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  1. Campion KL, McCormick WD, Warwicker J, Khayat ME, Atkinson-Dell R, Steward MC, et al.
    J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 2015 Sep;26(9):2163-71.
    PMID: 25556167 DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2014070653
    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) modulates renal calcium reabsorption and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and is involved in the etiology of secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD. Supraphysiologic changes in extracellular pH (pHo) modulate CaR responsiveness in HEK-293 (CaR-HEK) cells. Therefore, because acidosis and alkalosis are associated with altered PTH secretion in vivo, we examined whether pathophysiologic changes in pHo can significantly alter CaR responsiveness in both heterologous and endogenous expression systems and whether this affects PTH secretion. In both CaR-HEK and isolated bovine parathyroid cells, decreasing pHo from 7.4 to 7.2 rapidly inhibited CaR-induced intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)i) mobilization, whereas raising pHo to 7.6 potentiated responsiveness to extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)o). Similar pHo effects were observed for Ca(2+)o-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and actin polymerization and for L-Phe-induced Ca(2+)i mobilization. Intracellular pH was unaffected by acute 0.4-unit pHo changes, and the presence of physiologic albumin concentrations failed to attenuate the pHo-mediated effects. None of the individual point mutations created at histidine or cysteine residues in the extracellular domain of CaR attenuated pHo sensitivity. Finally, pathophysiologic pHo elevation reversibly suppressed PTH secretion from perifused human parathyroid cells, and acidosis transiently increased PTH secretion. Therefore, pathophysiologic pHo changes can modulate CaR responsiveness in HEK-293 and parathyroid cells independently of extracellular histidine residues. Specifically, pathophysiologic acidification inhibits CaR activity, thus permitting PTH secretion, whereas alkalinization potentiates CaR activity to suppress PTH secretion. These findings suggest that acid-base disturbances may affect the CaR-mediated control of parathyroid function and calcium metabolism in vivo.
  2. Walsh M, Wang CY, Ong GS, Tan AS, Mansor M, Shariffuddin II, et al.
    J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 2015 Oct;26(10):2571-7.
    PMID: 25711126 DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2014060536
    Cardiac troponin T (cTnT), even at low concentrations, is a risk factor for 30-day mortality in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, but it is uncertain whether that risk is generalizable to patients with poor kidney function. We, therefore, evaluated the relationship between cTnT concentration and kidney function on the outcome of 30-day mortality in a post hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. cTnT was measured for 3 days after surgery and considered abnormal if the peak was ≥0.02 ng/ml. Of the included 14,037 patients, 267 (1.9%) patients died within 30 days of surgery. The adjusted hazard ratios for death with an abnormal cTnT concentration were 4.37 (95% confidence intervals [95% CI], 3.21 to 6.22), 6.15 (95% CI, 2.95 to 140.9), 6.30 (95% CI, 3.12 to 21.23), 1.33 (95% CI, 0.56 to 4.85), and 1.46 (95% CI, 0.46 to 9.21) for eGFR≥60, 45 to <60, 30 to <45, 15 to <30, and <15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) or on dialysis, respectively. Compared with patients with eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), the adjusted hazard ratio was significantly lower for patients with eGFR=15 to <30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (interaction P value=0.02). Redefining abnormal cTnT concentration as ≥0.03 ng/ml or a change of ≥0.02 ng/ml did not alter results. Because the risk associated with postoperative cTnT levels may be different for patients with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), additional research is required to determine how to interpret perioperative cTnT values for patients with low kidney function.
  3. Ramirez SP, McClellan W, Port FK, Hsu SI
    J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 2002 Jul;13(7):1907-17.
    PMID: 12089388
    The factors associated with proteinuria were examined in a large multiracial Asian population participating in a screening program aimed at the early detection of renal disease. Of 213,873 adults who participated, 189,117 with complete data were included. Malay race, increasing age, both extremes of body mass index (BMI), self-reported family history of kidney disease (FKD), and higher systolic and diastolic BP measurements (even at levels classified as being within the normal range) were independently associated with dipstick-positive proteinuria. The odds ratios (OR) for proteinuria increased progressively with age. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI and proteinuria (OR of 1.3, 1.00, 1.3, 1.6, and 2.5 for BMI of < or =18.00, 23.00 to 24.99, 25.00 to 27.49, 27.50 to 29.99, and > or =30.00 kg/m(2), respectively, compared with BMI of 18.01 to 22.99 kg/m(2)). OR for proteinuria according to systolic and diastolic BP were significantly increased beginning at levels of 110 and 90 mmHg, respectively. In addition, the Malay race was associated with a significantly higher OR for proteinuria, compared with the Chinese race (OR of 1.3). Finally, FKD was significantly associated with proteinuria (OR of 1.7), whereas a family history of diabetes mellitus and a family history of hypertension were not. When family histories were analyzed by clustering, isolated FKD remained a significant determinant of proteinuria and the magnitude of the effect was not significantly different from that observed in the presence of a coexisting family history of diabetes mellitus or hypertension. This is the first study to evaluate factors associated with proteinuria in an Asian population. The epidemiologic study of renal disease in this population suggests that risk factors for renal disease might differ significantly among racial groups.
  4. Thomas B, Matsushita K, Abate KH, Al-Aly Z, Ärnlöv J, Asayama K, et al.
    J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 2017 Jul;28(7):2167-2179.
    PMID: 28408440 DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2016050562
    The burden of premature death and health loss from ESRD is well described. Less is known regarding the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to reduced GFR. We estimated the prevalence of reduced GFR categories 3, 4, and 5 (not on RRT) for 188 countries at six time points from 1990 to 2013. Relative risks of cardiovascular outcomes by three categories of reduced GFR were calculated by pooled random effects meta-analysis. Results are presented as deaths for outcomes of cardiovascular disease and ESRD and as disability-adjusted life years for outcomes of cardiovascular disease, GFR categories 3, 4, and 5, and ESRD. In 2013, reduced GFR was associated with 4% of deaths worldwide, or 2.2 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval [95% UI], 2.0 to 2.4 million). More than half of these attributable deaths were cardiovascular deaths (1.2 million; 95% UI, 1.1 to 1.4 million), whereas 0.96 million (95% UI, 0.81 to 1.0 million) were ESRD-related deaths. Compared with metabolic risk factors, reduced GFR ranked below high systolic BP, high body mass index, and high fasting plasma glucose, and similarly with high total cholesterol as a risk factor for disability-adjusted life years in both developed and developing world regions. In conclusion, by 2013, cardiovascular deaths attributed to reduced GFR outnumbered ESRD deaths throughout the world. Studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of early detection of CKD and treatment to decrease these deaths.
  5. Polat OK, Uno M, Maruyama T, Tran HN, Imamura K, Wong CF, et al.
    J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 2019 Jul 02.
    PMID: 31266820 DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2018070756
    BACKGROUND: TRPC6 is a nonselective cation channel, and mutations of this gene are associated with FSGS. These mutations are associated with TRPC6 current amplitude amplification and/or delay of the channel inactivation (gain-of-function phenotype). However, the mechanism of the gain-of-function in TRPC6 activity has not yet been clearly solved.

