However, moderate and vigorous intensities could not be significantly delineated by the current CTT method. This could be due to the variability in speech rates that were indicated as the exercise progressed.
  16. Ibrahim F, Sian TC, Shanggar K, Razack AH
    J Phys Ther Sci, 2013 Sep;25(9):1087-91.
    PMID: 24259921 DOI: 10.1589/jpts.25.1087
    [Purpose] Our objective was to assess the effect of salat and mimicking salat movements and postures on subjects with erectile dysfunction. [Methods] Ten volunteers were recruited in this study. Subjects who were Muslims (Group I) were asked to perform their daily salat and a new intervention of an additional 12 movement cycles of salat for three sessions a week. Non-Muslim subjects (Group II) were taught to mimic salat movements, and were asked to perform a total of 12 movement cycles without reading the recitation for three sessions a week. An International Index for Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire was given to the subjects before and after the intervention of performing salat or mimicking salat movements and postures. A nocturnal electrobioimpedance volume assessment (NEVA) device was used to measure the nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) parameters over two consecutive nights. A nonparametric test was conducted to find the significant NPT parameters. [Results] The results showed that all measured parameters improved significantly, with the largest change observed in the maximum percent volumetric change over the baseline (from 138 to 222%). [Conclusion] This preliminary study suggests that the alternative approach of salat and mimicking salat movements and postures, may have beneficial effects for ED patients.
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