SIGNIFICANCE: A shotgun proteomic approach adopted in this study revealed the compositional details of the venom of common tiger snake from Australia, Notechis scutatus. The proteomic findings provided additional information on the relative abundances of toxins and the detection of proteins of minor expression unreported previously. The potent lethal effect of the venom was neutralized by bioCSL Sea Snake Antivenom, an anticipated finding due to the fact that the Sea Snake Antivenom is actually bivalent in nature, being raised against a mix of venoms of the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus) and N. scutatus. However, it is surprising to note that bioCSL Sea Snake Antivenom neutralized N. scutatus venom much more effectively compared to the targeted sea snake venom by a marked difference in potency of approximately 6-fold. This phenomenon may be explained by the main difference in the proteomes of the two venoms, where H. schistosus venom is dominated by short-neurotoxins in high abundance - this is a poorly immunogenic toxin group that has been increasingly recognized in the venoms of a few cobras. Further investigations should be directed toward strategies to improve the neutralization of short-neurotoxins, in line with the envisioned production of an effective pan-regional elapid antivenom.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, proteomic analysis was used to identify abundant proteins from total protein extracts. PEG fractionation was used to reveal lower abundant proteins from both high and low proliferation embryogenic lines of oil palm samples in tissue culture. A total of 40 protein spots were found to be significant in abundance and the mRNA levels of 12 of these were assessed using real time PCR. Three proteins namely, triosephosphate isomerase, l-ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were found to be concordant in their mRNA expression and protein abundance. Triosephosphate isomerase is a key enzyme in glycolysis. Both l-ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase play a role in anti-oxidative scavenging defense systems. These proteins have potential for use as biomarkers to screen for high and low embryogenic oil palm samples.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Advents in proteomics and bioinformatics have vigorously propelled the scientific discoveries of toxins from various lineages of venomous snakes. The Malayan pit viper, Calloselasma rhodostoma, is a medically important species in Southeast Asia as its bite can cause envenomation, while the venom is also a source of bioactive compounds for drug discovery. Detailed profiling of the venom, however, is inadequate possibly due to the complex nature of the venom and technical limitation in separating the constituents into details. Integrating a multi-step fractionation method, this study successfully revealed a comprehensive and quantitative profile of the composition of the venom of this medically important venomous snake. The relative abundance of the various venom proteins is determined in a global profile, providing useful information for understanding the pathogenic roles of the different toxins in C. rhodostoma envenomation. Notably, the principal hemotoxins were identified in great details, including the variety of toxin subunits and isoforms. The findings indicate that these toxins are the principal targets for effective antivenom neutralization, and should be addressed in the production of a pan-regional polyspecific antivenom. In addition, minor toxin components not reported previously in the venom were also detected in this study, enriching the current toxin database for the venomous snakes.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Comprehensive venom proteomes of D. russelii from different locales will facilitate better understanding of the geographical variability of the venom in both qualitative and quantitative terms. This is essential to provide scientific basis for the interpretation of differences in the clinical presentation of Russell's viper envenomation. The study revealed a unique venom proteome of the Pakistani D. russelii from the wild (Indus Delta), in which PLA2 predominated (~60% of total venom proteins). The finding unveiled remarkable differences in the venom compositions between the wild (present study) and the captive specimens reported previously. The integration of toxicity tests enabled the correlation of the venom proteome with the envenoming pathophysiology, where the venom showed potent lethality mediated through coagulopathic activity. The Indian VINS Polyvalent Antivenom (VPAV) showed binding activity toward the venom protein antigens; however the immunorecognition of small proteins and PLA2-dominating fractions was low to moderate. Consistently, the antivenom neutralized the toxicity of the wild Pakistani Russell's viper venom at moderate efficacies. Our results suggest that it may be possible to enhance the Indian antivenom potency against the Pakistani viper venom by the inclusion of venoms from a wider geographical range including that from Pakistan into the immunogen formulation.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This paper reports the application of comparative proteomic and metabolomic approaches to reveal the molecular basis for important phenotypic changes Leishmania parasites that are deficient in glucose uptake. Leishmania cause a very significant disease burden across the world and there are few effective drugs available for control. This work shows that proteomics and metabolomics can produce complementary data that advance understanding of parasite metabolism and highlight potential new targets for chemotherapy.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The Javan spitting cobra, Naja sputatrix is by itself a unique species and should not be confused as the equatorial and the Indochinese spitting cobras. The distinction among the spitting cobras was however unclear prior to the revision of cobra systematics in the mid-90's, and results of some earlier studies are now questionable as to which species was implicated back then. The current study successfully profiled the venom proteome of authenticated N. sputatrix, and showed that the venom is made up of approximately 64% three-finger toxins (including neurotoxins and cytotoxins) and 31% phospholipases A2 by total venom proteins. The findings verified that the paralyzing components in the venom i.e. neurotoxins are predominantly the short-chain subtype (SNTX) far exceeding the long-chain subtype (LNTX) which is more abundant in the venoms of monocled cobra and Indian common cobra. The neurotoxicity of N. sputatrix venom is hence almost exclusively SNTX-driven, and effective neutralization of the SNTX is the key to early reversal of paralysis. Unfortunately, as shown through a toxin-specific assay, the immunological neutralization of the SNTX using the Indonesian antivenom (SABU) was extremely weak, implying that SABU has limited therapeutic efficacy in treating N. sputatrix envenomation clinically. From the practical standpoint, actions need to be taken at all levels from laboratory to production and policy making to ensure that the shortcoming is overcome.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Laticauda colubrina (yellow-lipped sea krait) is a widely distributed, semi-aquatic venomous snake species. The venom proteome at the level of protein family is unsophisticated and consistent with its restricted prey selection. Nonetheless, the subproteomic findings revealed geographical variability of the venom for this widely distributed species. In contrast to two previous reports, the results for the Balinese L. colubrina venom showed that LNTX Neurotoxin a and Neurotoxin b were co-existent while the PLA2 lethal subtype (PLA-II) was undetected by means of LCMS/MS and by in vivo assay. This is an observable trait of L. colubrina considered divergent from specimens previously studied for the Philippines and the Solomon Islands. The stark geographical variation might be reflective of trophic adaptation following evolutionary arms race between the snake and the prey (eels) in different localities. The preferred trait would likely propagate and remain significant within the geographical population, since the strong behaviour of site fidelity in the species would have minimized gene flow between distant populations. Meanwhile, the in vivo neutralization study verified that the efficacy of the heterologous Sea Snake Antivenom (Australian product) is attributable to the cross-neutralization of SNTX and LNTX, two principal lethal toxins that made up the bulk of L. colubrina venom proteins. The findings also implied that L. colubrina, though could be evolutionarily more related to the terrestrial elapids, has evolved a much streamlined, neurotoxin- and PLA2-predominated venom arsenal, with major antigenicity shared among the true sea snakes and the Australo-Papuan elapids. The findings enrich our current understanding of the complexity of L. colubrina venom and the neutralizing spectrum of antivenom against the principal toxins from this unique elapid lineage.
SIGNIFICANCE: Plant proteomics study is a rapidly growing area of biological research that is positively impacting plant science. With the recent advances in new technologies, proteomics not only allows us to comprehensively analyses crop proteins, but also help us to understand the functions of the genes. In this review, we highlighted recent proteomic studies in commercial crops and updated the advances in our understanding of the proteomes of these crops. We believe that proteomic-based research will continue to grow and contribute to the improvement of crops.