    METHODS: We performed electrophysiologic, biochemical, and biophysical experiments to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying calmodulin (CaM)-mediated Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI) of TRPC6. To address the pathophysiologic contribution of CDI, we assessed the actin filament organization in cultured mouse podocytes.

    RESULTS: Both lobes of CaM helped induce CDI. Moreover, CaM binding to the TRPC6 CaM-binding domain (CBD) was Ca2+-dependent and exhibited a 1:2 (CaM/CBD) stoichiometry. The TRPC6 coiled-coil assembly, which brought two CBDs into adequate proximity, was essential for CDI. Deletion of the coiled-coil slowed CDI of TRPC6, indicating that the coiled-coil assembly configures both lobes of CaM binding on two CBDs to induce normal CDI. The FSGS-associated TRPC6 mutations within the coiled-coil severely delayed CDI and often increased TRPC6 current amplitudes. In cultured mouse podocytes, FSGS-associated channels and CaM mutations led to sustained Ca2+ elevations and a disorganized cytoskeleton.

    CONCLUSIONS: The gain-of-function mechanism found in FSGS-causing mutations in TRPC6 can be explained by impairments of the CDI, caused by disruptions of TRPC's coiled-coil assembly which is essential for CaM binding. The resulting excess Ca2+ may contribute to structural damage in the podocytes.

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