Displaying all 13 publications

  1. Swarna Nantha Y
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2014 Oct;5(4):263-70.
    PMID: 24879656 DOI: 10.1177/2150131914536988
    Objectives: The average consumption of sugar in the Malaysian population has reached an alarming rate, exceeding the benchmark recommended by experts. This article argues the need of a paradigm shift in the management of sugar consumption in the country through evidence derived from addiction research.
    Methods: “Food addiction” could lead to high levels of sugar consumption. This probable link could accelerate the development of diabetes and obesity in the community. A total of 94 reports and studies that describe the importance of addiction theory–based interventions were found through a search on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Academic Search Complete.
    Results: Research in the field of addiction medicine has revealed the addictive potential of high levels of sugar intake. Preexisting health promotion strategies could benefit from the integration of the concept of sugar addiction. A targeted intervention could yield more positive results in health outcomes within the country.
    Conclusion: Current literature seems to support food environment changes, targeted health policies, and special consultation skills as cost-effective remedies to curb the rise of sugar-related health morbidities.
    Keywords. sugar addiction, food environment, health promotion, non communicable diseases, dietary habits, health policies
  2. Teh CSL, Raman R
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2012 Apr 1;3(2):80-2.
    PMID: 23803449 DOI: 10.1177/2150131911417185
    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Patients with sore throats are often treated with oral gargles or oral sprays. Some may rinse instead of gargle, leading to unsatisfactory outcome. The authors studied the efficacy of oral rinses, gargles, and sprays and the effect of Friedman palate position on the outcome.
    METHODS: Ten subjects used specially prepared solutions to rinse, gargle, and then spray their oral cavities at 2-hour intervals. The blue dye indicated the areas stained by the solution, which were scored.
    RESULTS: Although there was no difference in reaching the oropharynx between the gargles and sprays, they were both better than were the oral rinses (P < .001). The difference in Friedman palate position did not have an effect on the efficacy of the different modalities.
    CONCLUSION: Oral gargles and sprays have been shown to be significantly better than are oral rinses if the oropharynx is the targeted site, and the size of the oral airway does not impede their efficacy.
    KEYWORDS: Friedman palate position; drug administration; oropharynx
  3. Jaafar N, Perialathan K, Zulkepli MZ, Mohd Zin Z, Jonoi PE, Johari MZ
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2020 12 11;11:2150132720980629.
    PMID: 33300405 DOI: 10.1177/2150132720980629
    BACKGROUND: The present Malaysian healthcare system is burdened with increasing cases of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and its risk factors. Health care providers (HCPs) have to provide both treatment and health education to ensure optimal outcome. Health education is a vital component in addressing and managing chronic diseases. This study intends to explore patient's perspective on health education services received from HCPs, focusing at the secondary triage in government primary healthcare facilities.

    METHODS: This qualitative exploratory study focused on the health education component derived from a complex enhanced primary health care intervention. Participants were purposively selected from patients who attended regular NCD treatment at 8 primary healthcare facilities in rural and urban areas of Johor and Selangor. Data collection was conducted between April 2017 and April 2018. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted on 4 to 5 patients at each intervention clinic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach.

    RESULTS: A total of 35 patients participated. Through thematic analysis, 2 main themes emerged; Perceived Suitability and Preferred HCPs. Under Perceived Suitability theme, increased waiting time and unsuitable location emerged as sub-themes. Under Preferred HCPs, emerging sub-themes were professional credibility, continuity of care, message fatigue, and interpersonal relationship. There are both positive and adverse acceptances toward health education delivered by HCPs. It should be noted that acceptance level for health information received from doctors are much more positively accepted compared to other HCPs.

    CONCLUSION: Patients are willing to engage with health educators when their needs are addressed. Revision of current location, process and policy of health education delivery is needed to capture patients' attention and increase awareness of healthy living with NCDs. HCPs should continuously enhance knowledge and skills, which are essential to improve development and progressively becoming the expert educator in their respective specialized field.

