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  1. Tan CY, Razali SNO, Goh KJ, Shahrizaila N
    J Peripher Nerv Syst, 2019 06;24(2):168-173.
    PMID: 31001904 DOI: 10.1111/jns.12320
    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute immune-mediated neuropathy that has variable disease course and outcome. The Erasmus GBS outcome score (EGOS), modified EGOS (mEGOS), and Erasmus GBS respiratory insufficiency score (EGRIS) are prognostic models designed to predict the functional outcome of GBS patients at 6 months (EGOS and mEGOS) and the need for mechanical ventilation within a week of admission (EGRIS). The models were primarily developed in the Dutch GBS population, and thus the usefulness of these models in other GBS cohorts is less clear. In the current study, we aimed to validate mEGOS, EGOS, and EGRIS in Malaysian GBS patients. A total of 107 patients with GBS and its variants were consecutively recruited. Patients with GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) were analysed separately. In the GBS cohort, high mEGOS and EGOS scores were significantly correlated with poor outcome at 6 months (mEGOS on admission: r = .381, P = .005; mEGOS at day 7 of admission: r = .507, P 
  2. Tan CY, Razali SNO, Goh KJ, Shahrizaila N
    J Peripher Nerv Syst, 2020 09;25(3):256-264.
    PMID: 32511817 DOI: 10.1111/jns.12398
    We aimed to evaluate the key diagnostic features of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in Malaysian patients and validate the Brighton criteria. This was a retrospective study of patients presenting with GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) between 2010 and 2019. The sensitivity of the Brighton criteria was evaluated. A total of 128 patients (95 GBS, 33 MFS) were included. In the GBS cohort, 92 (97%) patients presented with symmetrical limb weakness. Reflexes were depressed or absent in 90 (95%) patients. Almost all patients (94, 99%) followed a monophasic disease course, with 5 (5%) patients experiencing treatment-related fluctuations. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) albuminocytological dissociation was seen in 62/84 (73%) patients. Nerve conduction study (NCS) revealed neuropathy in 90/94 (96%) patients. In GBS patients with complete dataset (84), 56 (67%) patients reached level 1 of the Brighton criteria, 21 (25%) reached level 2, 3 (4%) reached level 3, and 4 (5%) reached level 4. In MFS, the clinical triad was present in 25 (76%) patients. All patients had a monophasic course. CSF albuminocytological dissociation was present in 10/25 (40%) patients. NCS was normal or showed sensory neuropathy in 25/33 (76%) patients. In MFS patients with complete dataset (25), 5 (20%) patients reached level 1 of the Brighton criteria, 14 (56%) reached level 2, 2 (8%) reached level 3, and 4 (16%) reached level 4. Inclusion of antiganglioside antibodies improved the sensitivity of the Brighton criteria in both cohorts. In the Malaysian cohort, the Brighton criteria showed a moderate to high sensitivity in reaching the highest diagnostic certainty of GBS, but the sensitivity was lower in MFS.
  3. Leonhard SE, Tan CY, van der Eijk AA, Reisin RR, Franken SC, Huizinga R, et al.
    J Peripher Nerv Syst, 2021 Sep 22.
    PMID: 34549484 DOI: 10.1111/jns.12469
    Half of the world's population is at risk of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infections. Several arbovirus infections have been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We investigated whether arboviruses are driving GBS beyond epidemic phases of transmission and studied the antibody response to glycolipids. The protocol of the International Guillain-Barré syndrome Outcome Study (IGOS), an observational prospective cohort study, was adapted to a case-control design. Serum samples were tested for a recent infection with Zika virus (ZIKV), dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) virus, hepatitis E virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Campylobacter jejuni, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and for antibodies to glycolipids. Forty-nine patients were included from Brazil (63%), Argentina (14%), and Malaysia (22%). Evidence of a recent infection was found in 27/49 (55%) patients: C jejuni (n = 15, 31%), M pneumoniae (n = 5, 10%), CHIKV (n = 2, 4%), EBV (n = 1, 2%), C jejuni and M pneumoniae (n = 2, 4%), CMV and DENV (n = 1, 2%), and C jejuni and DENV (n = 1, 2%). In 22 patients, 35 paired controls were collected. Odds ratio for recent infections did not significantly differ between cases and controls. No typical anti-ganglioside antibody binding was associated with recent arbovirus infection. We conclude that arbovirus infections occur in GBS patients outside of epidemic viral transmission, although not significantly more than in controls. Broad infection and anti-ganglioside antibody serology are important to establish the most likely pathogenic trigger in GBS patients. Larger studies are necessary to determine the association between arboviruses and GBS.
  4. Hung SKY, Hiew FL, Viswanathan S, Puvanarajah S
    J Peripher Nerv Syst, 2018 Sep;23(3):183-189.
