This study aimed to identify the prevalence of energy misreporting amongst a sample of Malay children aged 9-11 years (n = 14) using a range of commonly used cut points. Participants were interviewed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls over three occasions. The Goldberg equations (1991 and 2000), Torun cut points and the Black and Cole method were applied to the data. Up to 11 of 14 children were classified as misreporters, with more under-reporters (between seven and eight children) than over-reporters (four or less children). There were significant differences in the proportion of children classified as energy misreporters when applying basal metabolic rate calculated using FAO/UNU/WHO (1985) and Malaysian-specific equations (p < 0.05). The results show that energy misreporting is common amongst Malay children, varying according to cut point chosen. Objective evaluation of total energy expenditure would help identify which cut point is appropriate for use in Malay paediatric populations.
A rare syndrome of hypertension, seizures and intracranial bleed has been reported among patients with congenital hemolytic anemia who underwent multiple blood transfusions. We report this syndrome in a 12-year-old Malay girl with hemoglobin E-beta-thalassemia, who underwent intensive transfusion and subsequently had headache, visual loss, severe hypertension and seizures. A comprehensive literature review revealed 30 patients with this syndrome, of whom 15 had intracranial bleed and 12 among these 15 died. A less-intensive transfusion regimen among patients with chronic hemolytic anemia and prompt detection and management of hypertension may prevent this potentially fatal syndrome.
The present study examined objectively measured physical activity in Malaysian children and compared the differences in physical levels between obese and healthy weight children. Eighty-six obese children were matched for age and sex with 86 healthy weight children with median age 9.5 years. Habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured over 5 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in the obese group (90% vs. 86% of daytime; p = 0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly higher in the healthy weight group (1.2 vs. 0.7% of daytime, p < 0.001). In both healthy weight and obese children, physical activity levels were exceptionally low, although moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly lower in the obese group than the healthy weight group. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Malaysian children will need a substantial focus on the promotion of reductions in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of admission hypothermia (AH) among very-low-birth-weight (≤1500 g) infants in 32 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of all very-low-birth-weight infants admitted and a questionnaire survey of the practice of AH prevention. Of the 3768 (99.8%) infants with admission temperature recorded, 64.8% (n = 2440) were hypothermic: 40.3% (n = 983) mildly (36.0-36.4°C), 58.5% (n = 1428) moderately (32.0-35.9°C) and 1.2% (n = 29) severely (<32.0°C). Mean ambient temperature of these NICUs was 22.8°C (SD = 2.7, n = 28) in labour rooms and 20.1°C (SD = 1.6, n = 30) in operation theatres. None of the NICUs practised complete care bundle against AH at birth (i.e. use of pre-warmed radiant warmer and cling wrap, ambient temperature of at least 25°C and use of pre-warmed transport incubator). Care bundle against neonatal hypothermia should be actively promoted in Malaysian labour rooms and operation theatres.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and early outcome of neural tube defects (NTDs) in Malaysia. This prospective study included all neonates with NTDs (spina bifida, anencephaly, encephalocoele) born in 2009 in 32 Malaysian hospitals in the Malaysian National Neonatal Network. The prevalence of NTDs was 0.42 per 1000 live births, being highest among the indigenous people of Sarawak (1.09 per 1000 live births) and lowest among Malaysians of Chinese descent (0.09 per 1000 live births). The most common type of NTDs was anencephaly (0.19 per 1000 live births), followed by spina bifida (0.11 per 1000 live births) and encephalocoele (0.07 per 1000 live births). Majority of the infants with anencephaly (94.5%, n = 51), 45.8% (n = 11) with encephalocoele and 9.5% (n = 4) with spina bifida died. The median duration of hospital stay was 4 (range: 0-161) days.
To identify the immunization providers' characteristics associated with immunization rate in children younger than 2 years. A cohort and a cluster sampling design were implemented; 528 children between 18 and 70 months of age were sampled in five public health clinics in Mosul-Iraq. Providers' characterizations were obtained. Immunization rate for the children was assessed. Risk factors for partial immunization were explored using both bivariate analyses and multi-level logistic regression models. Less than half of the children had one or more than one missed dose, considered as partial immunization cases. The study found significant association of immunization rate with provider's type. Two factors were found that strongly impacted on immunization rate in the presence of other factors: birthplace and immunization providers' type.
Universally, mothers often use touching to detect fever in their children. We perform a systematic review of published diagnostic studies evaluating the ability of mothers to detect fever in their children by touching. We found 10 studies satisfying our inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis revealed a summary sensitivity of 89.2% and summary specificity of 50%-maternal touch is perhaps more useful to exclude fever rather than to 'rule in' fever. However, due to significant heterogeneity in the included studies, interpretation of the summary data is difficult.