  4. Bahrom NH, Ramli AS, Isa MR, Abdul-Hamid H, Badlishah-Sham SF, Baharudin N, et al.
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2020 6 9;11:2150132720931301.
    PMID: 32507012 DOI: 10.1177/2150132720931301
    Background: High activation level has been associated with higher education background, better self-rated health status, and having adequate health literacy. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding the level of activation and the factors associated with it among patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Malaysian primary care setting. Objectives: This study aims to determine activation levels and the factors associated with high activation among individuals with MetS in primary care. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a university primary care clinic. Patient activation was measured using the Patient Activation Measure®-13 Malay version. Activation levels were dichotomized into "low activation" (levels 1 and 2) and "high activation" (levels 3 and 4). To determine the factors associated with high activation, simple logistic regressions (SLogR) followed by multiple logistic regressions (MLogR) were performed. Results: Of 333 participants, 280 (84.1%) were included in the final analysis. The mean activation score was 59.4 (SD ±10.20) and 61.8% had high activation level. Two variables were found to be significant on MLogR. Those who were employed have the odds of 3.135 (95% CI 1.442-6.816) of having high activation compared with those who were unemployed. Those with good self-reported health status have the odds of 6.482 (95% CI 1.243-33.792) of having high activation compared to those with poor self-reported health status. Conclusions: The majority of participants had high activation levels. Those who were employed and those who had good self-reported health status were more likely to have high activation levels. Findings of this study could be used to develop patient activation interventions to improve self-management skills among individuals with MetS in primary care. These may include problem solving support, individualized care plans, peer or family support, and skill building. Those in high activation group can be trained to become mentors to support their peers who have low activation level.
  5. Cheah YK, Azahadi M, Phang SN, Abd Manaf NH
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2020 5 27;11:2150132720921738.
    PMID: 32450747 DOI: 10.1177/2150132720921738
    Objectives: Lowering the prevalence of mental health illness is one of the main public health concerns. The objective of the present study was to examine factors associated with depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among adults in Malaysia. Methods: Data were extracted from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 (NHMS 2011), which is a nationally representative sample collected using a 2-stage stratified sampling method. A bivariate probit model was utilized to examine the influences of sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors on the likelihood of suffering from depression and GAD. Results: Age, gender, ethnicity, education, marital status, and self-rated health were significantly associated with depression and GAD. In particular, there were positive relationships between depression and GAD, and younger adults, females, Indian ethnic group, lower level of education, being unmarried, and self-rated poor health. Conclusions: Sociodemographic and health factors were associated with determining the risks of depression and GAD in Malaysia. With this information, future policies (eg, screening and treatment) could be targeted at those at most risk to develop depression and GAD.
  6. Abdullah Z, Abdul Aziz SH, Sodri NA, Mohd Hanafiah AN, Ibrahim NI, Johari MZ
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2020 10 23;11:2150132720956478.
    PMID: 33089737 DOI: 10.1177/2150132720956478
    BACKGROUND: Primary healthcare is the earliest gateway for patient care, and improvisations are often needed to accommodate the ever-increasing demand in public health. The Enhanced Primary Healthcare (EnPHC) initiative is aimed at improving such needs, and one core intervention is the introduction of a care coordinator (CC). The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators in implementing a new intervention in primary healthcare clinics.

    METHODS: This qualitative exploration study. All healthcare providers who were involved in EnPHC at the intervention clinics were selected as participants. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were carried out among healthcare providers working in the intervention clinic. Thematic analysis was used to categorize data, based on the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR) theoretical framework domains.

    RESULTS: A total of 61 healthcare providers participated. All 5 domains with 19 CFIR constructs emerged from the analysis. Inner setting played a significant role in facilitating CC intervention, in which culture, networking, and collaboration and leadership engagement played an essential role in supporting CC activities. Although CC tasks are complex, concerns of losing clinical skill and resource constraints were identified as potential barriers in CC implementations. Criteria for appointing new CCs emerged from the characteristics of individual constructs, in which the individual must be familiar and interested in community health, have good communication skills, and at least 3 years' experience in the primary healthcare setting.

    CONCLUSION: The implementation of the CC intervention faces varying challenges in different settings. This is partially resolved through teamwork, guidance from mentors, and support from superiors. The complexity of the responsibility of the CC intervention is perceived as both a validation and a burden. Above all, it is seen as paramount in EnPHC intervention.

  7. Perialathan K, Johari MZ, Jaafar N, Yuke Lin K, Lee Lan L, Sodri NA, et al.
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2021 5 11;12:21501327211014096.
    PMID: 33966530 DOI: 10.1177/21501327211014096
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess and explore perceived sustainability and challenges of the intervention among Health Care Providers (HCPs) who were involved.

    METHODS: The study applied mixed-method embedded design to analyze both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative approach was used to evaluate sustainability perception from 20 intervention clinics via self-reported assessment form whereas qualitative data were obtained through in-depth interview (IDI) and focus group discussions (FGDs) 14 health care professionals participated in IDI session and were either care coordinators, liaison officers (LOs)/clinic managers, or medical officers-in-charge for the clinic's intervention. Nine FGDs conducted comprised 58 HCPs from various categories.

