Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Tan NH, Fung SY, Tan KY, Yap MK, Gnanathasan CA, Tan CH
    J Proteomics, 2015 Oct 14;128:403-23.
    PMID: 26342672 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2015.08.017
    The venom proteome (venomics) of the Sri Lankan Daboia russelii was elucidated using 1D SDS PAGE nano-ESI-LCMS/MS shotgun proteomics. A total of 41 different venom proteins belonging to 11 different protein families were identified. The four main protein families are phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 35.0%), snaclec (SCL, 22.4%, mainly platelet aggregation inhibitors), snake venom serine proteinase (SVSP, 16.0%, mainly Factor V activating enzyme) and snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP, 6.9%, mainly heavy chain of Factor X activating enzyme). Other protein families that account for more than 1% of the venom protein include l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO, 5.2%), Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor (KSPI, 4.6%), venom nerve growth factor (VNGF. 3.5%), 5'-nucleotidase (5'NUC, 3.0%), cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP, 2.0%) and phosphodiesterase (PDE, 1.3%). The venom proteome is consistent with the enzymatic and toxic activities of the venom, and it correlates with the clinical manifestations of Sri Lankan D. russelii envenomation which include hemorrhage, coagulopathy, renal failure, neuro-myotoxicity and intravascular hemolysis. The venom exhibited remarkable presypnatic neurotoxicity presumably due to the action of basic PLA2 in high abundance (35.0%). Besides, SCLs, Factor X activating enzymes (SVMPs), SVSPs, and LAAOs are potential hemotoxins (50.5%), contributing to coagulopathy and hemorrhagic syndrome in Sri Lankan D. russelii envenomation.
  2. Tan CH, Tan KY, Tan NH
    J Proteomics, 2016 07 20;144:33-8.
    PMID: 27282922 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2016.06.004
    Recent advances in proteomics enable deep profiling of the compositional details of snake venoms for improved understanding on envenomation pathophysiology and immunological neutralization. In this study, the venom of Australian tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) was trypsin-digested in solution and subjected to nano-ESI-LCMS/MS. Applying a relative quantitative proteomic approach, the findings revealed a proteome comprising 42 toxin subtypes clustered into 12 protein families. Phospholipases A2 constitute the most abundant toxins (74.5% of total venom proteins) followed by Kunitz serine protease inhibitors (6.9%), snake venom serine proteases (5.9%), alpha-neurotoxins (5.6%) and several toxins of lower abundance. The proteome correlates with N. scutatus envenoming effects including pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurotoxicity and consumptive coagulopathy. The venom is highly lethal in mice (intravenous median lethal dose=0.09μg/g). BioCSL Sea Snake Antivenom, raised against the venoms of beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus) and N. scutatus (added for enhanced immunogenicity), neutralized the lethal effect of N. scutatus venom (potency=2.95mg/ml) much more effectively than the targeted H.schistosus venom (potency=0.48mg/ml). The combined venom immunogen may have improved the neutralization against phospholipases A2 which are abundant in both venoms, but not short-neurotoxins which are predominant only in H. schistosus venom.

    SIGNIFICANCE: A shotgun proteomic approach adopted in this study revealed the compositional details of the venom of common tiger snake from Australia, Notechis scutatus. The proteomic findings provided additional information on the relative abundances of toxins and the detection of proteins of minor expression unreported previously. The potent lethal effect of the venom was neutralized by bioCSL Sea Snake Antivenom, an anticipated finding due to the fact that the Sea Snake Antivenom is actually bivalent in nature, being raised against a mix of venoms of the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus) and N. scutatus. However, it is surprising to note that bioCSL Sea Snake Antivenom neutralized N. scutatus venom much more effectively compared to the targeted sea snake venom by a marked difference in potency of approximately 6-fold. This phenomenon may be explained by the main difference in the proteomes of the two venoms, where H. schistosus venom is dominated by short-neurotoxins in high abundance - this is a poorly immunogenic toxin group that has been increasingly recognized in the venoms of a few cobras. Further investigations should be directed toward strategies to improve the neutralization of short-neurotoxins, in line with the envisioned production of an effective pan-regional elapid antivenom.