We report a case of an 8-year-old aborigine boy referred to our hospital for respiratory insufficiency with skin eruptions over the trunk and limbs. The skin condition was diagnosed as acquired ichthyosis. He also had a non-bleeding form of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Radiograph of the lungs showed bilateral perihilar opacities with bilateral pleural effusion. The diagnosis of leptospirosis was confirmed by a 4-fold rise in microagglutinating titre and polymerase chain reaction assay.
Over a 10-year period there was increasing involvement by clinicians in the generation and implementation of evidence-based practices in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). For two cohorts of very low birth weight (VLBW) babies admitted 10 years apart to a developing country, NICU were compared and changes occurring in process of care that might have contributed to any change in outcome were documented.
beta-thalassaemia major, an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy, is one of the most common single gene disorders in multi-racial Malaysia. The control of beta-thalassaemia major requires a multi-disciplinary approach that includes population screening, genetic counselling, prenatal diagnosis and the option of termination of affected pregnancies. To achieve this objective, the molecular characterisation of the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in each of the affected ethnic groups is required. We studied 88 consecutive unrelated individuals and their respective families with beta-thalassaemia (74 beta-thalassaemia major, 12 HbE-beta-thalassaemia, 2 with HbE homozygotes) and four individuals with beta-thalassaemia trait that contributed a total 180 alleles for study. Using a 2-step molecular diagnostic strategy consisting of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) to identify the 8 most common mutations followed by other DNA-based diagnostic techniques, a total of 177 (98.3 per cent) of the 180 beta-thalassaemia alleles were characterised. One out of 91 (1 per cent) of the Chinese alleles, one out of 46 (2.2 per cent) Malay alleles and one out of two Indian alleles remained unknown. A 100 per cent success rate was achieved in studying the Kadazandusun community in this study. A strategy to identify beta-globin gene mutations in Malaysians with beta-thalassaemia is proposed based on this outcome.
In a case-control study carried out in the Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital between 1st July 1995 and 31st January 1996 the objectives were (1) to determine the rate of breastfeeding in surviving very low birthweight (VLBW, < or = 1500 g) Malaysian infants following the introduction of the Baby Friendly Hospital Concept, and (2) to identify significant predictors associated with successful breastfeeding in these infants. During the study period, 201 (1.24 per cent) of live-born infants were VLBW infants, 192 (95.5 per cent) were Malaysians, and 141 (73.4 per cent) of them survived to go home. The breastfeeding rate among all surviving VLBW Malaysian infants at the time of discharge was 40.2 per cent (57/141). The mothers of 126 (89.4 per cent) VLBW Malaysian infants were interviewed before discharge. Logistic regression analysis showed that, after controlling for various confounders, the significant predictors associated with successful breastfeeding were: (a) Malay mothers (odds ratio: 6.0; 95 per cent CI: 1.9, 19.4), (b) mothers with educational levels of between 7 and 9 years (odds ratio: 3.6; 95 per cent CI: 1.0, 12.2), and (c) earlier age of commencement of enteral feeds in the VLBW infants (for each additional day delay in commencement of feeding, odds ratio of breastfeeding was 0.5; 95 per cent CI: 0.4, 0.8).
A 25-month-old boy with beta-thalassaemia major was presented with an opportunity for umbilical cord blood transplantation when his unborn sibling was diagnosed in utero to be a beta-thalassaemia carrier and also human leucocyte antigen compatible. A barely adequate amount of cord blood was collected at the birth of his sibling and infused into the patient after appropriate chemo-conditioning. Engraftment occurred without major complications. The subject is now alive and well 9 months post-transplant, thus marking our first success in umbilical cord blood transplantation.
In this prospective study, we examined stool specimens from children with cancer receiving chemotherapy who were admitted for fever to the Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital in Kota Baru, Kelantan. Stool specimens were examined for ova and cysts of parasites. Over a period of 15 months, there were 129 febrile episodes in 50 children with cancer and, in all, 237 stool specimens were examined. Sixty-six per cent of febrile episodes were associated with neutropenia and 9 per cent were associated with diarrhoea. Stool parasites were found in 42 per cent of children. The most common were helminths, followed by protozoa. Trichuris trichiura was the most common parasite (24 per cent), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (22 per cent). Hookworm was found in 2 per cent. Giardia lamblia was found in 6 per cent of children, Blastocystis hominis in 4 per cent, and Cryptosporidium parvum in 2 per cent.