    RESULTS: HCPs from all the 20 clinics involved responded to each listed Enhanced Primary Healthcare (EnPHC) intervention components as being implemented but the perceived sustainability of these implementation varies between them. Quantitative feedback showed sustainable interventions included risk stratification, non-communicable disease (NCD) screening form, referral within clinics and hospitals, family health team (FHT), MTAC services and mechanisms and medical adherence status. Qualitative feedback highlighted implementation of each intervention components comes with its challenges, and most of it are related to inadequate resources and facilities in clinic. HCPs made initiatives to adapt based on clinical setting to implement the interventions at best level possible, whereby this seems to be one of the core values for sustainability.

    CONCLUSION: Overall perceptions among HCPs on sustainability of EnPHC interventions are highly influenced by current experiences with existing resources. Components perceived to have inadequate resources are seen as a challenge to sustain. It's crucial for stakeholders to understand implications affecting implementation process if concerns raised are not addressed and allocation of needed resources to ensure overall successfulness and long term sustainability.

  8. Jairoun AA, Al-Hemyari SS, El-Dahiyat F, Hassali MA, Shahwan M, Al Ani MR, et al.
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2020 3 1;11:2150132720911303.
    PMID: 32111128 DOI: 10.1177/2150132720911303
    Objectives: Presently, limited data are available on dietary supplements (DSs) and their associated effects on health status although the consumption of DS continues to expand. This study is aimed to explore the possible relationship between DSs consumption and suboptimal health status (SHS) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: This study was a cross-sectional research held among a sample of citizens and residents in the Emirate of Dubai in the UAE using a well-structured, self-administered, anonymous survey. Frequency tables, odds ratios, and confidence intervals were generated during the data analysis using SPSS version 23. Results: A total of 618 participants were enrolled in this study and fully completed the questionnaire. In this study, 317 participants (51.3%) (95% CI: 47.3%-55.3%) reported the use of DS products. A significant association between DS consumption and suboptimal health status was detected (P < .001). DS consumers had a 1.5-fold increased odds of suboptimal health status when compared with non-DS consumers (95% CI 1.4-1.7). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest a need to develop policies and programs that will help minimize the risk of possible adverse events that are associated with the utilization of DSs.
  9. Swarna Nantha Y, Haque S, Paul Chelliah AA, Md Zain AZ, Kim Yen G
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2020 2 6;11:2150132719900710.
    PMID: 32009509 DOI: 10.1177/2150132719900710
    Background: There has been an unabated rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) worldwide. Although T2D is highly preventable, these trends suggest that a paradigm change is much needed in the way both clinicians and policy makers view what effective T2D strategies conventionally entail. Hence, it is becoming increasingly clear that T2D patients require more than just a pharmacological approach to their disease. Evidence indicate that culturally specific mediators can help foster better self-management practices. We intend to discover psychosocial mediators that influence and support self-management beliefs in T2D patients. Methods: We adopted the grounded theory approach to guide in-depth interviews with T2D patients and health care professionals (HCP) at a regional primary care clinic in Malaysia. Twenty-four T2D patients and 10 HCPs were recruited through purposive sampling method to examine the inner psychological narratives about how they perceive and what they believe beliefs about the disease. Two focus group discussions were also were conducted for data triangulation. Results: A functional framework for the psychosocial mediators influencing self-management beliefs in T2D patients was designed and characterized by 4 major processes: (1) health promotion, (2) personal expectations, (3) person-centered care, and (4) psychosocial support. The fulfillment of patients' personal expectations is central to better self-management beliefs. Conclusions: Positive emotional states are important in providing a positive environment to nurture self-management practices. A person-centered consultation that focuses on empathy and cultural sensitivities has the potential to foster behavioral change required to sustain self-care practices.
  10. Wan Abdul Hamed WN, Abd Aziz NA
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2020 2 14;11:2150132720907472.
    PMID: 32052684 DOI: 10.1177/2150132720907472
    Perception of body weight has been recognized as an important barrier in the adoption of healthy lifestyles. Several factors affect perception of body weight, but the outcomes have been varied. This study aimed to study the perception and misperception of body weight and its association with the measured body mass index. A clinic-based cross-sectional study was done in the clinic using systematic sampling. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of the sociodemographic profile, body weight perception question adopted from Weight Management Questionnaire and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 1991-2017. The prevalence of body weight misperception in the sample population was 58.6%. Most of the respondents were overweight (33.9%) and obese (33.9%). Respondents aged 25 years and older were 2.98 times more likely to have misperception compared with other age groups (95% CI: 1.21-3.19, P = .006). Divorced respondents were 4.70 times more likely to have body misperception compared with married respondents (95% CI 1.44-15.32, P = 0.01). This study showed that misperception of body weight could be influenced by reversible factors and measured body mass index. Hence, the rectification of these misperceptions is important in the clinical setting especially in these vulnerable groups of respondents.
  11. Jiee SF, Bondi ME, Emiral ME, Jantim A
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2021 7 6;12:21501327211029800.
    PMID: 34218701 DOI: 10.1177/21501327211029800
    BACKGROUND: Polio Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) were carried out in the State of Sabah in response to the Vaccine Derived Poliovirus outbreak declared in December 2019. Prior to this, Malaysia had been polio-free over the past 27 years. This paper reported on the successful implementation of SIAs in the district of Penampang, Sabah, adapting (vaccine administration) to the COVID-19 pandemic.