  3. Tan HS, Liddell S, Ong Abdullah M, Wong WC, Chin CF
    J Proteomics, 2016 06 30;143:334-345.
    PMID: 27130535 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2016.04.039
    Oil palm tissue culture is one way to produce superior oil palm planting materials. However, the low rate of embryogenesis is a major hindrance for the adoption of this technology in oil palm tissue culture laboratories. In this study, we use proteomic technologies to compare differential protein profiles in leaves from palms of high and low proliferation rates in tissue culture in order to understand the underlying biological mechanism for the low level of embryogenesis. Two protein extraction methods, namely trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation and polyethylene glycol fractionation were used to produce total proteins and fractionated protein extracts respectively, with the aim of improving the resolution of protein species using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 40 distinct differential abundant protein spots were selected from leaf samples collected from palms with proven high and low proliferation rates. The variant proteins were subsequently identified using mass spectrometric analysis. Twelve prominent protein spots were then characterised using real-time polymerase chain reaction to compare the mRNA expression and protein abundant profiles. Three proteins, namely triosephosphate isomerase, l-ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were identified to be potential biomarker candidates at both the protein abundant and mRNA expression levels.

    BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, proteomic analysis was used to identify abundant proteins from total protein extracts. PEG fractionation was used to reveal lower abundant proteins from both high and low proliferation embryogenic lines of oil palm samples in tissue culture. A total of 40 protein spots were found to be significant in abundance and the mRNA levels of 12 of these were assessed using real time PCR. Three proteins namely, triosephosphate isomerase, l-ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were found to be concordant in their mRNA expression and protein abundance. Triosephosphate isomerase is a key enzyme in glycolysis. Both l-ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase play a role in anti-oxidative scavenging defense systems. These proteins have potential for use as biomarkers to screen for high and low embryogenic oil palm samples.

