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  1. Mohamed NG, Abidin NZ, Law KS, Abe M, Suzuki M, Muhamed AM, et al.
    J Physiol Anthropol, 2014;33:28.
    PMID: 25189184 DOI: 10.1186/1880-6805-33-28
    Menstruation is associated with significant unpleasantness, and wearing a sanitary napkin (SN) during menses causes discomfort. In addition, many Muslim women use a thick type of SN during menses due to the religious requirement that even disposable SNs be washed before disposal. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the physiological and psychological responses to wearing SNs of different thicknesses during menstruation and non-menstruation phases at rest and during physical activity/exercise among Muslim women.
  2. Wakabayashi H, Wijayanto T, Lee JY, Hashiguchi N, Saat M, Tochihara Y
    PMID: 24490869 DOI: 10.1186/1880-6805-33-5
    This study investigated the effect of hydration differences on body fluid and temperature regulation between tropical and temperate indigenes exercising in the heat.
  3. Fan SH, Say YH
    J Physiol Anthropol, 2014;33:15.
    PMID: 24947733 DOI: 10.1186/1880-6805-33-15
    BACKGROUND: This study was to investigate the prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in leptin gene LEP (A19G and G2548A) and leptin receptor gene LEPR (K109R and Q223R) and their association with fasting plasma leptin level (PLL) and obesity in a Malaysian suburban population in Kampar, Perak.
    METHODS: Convenience sampling was performed with informed consents, and the study sample was drawn from patients who were patrons of the Kampar Health Clinic. A total of 408 subjects (mean age, 52.4 +/- 13.7 years; 169 men, 239 women; 190 obese, 218 non-obese; 148 Malays, 177 ethnic Chinese, 83 ethnic Indians) participated. Socio-demographic data and anthropometric measurements were taken, and genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
    RESULTS: The LEP A19G, G2548A and LEPR K109R, Q223R variant allele frequencies were 0.74, 0.67 and 0.61, 0.79, respectively. The genotype and allele distributions of these gene variants were significantly different among ethnic groups, but not among body mass index (BMI) classes. Subjects with LEPR K109 and Q223 allele had significantly higher systolic blood pressure and adiposity indices after adjustment for ethnicity (higher BMI, total body and subcutaneous fat; lower skeletal muscle percentage). Subjects with LEPR 109R allele had lower PLL than their wild-type allele counterparts. The influence of LEP A19G and G2548A SNPs on blood pressures, anthropometrics, and PLL was not evident. Interestingly, synergistic effect of the LEP and LEPR SNPs was observed as subjects homozygous for all four SNPs studied exhibited significantly higher subcutaneous fat and PLL than those with other genotype combinations.
    CONCLUSIONS: The LEP and LEPR SNPs in this study may not be an obesity marker among Malaysians in this population, but were associated with ethnicity. Our findings suggest that each of these SNPs contributes to minor but significant variation in obesity-related traits and in combination they display synergistic effects on subcutaneous fat and PLL.
  4. Chen CK, Muhamad AS, Ooi FK
    PMID: 22738233 DOI: 10.1186/1880-6805-31-4
    The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.
  5. Bandyopadhyay A
    J Physiol Anthropol, 2007 Jun;26(4):501-5.
    PMID: 17704629
    50 sedentary males and 128 sports persons (volleyball=82, soccer=46) of 20-24 years were selected from West Bengal, India, to evaluate and compare their anthropometry and body composition. Skinfolds, girth measurements, body fat percentage (%fat), and endomorphy were significantly higher among sedentary individuals, but lean body mass (LBM) and mesomorphy were significantly (p<0.001) higher among the sports persons. Soccer and volleyball players were found to be ectomorphic mesomorph, whereas sedentary subjects were endomorphic mesomorph. The soccer and volleyball players had higher %fat with lower body height and body mass than their overseas counterparts. %fat exhibited a significant correlation with body mass index (BMI) and thus prediction equations for %fat from BMI were computed in each group. The present data will serve as a reference standard for the anthropometry and body composition of Indian soccer and volleyball players and the prediction norms for %fat will help to provide a first-hand impression of body composition in the studied population.
  6. Say YH
    J Physiol Anthropol, 2017 Jun 14;36(1):25.
    PMID: 28615046 DOI: 10.1186/s40101-017-0142-x
    BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that insertions/deletions (INDELs) are the second most common type of genetic variations and variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) represent a large portion of the human genome, they have received far less attention than single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and larger forms of structural variation like copy number variations (CNVs), especially in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex diseases like polygenic obesity. This is exemplified by the vast amount of review papers on the role of SNPs and CNVs in obesity, its related traits (like anthropometric measurements, biochemical variables, and eating behavior), and its related complications (like hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and insulin resistance-collectively known as metabolic syndrome). Hence, this paper reviews the types of INDELs and VNTRs that have been studied for association with obesity and its related traits and complications. These INDELs and VNTRs could be found in the obesity loci or genes from the earliest GWAS and candidate gene association studies, like FTO, genes in the leptin-proopiomelanocortin pathway, and UCP2/3. Given the important role of the brain serotonergic and dopaminergic reward system in obesity susceptibility, the association of INDELs and VNTRs in these neurotransmitters' metabolism and transport genes with obesity is also reviewed. Next, the role of INS VNTR in obesity and its related traits is questionable, since recent large-scale studies failed to replicate the earlier positive associations. As obesity results in chronic low-grade inflammation of the adipose tissue, the proinflammatory cytokine gene IL1RA and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene IL4 have VNTRs that are implicated in obesity. A systemic proinflammatory state in combination with activation of the renin-angiotensin system and decreased nitric oxide bioavailability as found in obesity leads to endothelial dysfunction. This explains why VNTR and INDEL in eNOS and ACE, respectively, could be predisposing factors of obesity. Finally, two novel genes, DOCK5 and PER3, which are involved in the regulation of the Akt/MAPK pathway and circadian rhythm, respectively, have VNTRs and INDEL that might be associated with obesity.