    METHODS: A series of meticulous planning, healthcare staff training, advocacy, and community engagement activities were conducted by the Penampang District Health Office. Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine (bOPV) and monovalent Oral Polio Vaccine were administered over the period of 1 year via these methods: house to house, drive-through, static, and mobile posts. The targeted group was 22 096 children aged 13 years and below.

    RESULTS: Polio SIAs in Penampang managed to achieve more than 90% coverage for both bOPV and mOPV. The overall vaccine wastage was reported to be 1.63%. No major adverse reaction was reported.

    CONCLUSION: High vaccine uptake during Polio SIAs in Penampang was attributed to good inter-agency collaboration, community engagement, intensified health promotion activities, and drive-through vaccination campaign.

  12. Baharudin N, Ramli AS, Ramland SS, Badlie-Hisham NI, Mohamed-Yassin MS
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2023;14:21501319231191017.
    PMID: 37551146 DOI: 10.1177/21501319231191017
    INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the world's leading cause of death. About half of Malaysian adults have at least 2 risk factors; thus, rigorous primary preventions are crucial to prevent the first cardiovascular (CV) event. This study aimed to determine the achievement of treatment targets and factors associated with it among high CV risk individuals.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 390 participants from a primary care clinic in Selangor, Malaysia, between February and June 2022. The inclusion criteria were high-CV risk individuals, that is, Framingham risk score >20%, diabetes without target organ damage, stage 3 kidney disease, and very high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) >4.9 mmol/L or blood pressure (BP) >180/110 mmHg. Individuals with existing CVD were excluded. The treatment targets were BP <140/90 mmHg (≤135/75 for diabetics), LDL-C <2.6 mmol/L, and HbA1c ≤6.5%. Multiple logistic regressions determined the association between sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, health literacy, and medication adherence with the achievements of each target.

    RESULTS: About 7.2% achieved all treatment targets. Of these, 35.1% reached systolic and diastolic (46.7%) BP targets. About 60.2% and 28.2% achieved optimal LDL-C and HbA1c, respectively. Working participants had lower odds of having optimal systolic (aOR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.13-0.90) and diastolic (aOR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.17-0.96) BP. Those who adhered to treatments were more likely to achieve LDL-C and HbA1c targets; (aOR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.10-2.69) and (aOR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.25-4.83), respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The control of risk factors among high CV risk patients in this study was suboptimal. Urgent measures such as improving medication adherence are warranted.

  13. Ab Hamid MR, Buhari SS, Md Noor H, Azizan N', Md Nor N
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2023;14:21501319231214091.
    PMID: 38041441 DOI: 10.1177/21501319231214091
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of the D-PATH website to improve dietary and physical activity management for patients with cardiometabolic risk.

    METHODS: A website called D-PATH was developed, consisting of 6 learning units for managing hypertension. A 4-week program was implemented, and a pre- and post-intervention assessment was conducted to measure acceptability and changes in knowledge, attitude and practice, dietary intake, physical activity, and anthropometric status.

    RESULTS: The D-PATH website was acceptable in terms of understandability, actionability and cognitive load. Knowledge, attitude and practice, and physical activity levels were improved, but no changes were noted for dietary intake and blood pressure level.

    CONCLUSION: The D-PATH website was accepted and feasible for the intervention study. This study has shed light on using the website to promote behavioral change in patients with cardiometabolic risks.

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