  4. Tan KY, Tan CH, Fung SY, Tan NH
    J Proteomics, 2015 Apr 29;120:105-25.
    PMID: 25748141 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2015.02.012
    Previous studies showed that venoms of the monocled cobra, Naja kaouthia from Thailand and Malaysia are substantially different in their median lethal doses. The intraspecific venom variations of N. kaouthia, however, have not been fully elucidated. Here we investigated the venom proteomes of N. kaouthia from Malaysia (NK-M), Thailand (NK-T) and Vietnam (NK-V) through reverse-phase HPLC, SDS-PAGE and tandem mass spectrometry. The venom proteins comprise 13 toxin families, with three-finger toxins being the most abundant (63-77%) and the most varied (11-18 isoforms) among the three populations. NK-T has the highest content of neurotoxins (50%, predominantly long neurotoxins), followed by NK-V (29%, predominantly weak neurotoxins and some short neurotoxins), while NK-M has the least (18%, some weak neurotoxins but less short and long neurotoxins). On the other hand, cytotoxins constitute the main bulk of toxins in NK-M and NK-V venoms (up to 45% each), but less in NK-T venom (27%). The three venoms show different lethal potencies that generally reflect the proteomic findings. Despite the proteomic variations, the use of Thai monovalent and Neuro polyvalent antivenoms for N. kaouthia envenomation in the three regions is appropriate as the different venoms were neutralized by the antivenoms albeit at different degrees of effectiveness.
  5. Chan SY, Sam IC, Lai JK, Chan YF
    J Proteomics, 2015 Jul 1;125:121-30.
    PMID: 26003530 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2015.05.016
    Hand, foot and mouth disease is mainly caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), but EV-A71 is also associated with severe neurological complications. Host factors may contribute to the different clinical outcomes of EV-A71 and CV-A16 infections. A neurovirulent EV-A71 strain (EV-A71/UH1) from a fatal case, a non-neurovirulent EV-A71 strain (EV-A71/Sha66) and a CV-A16 strain (CV-A16/22159) from cases of uncomplicated HFMD were used. Replication of the viruses in SK-N-MC (neuronal) and HT-29 (intestinal) cell lines correlated with the severity of clinical disease associated with each virus. EV-A71/UH1 showed the greatest replication in neuronal cells. In HT-29 cells, both EV-A71 strains replicated well, but CV-A16/22159 showed no effective replication. The proteomes of mock and infected SK-N-MC and HT-29 cell lines were compared by 2D-SDS-PAGE. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. There were 46 and 44 differentially expressed proteins identified from SK-N-MC and HT-29 cells, respectively, categorized under apoptosis, stress, cytoskeletal, energy metabolism proteins and others. Western blot validation showed that EV-A71/UH1 and CV-A16 also differentially induced proteins involved in viral RNA translation and host cell stress responses in neuronal and intestinal cell lines.
  6. Tan CH, Tan KY, Lim SE, Tan NH
    J Proteomics, 2015 Aug 3;126:121-30.
    PMID: 26047715 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2015.05.035
    The venom proteome of Hydrophis schistosus (syn: Enhydrina schistosa) captured in Malaysian waters was investigated using reverse-phase HPLC, SDS-PAGE and high-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The findings revealed a minimalist profile with only 18 venom proteins. These proteins belong to 5 toxin families: three-finger toxin (3FTx), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP), snake venom metalloprotease (SVMP) and L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO). The 3FTxs (3 short neurotoxins and 4 long neurotoxins) constitute 70.5% of total venom protein, 55.8% being short neurotoxins and 14.7% long neurotoxins. The PLA2 family consists of four basic (21.4%) and three acidic (6.1%) isoforms. The minor proteins include one CRISP (1.3%), two SVMPs (0.5%) and one LAAO (0.2%). This is the first report of the presence of long neurotoxins, CRISP and LAAO in H. schistosus venom. The neurotoxins and the basic PLA2 are highly lethal in mice with an intravenous median lethal dose of <0.2 μg/g. Cross-neutralization by heterologous elapid antivenoms (Naja kaouthia monovalent antivenom and Neuro polyvalent antivenom) was moderate against the long neurotoxin and basic PLA2, but weak against the short neurotoxin, indicating that the latter is the limiting factor to be overcome for improving the antivenom cross-neutralization efficacy.
  7. Al-Maleki AR, Mariappan V, Vellasamy KM, Shankar EM, Tay ST, Vadivelu J
    J Proteomics, 2014 Jun 25;106:205-20.
    PMID: 24742602 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2014.04.005
    Colony morphology variation is a characteristic of Burkholderia pseudomallei primary clinical isolates, associated with variations in expression of virulence factors. Here, we performed comparative investigations on adhesion, invasion, plaque-forming abilities and protein profiles of B. pseudomallei wild-type (WT) and a small colony variant (SCV). The percentage of SCV adherence to A549 cells was significantly higher (2.73%) than WT (1.91%). In contrast, WT was significantly more efficient (0.63%) than SCV (0.31%) in invasiveness and in inducing cellular damage. Using 2-DE and MALDI TOF/TOF, 263 and 258 protein spots were detected in WT and SCV, respectively. Comparatively, 49 proteins were differentially expressed in SCV when compared with WT. Of these, 31 proteins were up-regulated, namely, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk), phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk), thioredoxin (TrxA), putative ferritin DPS-family DNA-binding protein (DPS) and oxidoreductase (AhpC) that are known to be involved in adhesion, intracellular survival and persistence. However, among the 18 down-regulated proteins, enolase (Eno), elongation factor (EF-Tu) and universal stress-related proteins were associated with invasion and virulence. Differences observed in these protein profiles provide ample clues to their association with the morphotypic and phenotypic characteristics of colony variants, providing additional insights into the potential association of B. pseudomallei colony morphotypes with disease pathogenesis.
  8. Rusmili MR, Yee TT, Mustafa MR, Hodgson WC, Othman I
    J Proteomics, 2014 Oct 14;110:129-44.
    PMID: 25154052 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2014.08.001