    PMID: 30027593 DOI: 10.1111/jns.12282
    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), corticosteroids and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) are evidence-based conventional treatments for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). In many centres, unconventional treatments are frequently used as alternatives. We evaluated the outcome of conventional and unconventional therapies in 31 CIDP patients. Overall response rate with conventional first-line immunotherapies was 77% (20/26), comparable between IVIG and corticosteroids (80% vs 70%). Use of TPE was limited. Treatment response among typical and atypical CIDP were comparable (76 vs 80%). Non-responders were patients with progressive form of typical CIDP and DADS. Majority (21/26, 81%) of patients with persistent neurological deficits received maintenance therapy. Two subgroups of patients frequently treated with maintenance immunosuppressants were those with improving or stable disease following first-line treatment (12, 57%) and those with progressive form of CIDP (2, 10%). Primary indications for immunosuppressant use were corticosteroids-sparing and additional immunosuppression effects. Nine (64%) patients with improving or stable disease given azathioprine were taken off corticosteroids after a median duration of 14 months (range 12-108). Two (14%) eventually achieved cure or clinical remission without treatment. Maintenance IVIg was given to 6 (29%) relapsing CIDP patients; none of achieved cure or remission after similar median duration of treatment. Less potent immunosuppressant drugs (azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and methotrexate) were frequently used, with moderate adverse effect profiles. In resource limited setting, unconventional treatments were commonly used among CIDP patients with different clinical course of progression. In most cases, careful risk-benefit re-assessment is required to justify its further use.
  5. Umapathi T, Kam YW, Ohnmar O, Ng BCJ, Ng Y, Premikha M, et al.
    J Peripher Nerv Syst, 2018 09;23(3):197-201.
    PMID: 30070025 DOI: 10.1111/jns.12284
    Although individuals with Zika virus (ZIKV) antibodies were reported in Malaya in mid-1950s, entomological and human surveillance in Singapore did not identify autochthonous transmission until the outbreak of August-November, 2016. A total of 455 cases from 15 separate clusters were identified. We asked if this ZIKV outbreak increased the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and aimed to characterize these cases. Eleven GBS cases, consecutively enrolled into our prospective GBS database from onset to 4 weeks after outbreak, and six controls, comprising three GBS patients enrolled before outbreak and three non-GBS patients, were examined for evidence of recent ZIKV infection. We performed serum, urine ZIKV RT-PCR, ZIKV serology, and virus neutralization assays, accounting for cross-reaction and co-infection with dengue (DENV). We found five GBS cases with only serological evidence of recent ZIKV infection (including one ZIKV-DENV co-infection). A temporal relationship with ZIKV outbreak was unlikely as two cases were GBS controls enrolled 3 months before outbreak. None reported symptoms of ZIKV infection. In addition, compared to last 10 years the national number of GBS hospitalizations did not increase during and immediately after outbreak. We conclude the 2016 Singapore ZIKV outbreak did not cause a change in GBS epidemiology.
  6. Arends S, Drenthen J, Van den Bergh PYK, Hadden RDM, Shahrizaila N, Dimachkie MM, et al.
    J Peripher Nerv Syst, 2022 Sep;27(3):197-205.
    PMID: 35700346 DOI: 10.1111/jns.12504
    Electrodiagnostic (EDx) studies are helpful in diagnosing and subtyping of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Published criteria for differentiation into GBS subtypes focus on cutoff values, but other items receive less attention, although they may influence EDx subtyping: (a) extensiveness of EDx testing, (b) nerve-specific considerations, (c) distal compound muscle action potential (CMAP)-amplitude requirements, (d) criteria for conduction block and temporal dispersion. The aims of this study were to investigate how these aspects were approached by neuromuscular EDx experts in practice and how this was done in previously published EDx criteria for GBS. A completed questionnaire was returned by 24 (of 49) members of the electrophysiology expertise group from the International GBS Outcome Study. Six published EDx criteria for GBS subtyping were compared regarding these aspects. The indicated minimal number of motor nerves to study varied among respondents and tended to be more extensive in equivocal than normal studies. Respondents varied considerably regarding usage of compression sites for subtyping (median/wrist, ulnar/elbow, peroneal/fibular head): 29% used all variables from all sites, 13% excluded all sites, and 58% used only some sites and/or variables. Thirty-eight percent of respondents required a minimal distal CMAP amplitude to classify distal motor latency as demyelinating, and 58% did for motor conduction velocity. For proximal/distal CMAP-amplitude ratio and F-wave latency, a requisite minimal CMAP amplitude was more often required (79%). Also, the various published criteria sets showed differences on all items. Practical use of EDx criteria for subtyping GBS vary extensively across respondents, potentially lowering the reproducibility of GBS subtyping.
  7. Gad H, Kalra S, Pinzon R, Gracia RN, Yotsombut K, Coetzee A, et al.
    J Peripher Nerv Syst, 2024 Jan 24.
    PMID: 38268316 DOI: 10.1111/jns.12613
    Peripheral neuropathy (PN) often remains undiagnosed (~80%). Earlier diagnosis of PN may reduce morbidity and enable earlier risk factor reduction to limit disease progression. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common PN and the 10 g monofilament is endorsed as an inexpensive and easily performed test for DPN. However, it only detects patients with advanced neuropathy at high risk of foot ulceration. There are many validated questionnaires to diagnose PN, but they can be time-consuming and have complex scoring systems. Primary care physicians (PCPs) have busy clinics and lack access to a readily available screening method to diagnose PN. They would prefer a short, simple, and accurate tool to screen for PN. Involving the patient in the screening process would not only reduce the time a physician requires to make a diagnosis but would also empower the patient. Following an expert meeting of diabetologists and neurologists from the Middle East, South East Asia and Latin America, a consensus was formulated to help improve the diagnosis of PN in primary care using a simple tool for patients to screen themselves for PN followed by a consultation with the physician to confirm the diagnosis.
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