    SHORT CONCLUSION: In conclusion, INDELs and VNTRs could have important functional consequences in the pathophysiology of obesity, and research on them should be continued to facilitate obesity prediction, prevention, and treatment.

  7. Kaur N, Rahim SSSA, Jaimin JJ, Dony JJF, Khoon KT, Ahmed K
    J Physiol Anthropol, 2020 Aug 14;39(1):19.
    PMID: 32795350 DOI: 10.1186/s40101-020-00230-0
    BACKGROUND: Malaysia recorded the highest number of dengue cases between 2014 and 2017. There are 13 states and three federal territories in Malaysia, and each area varies in their prevalence of dengue. Sabah is one of the states situated in Borneo, Malaysia. Although dengue has been increasing for the last several years, no study was being done to understand the burden and serotype distribution of the dengue virus (DENV) in Sabah. Therefore, the present study was carried out to understand the epidemiology of the dengue infection and the factors responsible for severe dengue in Sabah.

    METHODS: Data on dengue infection were extracted from the dengue database of the state of Sabah from 2013 through 2018. DENV NS-1-positive serum samples from multiple sites throughout Sabah were sent to the state public health laboratory, Kota Kinabalu Public Health Laboratory, for serotype determination. The analysis of factors associated with severe dengue was determined from the data of 2018 only.

    RESULTS: In 2013, there were 724 dengue cases; however, from 2014, dengue cases increased exponentially and resulted in 3423 cases in 2018. Increasing dengue cases also led to increased dengue mortality. The number of dengue deaths in 2013 was only five which then gradually increased, and in 2018, 29 patients died. This is an increase of 580% from 2013 to 2018. Deaths were considerably more in the districts of the east coast of Sabah compared with districts in the west coast. During the study period, all DENV serotypes could be identified as serotypes circulating in Sabah. In 2018, the predominant serotype was DENV-3. The monthly peak of dengue infection varied in different years. In the logistic regression analysis, it was identified that children were 6.5 times, patients infected with mixed serotype of DENV were 13 times, and cases from the districts of the east coast were 5.2 times more likely to develop severe dengue.

    CONCLUSIONS: An increasing trend of dengue infection has been observed in Sabah. The burden of dengue, severe dengue, and mortality was noted especially in the districts of the east coast of Sabah. Severe dengue was most likely developed in children, cases from the east coast, and patients infected with mixed serotype of DENV.

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