    Kraits (Bungarus spp.) are highly venomous elapids that are only found in Asia. In the current study, 103 and 86 different proteins were identified from Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus venoms, respectively. These proteins were classified into 18 different venom protein families. Both venoms were found to contain a high percentage of three finger toxins, phospholipase A2 enzymes and Kunitz-type inhibitors. Smaller number of high molecular weight enzymes such as L-amino acid oxidase, hyaluronidases, and acetylcholinesterase were also detected in the venoms. We also detected some unique proteins that were not known to be present in these venoms. The presence of a natriuretic peptide, vespryn, and serine protease families was detected in B. candidus venom. We also detected the presence of subunit A and B of β-bungarotoxin and α-bungarotoxin which had not been previously found in B. fasciatus venom. Understanding the proteome composition of Malaysian krait species will provide useful information on unique toxins and proteins which are present in the venoms. This knowledge will assist in the management of krait envenoming. In addition, these proteins may have potential use as research tools or as drug-design templates.
  9. Tan CH, Fung SY, Yap MK, Leong PK, Liew JL, Tan NH
    J Proteomics, 2016 Jan 30;132:1-12.
    PMID: 26598790 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2015.11.014
    The venom proteome of the Malayan blue coral snake, Calliophis bivirgata flaviceps from west Malaysia was investigated by 1D-SDS-PAGE and shotgun-LCMS/MS. A total of 23 proteins belonging to 11 protein families were detected from the venom proteome. For the toxin proteins, the venom consists mainly of phospholipase A2 (41.1%), cytotoxin (22.6%), SVMPs (18.7%) and vespryns (14.6%). However, in contrast to the venoms of New World coral snakes and most elapids, there was no post-synaptic α-neurotoxin detected. The proteome also revealed a relatively high level of phosphodiesterase (1.3%), which may be associated with the reported high level of adenosine in the venom. Also detected were 5'-nucleotidase (0.3%), hyaluronidase (0.1%) and cysteine-type endopeptide inhibitor (0.6%). Enzymatic studies confirmed the presence of phospholipase A2, phosphodiesterase, 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase activities but not l-amino acid oxidase activity. The venom exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against CRL-2648 fibroblast cell lines (IC50=62.14±0.87 μg/mL) and myotoxicity in mice, presumably due to the action of its cytotoxin or its synergistic action with phospholipase A2. Interestingly, the venom lethality could be cross-neutralized by a neurotoxic bivalent antivenom from Taiwan. Together, the findings provide insights into the composition and functions of the venom of this exotic oriental elapid snake.
  10. Malih I, Ahmad rusmili MR, Tee TY, Saile R, Ghalim N, Othman I
    J Proteomics, 2014 Jan 16;96:240-52.
    PMID: 24269350 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.11.012
    The proteome of the venom of Naja haje legionis, the only medically important elapid species in Morocco, has been elucidated by using a combination of proteomic techniques that includes size exclusion chromatography, reverse-phase HPLC, Tricine/SDS-Page, tryptic digestion, Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry and database search. The sequence analysis of venom fractions revealed a highly complex venom proteome which counts a total of 76 proteins identified from database that can be assigned into 9 proteins families. We report the identification of: cobra venom factor (CVF), l-amino-acid oxidases (LAAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP), cysteine rich secretory proteins (CRISP), venom nerve growth factor (vNGF), phospholipases A2 (PLA2), vespryns, kunitz-type inhibitor, short neurotoxins, long neurotoxins, weak neurotoxins, neurotoxin like proteins, muscarinic toxins, cardiotoxins and cytotoxins. Comparison of these proteins showed high sequence homology with proteins from other African and Asian cobras. Further works are needed to assess the contribution of individual toxins in venom toxicity.
  11. Chang HC, Tsai TS, Tsai IH
    J Proteomics, 2013 Aug 26;89:141-53.
    PMID: 23796489 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.06.012
    This study deciphers the geographic variations of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom using functional proteomics. Pooled samples of king cobra venom (abbreviated as Ohv) were obtained from Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and two provinces of China, namely Guangxi and Hainan. Using two animal models to test and compare the lethal effects, we found that the Chinese Ohvs were more fatal to mice, while the Southeast Asian Ohvs were more fatal to lizards (Eutropis multifasciata). Various phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), three-finger toxins (3FTxs) and Kunitz-type inhibitors were purified from these Ohvs and compared. Besides the two Chinese Ohv PLA2s with known sequences, eight novel PLA2s were identified from the five Ohv samples and their antiplatelet activities were compared. While two 3FTxs (namely oh-55 and oh-27) were common in all the Ohvs, different sets of 3FTx markers were present in the Chinese and Southeast Asian Ohvs. All the Ohvs contain the Kunitz inhibitor, OH-TCI, while only the Chinese Ohvs contain the inhibitor variant, Oh11-1. Relative to the Chinese Ohvs which contained more phospholipases, the Southeast Asian Ohvs had higher metalloproteinase, acetylcholine esterase, and alkaline phosphatase activities.
  12. Tang EL, Tan CH, Fung SY, Tan NH
    J Proteomics, 2016 10 04;148:44-56.
    PMID: 27418434 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2016.07.006
    The venom of Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) is highly toxic but also valuable in drug discovery. However, a comprehensive proteome of the venom that details its toxin composition and abundance is lacking. This study aimed to unravel the venom complexity through a multi-step venomic approach. At least 96 distinct proteins (29 basic, 67 acidic) in 11 families were identified from the venom. The venom consists of mainly snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP, 41.17% of total venom proteins), within which the P-I (kistomin, 20.4%) and P-II (rhodostoxin, 19.8%) classes predominate. This is followed by C-type lectins (snaclec, 26.3%), snake venom serine protease (SVSP, 14.9%), L-amino acid oxidase (7.0%), phospholipase A2 (4.4%), cysteine-rich secretory protein (2.5%), and five minor toxins (nerve growth factor, neurotrophin, phospholipase B, 5' nucleotidase and phosphodiesterase, totaling 2.6%) not reported in the proteome hitherto. Importantly, all principal hemotoxins unveiled correlate with the syndrome: SVSP ancrod causes venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy, aggravated by thrombocytopenia caused by snaclec rhodocytin, a platelet aggregation inducer, while P-II rhodostoxin mediates hemorrhage, exacerbated by P-I kistomin and snaclec rhodocetin that inhibit platelet plug formation. These toxins exist in multiple isoforms and/or complex subunits, deserving further characterization for the development of an effective, polyspecific regional antivenom.

    BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Advents in proteomics and bioinformatics have vigorously propelled the scientific discoveries of toxins from various lineages of venomous snakes. The Malayan pit viper, Calloselasma rhodostoma, is a medically important species in Southeast Asia as its bite can cause envenomation, while the venom is also a source of bioactive compounds for drug discovery. Detailed profiling of the venom, however, is inadequate possibly due to the complex nature of the venom and technical limitation in separating the constituents into details. Integrating a multi-step fractionation method, this study successfully revealed a comprehensive and quantitative profile of the composition of the venom of this medically important venomous snake. The relative abundance of the various venom proteins is determined in a global profile, providing useful information for understanding the pathogenic roles of the different toxins in C. rhodostoma envenomation. Notably, the principal hemotoxins were identified in great details, including the variety of toxin subunits and isoforms. The findings indicate that these toxins are the principal targets for effective antivenom neutralization, and should be addressed in the production of a pan-regional polyspecific antivenom. In addition, minor toxin components not reported previously in the venom were also detected in this study, enriching the current toxin database for the venomous snakes.

  13. Akpunarlieva S, Weidt S, Lamasudin D, Naula C, Henderson D, Barrett M, et al.
    J Proteomics, 2017 02 23;155:85-98.
    PMID: 28040509 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2016.12.009
    Leishmania parasites multiply and develop in the gut of a sand fly vector in order to be transmitted to a vertebrate host. During this process they encounter and exploit various nutrients, including sugars, and amino and fatty acids. We have previously generated a mutant Leishmania line that is deficient in glucose transport and which displays some biologically important phenotypic changes such as reduced growth in axenic culture, reduced biosynthesis of hexose-containing virulence factors, increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, and dramatically reduced parasite burden in both insect vector and macrophage host cells. Here we report the generation and integration of proteomic and metabolomic approaches to identify molecular changes that may explain these phenotypes. Our data suggest changes in pathways of glycoconjugate production and redox homeostasis, which likely represent adaptations to the loss of sugar uptake capacity and explain the reduced virulence of this mutant in sand flies and mammals. Our data contribute to understanding the mechanisms of metabolic adaptation in Leishmania and illustrate the power of integrated proteomic and metabolomic approaches to relate biochemistry to phenotype.

    BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This paper reports the application of comparative proteomic and metabolomic approaches to reveal the molecular basis for important phenotypic changes Leishmania parasites that are deficient in glucose uptake. Leishmania cause a very significant disease burden across the world and there are few effective drugs available for control. This work shows that proteomics and metabolomics can produce complementary data that advance understanding of parasite metabolism and highlight potential new targets for chemotherapy.

  14. Tan NH, Wong KY, Tan CH
    J Proteomics, 2017 03 22;157:18-32.
    PMID: 28159706 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2017.01.018
    The venom proteome of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) was elucidated through reverse-phase HPLC, nano-ESI-LCMS/MS and data mining. A total of 97 distinct protein forms belonging to 14 families were identified. The most abundant proteins are the three-finger toxins (3FTXs, 64.22%) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 31.24%), followed by nerve growth factors (1.82%), snake venom metalloproteinase (1.33%) and several proteins of lower abundance (<1%) including a variety of venom enzymes. At subproteome, the 3FTx is dominated by cytotoxins (48.08%), while short neurotoxins (7.89%) predominate over the long neurotoxins (0.48%) among other neurotoxins of lesser toxicity (muscarinic toxin-like proteins, 5.51% and weak neurotoxins, 2.26%). The major SNTX, CTX and PLA2 toxins were isolated with intravenous median lethal doses determined as 0.13, 1.06 and 0.50μg/g in mice, respectively. SABU, the Indonesia manufactured homologous tri-specific antivenom could neutralize the CTX and PLA2 fraction with moderate potency (potency=0.14-0.16mg toxin per ml antivenom). The SNTX, however, was very poorly neutralized with a potency level of 0.034mg/ml, indicating SNTX as the main limiting factor in antivenom neutralization. The finding helps elucidate the inferior efficacy of SABU reported in neutralizing N. sputatrix venom, and supports the call for antivenom improvement.

    BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The Javan spitting cobra, Naja sputatrix is by itself a unique species and should not be confused as the equatorial and the Indochinese spitting cobras. The distinction among the spitting cobras was however unclear prior to the revision of cobra systematics in the mid-90's, and results of some earlier studies are now questionable as to which species was implicated back then. The current study successfully profiled the venom proteome of authenticated N. sputatrix, and showed that the venom is made up of approximately 64% three-finger toxins (including neurotoxins and cytotoxins) and 31% phospholipases A2 by total venom proteins. The findings verified that the paralyzing components in the venom i.e. neurotoxins are predominantly the short-chain subtype (SNTX) far exceeding the long-chain subtype (LNTX) which is more abundant in the venoms of monocled cobra and Indian common cobra. The neurotoxicity of N. sputatrix venom is hence almost exclusively SNTX-driven, and effective neutralization of the SNTX is the key to early reversal of paralysis. Unfortunately, as shown through a toxin-specific assay, the immunological neutralization of the SNTX using the Indonesian antivenom (SABU) was extremely weak, implying that SABU has limited therapeutic efficacy in treating N. sputatrix envenomation clinically. From the practical standpoint, actions need to be taken at all levels from laboratory to production and policy making to ensure that the shortcoming is overcome.

  15. Tan BC, Lim YS, Lau SE
    J Proteomics, 2017 10 03;169:176-188.
    PMID: 28546092 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2017.05.018
    Proteomics is a rapidly growing area of biological research that is positively affecting plant science. Recent advances in proteomic technology, such as mass spectrometry, can now identify a broad range of proteins and monitor their modulation during plant growth and development, as well as during responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this review, we highlight recent proteomic studies of commercial crops and discuss the advances in understanding of the proteomes of these crops. We anticipate that proteomic-based research will continue to expand and contribute to crop improvement.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Plant proteomics study is a rapidly growing area of biological research that is positively impacting plant science. With the recent advances in new technologies, proteomics not only allows us to comprehensively analyses crop proteins, but also help us to understand the functions of the genes. In this review, we highlighted recent proteomic studies in commercial crops and updated the advances in our understanding of the proteomes of these crops. We believe that proteomic-based research will continue to grow and contribute to the improvement of crops.

  16. Oh AMF, Tan CH, Ariaranee GC, Quraishi N, Tan NH
    J Proteomics, 2017 07 05;164:1-18.
    PMID: 28476572 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2017.04.018
    The Indian krait (Bungarus caeruleus) is one of the "Big Four" venomous snakes widely distributed in South Asia. The present venomic study reveals that its venom (Sri Lankan origin) is predominated by phospholipases A2 (64.5% of total proteins), in which at least 4.6% are presynaptically-acting β-bungarotoxin A-chains. Three-finger toxins (19.0%) are the second most abundant, comprising 15.6% κ-neurotoxins, the potent postsynaptically-acting long neurotoxins. Comparative chromatography showed that venom samples from Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan did not exhibit significant variation. These venoms exhibited high immunoreactivity toward VINS Indian Polyvalent Antivenom (VPAV). The Pakistani krait venom, however, had a relatively lower degree of binding, consistent with its moderate neutralization by VPAV (potency=0.3mg venom neutralized per ml antivenom) while the Sri Lankan and Indian venoms were more effectively neutralized (potency of 0.44 mg/ml and 0.48 mg/ml, respectively). Importantly, VPAV was able to neutralize the Sri Lankan and Indian venoms to a comparable extent, supporting its use in Sri Lanka especially in the current situation where Sri Lanka-specific antivenom is unavailable against this species. The findings also indicate that the Pakistani B. caeruleus venom is immunologically less comparable and should be incorporated in the production of a pan-regional, polyspecific antivenom.

    BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The Indian krait or blue krait, Bungarus caeruleus, is a highly venomous snake that contributes to the snakebite envenoming problem in South Asia. This is a less aggressive snake species but its accidental bite can cause rapid and severe neurotoxicity, in which the patient may succumb to paralysis, respiratory failure and death within a short frame of time. The proteomic analysis of its venom (sourced from Sri Lanka) unveils its content that well correlates to its envenoming pathophysiology, driven primarily by the abundant presynaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins (β-bungarotoxins and κ-neurotoxins, respectively). The absence of cytotoxins in the venom proteome also correlates with the lack of local envenoming sign (pain, swelling), and explains why the bite may be insidious until later stage when paralysis sets in. The muscarinic toxin-like proteins in the venom may be the cause of severe abdominal pain that precedes paralysis in many cases, and justifies the need of closely monitoring this symptom in suspected cases. Venom samples from Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan exhibited no remarkable variation in protein profiling and reacted immunologically toward the VINS Indian Polyvalent Antivenom, though to a varying extent. The antivenom is effective in neutralizing the Sri Lankan and Indian venoms, confirming its clinical use in the countries. The antivenom efficacy against the Pakistani venom, however, may be further optimized by incorporating the Pakistani venom in the antivenom production.

  17. Tan KY, Liew JL, Tan NH, Quah ESH, Ismail AK, Tan CH
    J Proteomics, 2019 02 10;192:246-257.
    PMID: 30243938 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2018.09.006
    The Asiatic coral snakes are basal in the phylogeny of coral snakes. Although envenoming by the Asiatic coral snakes is rarely fatal, little is known about their venom properties and variability from the American coral snakes. Integrating reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we showed that the venom proteome of the Malaysian banded or striped coral snake (Calliophis intestinalis) was composed of mainly phospholipases A2 (PLA2, 43.4%) and three-finger toxins (3FTx, 20.1%). Within 3FTx, the cytotoxins or cardiotoxins (CTX) dominated while the neurotoxins' content was much lower. Its subproteomic details contrasted with the 3FTx profile of most Micrurus sp., illustrating a unique dichotomy of venom phenotype between the Old and the New World coral snakes. Calliophis intestinalis venom proteome was correlated with measured enzymatic activities, and in vivo it was myotoxic but non-lethal to mice, frogs and geckos at high doses (5-10 μg/g). The venom contains species-specific toxins with distinct sequences and antigenicity, and the antibodies raised against PLA2 and CTX of other elapids showed poor binding toward its venom antigens. The unique venom proteome of C. intestinalis unveiled a repertoire of novel toxins, and the toxicity test supported the need for post-bite monitoring of myotoxic complication. SIGNIFICANCE: Malaysian banded or striped coral snake (Calliophis intestinalis) has a cytotoxin (CTX)-predominating venom proteome, a characteristic shared by its congener, the Malayan blue coral snake (Calliophis bivirgata). With little neurotoxins (NTX), it illustrates a CTX/NTX dichotomy of venom phenotype between the Old World and the New World coral snakes. The low toxicity of the venom imply that C. intestinalis bite envenoming can be managed via symptomatic relief of the mild to moderate pain with appropriate analgesia. Systemically, the serum creatine kinase level of patients should be monitored serially for potential complication of myotoxicity. The distinct antigenicity of the venom proteins implies that the empirical use of heterologous antivenom is mostly inappropriate and not recommended.
  18. Oh AMF, Tan CH, Tan KY, Quraishi NH, Tan NH
    J Proteomics, 2019 02 20;193:243-254.
    PMID: 30385415 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2018.10.016
    The proteome of the Pakistani B. sindanus venom was investigated with reverse-phase HPLC and nano-ESI-LCMS/MS analysis. At least 36 distinct proteins belonging to 8 toxin protein families were identified. Three-finger toxin (3FTx), phospholipase A2 (including β-bungarotoxin A-chains) and Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KSPI) were the most abundant, constituting ~95% of total venom proteins. The other toxin proteins of low abundance are snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), vespryn and cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRiSP). The venom was highly lethal to mice with LD50 values of 0.04 μg/g (intravenous) and 0.15 μg/g (subcutaneous). The 3FTx proteins are diverse, comprising kappa-neurotoxins, neurotoxin-like protein, non-conventional toxins and muscarinic toxin-like proteins. Kappa-neurotoxins and β-bungarotoxins represent the major toxins that mediate neurotoxicity in B. sindanus envenoming. Alpha-bungarotoxin, commonly present in the Southeast Asian krait venoms, was undetected. The Indian VINS Polyvalent Antivenom (VPAV) was immunoreactive toward the venom, and it moderately cross-neutralized the venom lethality (potency = 0.25 mg/ml). VPAV was able to reverse the neurotoxicity and prevent death in experimentally envenomed mice, but the recovery time was long. The unique toxin composition of B. sindanus venom may be considered in the formulation of a more effective pan-regional, polyspecific antivenom. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Bungarus sindanus, an endemic krait species distributed mainly in the Sindh Province of Pakistan is a cause of snake envenomation. Its specific antivenom is, however, lacking. The proteomic study of its venom revealed a substantial presence of κ-bungarotoxins and β-bungarotoxins. The toxin profile corroborates the potent neurotoxicity and lethality of the venom tested in vivo. The heterologous Indian VINS polyvalent antivenom (VPAV) cross-reacted with B. sindanus venom and cross-neutralized the venom neurotoxicity and lethality in mice, albeit the efficacy was moderate. The findings imply that B. sindanus and the phylogenetically related B. caeruleus of India share certain venom epitopes. Research should be advanced to improve the efficacy spectrum of a pan-regional polyspecific antivenom.
  19. Tan CH, Wong KY, Tan KY, Tan NH
    J Proteomics, 2017 08 23;166:48-58.
    PMID: 28688916 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2017.07.002
    The venom proteome of Laticauda colubrina (Bali, Indonesia) was elucidated by nano-ESI-LCMS/MS of the venom reverse-phase HPLC fractions. Altogether 31 distinct forms of proteins were identified and clustered into three toxin families: three-finger toxin (3FTX, 66.12% of total venom proteins), phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 33.26%) and cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRiSP, 0.05%). The 3FTX were α-neurotoxins (five long neurotoxins, LNTX, 48.87%; two short neurotoxins, SNTX, 16.94%) and a trace amount of two cytotoxins (CTX, 0.31%). PLA2 were present with a large diversity of homologues (≥20 forms), however none was annotated to the lethal proteoform reported previously. The venom is highly lethal in mice (LD50=0.10μg/g) and this is driven primarily by the SNTX and LNTX (LD50=0.05-0.13μg/g), since the PLA2 proteins were non-lethal up to 2μg/g (20-time the venom LD50). The SNTX and LNTX were effectively cross-neutralized by the heterologous Sea Snake Antivenom (SSAV, Australian product) (potency=0.27mg toxin per ml antivenom, and 0.40mg/ml, respectively), corroborating the cross-neutralization of the whole venom (potency=1.09mg/ml) and its antigenic immunoreactivity toward SSAV. Furthermore, compared with earlier studies, the present work reveals geographical variation of venom composition for L. colubrina which may have implication for the evolution and conservation of the species.

    BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Laticauda colubrina (yellow-lipped sea krait) is a widely distributed, semi-aquatic venomous snake species. The venom proteome at the level of protein family is unsophisticated and consistent with its restricted prey selection. Nonetheless, the subproteomic findings revealed geographical variability of the venom for this widely distributed species. In contrast to two previous reports, the results for the Balinese L. colubrina venom showed that LNTX Neurotoxin a and Neurotoxin b were co-existent while the PLA2 lethal subtype (PLA-II) was undetected by means of LCMS/MS and by in vivo assay. This is an observable trait of L. colubrina considered divergent from specimens previously studied for the Philippines and the Solomon Islands. The stark geographical variation might be reflective of trophic adaptation following evolutionary arms race between the snake and the prey (eels) in different localities. The preferred trait would likely propagate and remain significant within the geographical population, since the strong behaviour of site fidelity in the species would have minimized gene flow between distant populations. Meanwhile, the in vivo neutralization study verified that the efficacy of the heterologous Sea Snake Antivenom (Australian product) is attributable to the cross-neutralization of SNTX and LNTX, two principal lethal toxins that made up the bulk of L. colubrina venom proteins. The findings also implied that L. colubrina, though could be evolutionarily more related to the terrestrial elapids, has evolved a much streamlined, neurotoxin- and PLA2-predominated venom arsenal, with major antigenicity shared among the true sea snakes and the Australo-Papuan elapids. The findings enrich our current understanding of the complexity of L. colubrina venom and the neutralizing spectrum of antivenom against the principal toxins from this unique elapid lineage.

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