Paediatric intensive care in Malaysia is a developing subspecialty with an increasing number of specialists with a paediatric background being involved in the care of critically ill children. A part prospective and part retrospective review of 118 consecutive non-neonatal ventilated patients in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur was carried out from 1 June 1995 to 31 December 1996 to study the clinical epidemiology and outcome in our paediatric intensive case unit (PICU). The mean age of the patients was 33.9 +/- 6.0 months (median 16 months). The main mode of admission was emergency (96.6 per cent) with an overall mortality rate of 42 per cent (50/118). The mean paediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score was 20 +/- 0.98 SEM, with 53 per cent of patients having a score of over 30 per cent. Multiorgan dysfunction (MODS) was identified in 71 per cent of patients. Admission efficiency (mortality risk > 1 per cent) was 97 per cent. Standardized mortality rate using PRISM was an acceptable 1.06. The main diagnostic categories were respiratory (32 per cent), neurology (22 per cent), haematology-oncology (18 per cent); the aetiology of dysfunction was mainly infective. Non-survivors were older (29.5 vs. 13.8 months, p < 0.0001), had more severe illness (mean PRISM score 30 vs. 14, p < 0.0001), were more likely to develop MODS (96 vs. 53 per cent, p < 0.0001) and required more intervention and monitoring. Paediatric intensive care in Malaysia differs widely from that in developed countries in patient characteristics, severity of illness, and care modalities provided.
The presenting features and treatment outcome for 575 Malaysian children (< or = 12 years of age) with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), admitted to the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 1 January 1980 and 30 May 1995 were evaluated to determine their prognostic significance. Two-year overall survival was achieved in 67 per cent of all patients and 55 per cent of patients were relapse-free at 2 years. All except 10 patients, with identified French-American-British L3 morphology were treated with the modified Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster 78 treatment protocol. Univariate analyses of failure rate conferred age, sex, white cell count and hemoglobin level as potentially significant prognostic factors. All four presenting features retained their prognostic strength in a multivariate analysis. Race, platelet count, morphological subtype, liver/spleen size, lymphadenopathy, central nervous system and mediastinal mass involvement did not show any significant effect on treatment outcome. The 2-year survival rate was significantly different with regard to age, white cell count and hemoglobin level. However, sex was not significantly related to overall survival. These prognostic factors may have implications on future stratification of risk-adjusted initial treatment in the management of childhood ALL. Our analysis of Malaysian children is similar to what could be predicted based on previous studies in other populations.
Twenty-two (42 per cent) out of 52 patients admitted with severe bronchiolitis to our Paediatric Intensive Care Unit required ventilation. Risk factors associated with ventilation included a younger mean age, female sex, low birthweight, failure to thrive and the presence of an underlying illness. Ventilated patients were also more likely to have a higher respiratory distress assessment index (RDAI) score, pneumonic infiltration on chest X-ray, lower serum sodium and a positive respiratory syncytial virus isolation in the tracheal secretion.
A case-control study was carried out on 152 extremely low birthweight (ELBW, < 1000 g) infants born consecutively in a large Malaysian maternity hospital during a 21-month period to determine the significant predictors associated with survival at discharge. Forty-nine (32.2 per cent) of these infants survived and 103 (67.8 per cent) died. The survivors weighed significantly heavier (mean = 888 g, SD = 99) than infants who died (mean = 763 g, SD = 131; p < 0.0001). They were also of higher gestational age (mean = 28.7 weeks, SD = 2.2) than those who died (mean = 26.7 weeks, SD = 2.5; p < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after controlling for various confounders, only three factors were significantly associated with the survival of these infants. These were: (1) increasing birthweight of the infants (with every gram increase in birthweight, adjusted odds ratio of survival was: 1.009; 95 per cent CI 1.004, 1.015; p = 0.0006); (2) given nasal continuous positive airway pressure for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (adjusted odds ratio of survival: 4.2; 95 per cent CI 1.2, 14.0; p = 0.02); and (3) given expressed breastmilk (adjusted odds ratio of survival: 57.5; 95 per cent CI: 7, 474; p = 0.0002). Maternal illness, intrapartum problems, ethnicity, gestational age, use of antenatal steroid, modes of delivery, Apgar scores, congenital anomalies, respiratory distress syndrome, persistent ductus arteriosus, septicemia, necrotising enterocolitis, chronic lung disease, oxygen therapy, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, surfactant therapy, and blood transfusion were not significant factors associated with increased survival.