We investigated spatial autocorrelation of female Aedes aegypti L. mosquito abundance from BG-Sentinel trap and sticky ovitrap collections in Cairns, north Queensland, Australia. BG-Sentinel trap collections in 2010 show a significant spatial autocorrelation across the study site and over a smaller spatial extent, while sticky ovitrap collections only indicate a non-significant, weak spatial autocorrelation. The BG-Sentinel trap collections were suitable for spatial interpolation using ordinary kriging and cokriging techniques. The uses of Premise Condition Index and potential breeding container data have helped improve our prediction of vector abundance. Semiovariograms and prediction maps indicate that the spatial autocorrelation of mosquito abundance determined by BG-Sentinel traps extends farther compared to sticky ovitrap collections. Based on our data, fewer BG-Sentinel traps are required to represent vector abundance at a series of houses compared to sticky ovitraps. A lack of spatial structure was observed following vector control treatment in the area. This finding has implications for the design and costs of dengue vector surveillance programs.
Flies attracted to human remains during death investigations were surveyed in north Peninsular Malaysia. Six families, eight genera, and 16 species were identified from human remains, with the greatest fly diversity occurring on remains recovered indoors. The total relative frequency of species was led by Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (46%), followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, 1842) (22%), Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Fabricius, 1974) (5%), Sarcophaga spp. (4%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta Wulp, 1883 (6%), Megaselia spp. (3%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866), (2%), Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz, 1938 (2%), and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, 1922 (2%). Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot, 1877), Desmometopa sp., Megaselia curtineura (Brues, 1909), Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann 1830, Ophyra sp., Sarcophaga princeps Wiedemann 1830, Piophila casei (Linnaeus, 1758), and unidentified pupae each represented 1%, respectively.
The occurrence and abundance of mosquito populations may be associated with the abundance of predators. We examined the relationship between aquatic predators and populations of mosquitoes in animal water troughs in Waikanae, New Zealand. We also investigated the effects of water volume and environmental factors (temperature, rainfall, wind speed, humidity, and pressure) in order to further understand factors influencing mosquito and predator populations. Logistic regression indicated that the presence or absence of mosquitoes was primarily affected by three factors: predator abundance, week of observation, and water volume. Pearson's correlation indicated that the presence of predators had a positive correlation with water volume (r² = 0.176, p< 0.05). Otherwise, the presence of mosquito larvae in water troughs was negatively correlated with water volume (r² =-0.159, p=0.022) and wind speed (r² =0.142, p=0.041). We established a translocation experiment in which predators or mosquitoes were moved between troughs in order to examine the prey survival rate after exposure to Anisops wakefieldi predators. The survival rate of mosquitoes was not significantly different, between 0-0.1%, irrespective of the number of predators translocated (1-9) or the initial mosquito density (20-70 larvae). Our results suggested that A. wakefieldi predators may have the potential to be a promising biological control tool for the control of mosquito populations by altering mosquito population dynamics.
A total of 54 bed bug-infested sites (hotels, public accommodations, and residential premises) in Malaysia and Singapore was surveyed between July, 2005 and December, 2008. Only one species of bed bug was found, the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius). Bed bug infestations were common in hotels and public accommodations when compared to residential premises. The three most common locations of infestation within an infested premise were the bedding (31.1%), the headboard (30.3%), and cracks and crevices surrounding the baseboard, wall, or floor (23.5%). We speculate that the route of movement of bed bugs in hotels and public accommodations is more direct than in residential premises.
The fundamental approach to the biological control of Aedes albopictus requires the mass rearing of mosquitoes and the release of highly competitive adults in the field. As the fitness of adults is highly dependent on the development of immatures, we aimed to identify the minimum feeding regime required to produce viable and competitive adults by evaluating three response parameters: development duration, immature mortality, and adult wing length. Our study suggests at least 0.60 mg/larva/day of larval diet composed of dog food, dried beef liver, yeast, and milk powder in a weight ratio of 2:1:1:1 is required to maximize adult fitness. With standardized protocols in mass rearing, intensive studies can be readily conducted on mosquito colonies to facilitate comparisons across laboratories. This study also evaluated the differences in response of laboratory and field strains under different feeding regimes. We found that strain alone did not exert substantial effects on all response parameters. However, the field strain exhibited significantly lower immature mortality than the laboratory strain under the minimum feeding regime. Females and males of the laboratory strain had longer wing lengths under nutritional constraint due to the higher mortality that resulted in reduced interactions with the remaining larvae. Meanwhile, the field strain exhibited heterogeneous duration of immature development compared with the laboratory strain. The disparities demonstrated by the two strains in this study suggest the effect of inbreeding surfaced after a long term of laboratory colonization. Despite the trade-offs resulting from laboratory colonization, the competitiveness of the laboratory strain of Ae. albopictus is comparable to the field strain, provided the larvae are fed optimally.
The present study compared the performance of sticky traps in order to identify the most effective and practical trap for capturing Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Three phases were conducted in the study, with Phase 1 evaluating the five prototypes (Models A, B, C, D, and E) of sticky trap release-and-recapture using two groups of mosquito release numbers (five and 50) that were released in each replicate. Similarly, Phase 2 compared the performance between Model E and the classical ovitrap that had been modified (sticky ovitrap), using five and 50 mosquito release numbers. Further assessment of both traps was carried out in Phase 3, in which both traps were installed in nine sampling grids. Results from Phase 1 showed that Model E was the trap that recaptured higher numbers of mosquitoes when compared to Models A, B, C, and D. Further assessment between Model E and the modified sticky ovitrap (known as Model F) found that Model F outperformed Model E in both Phases 2 and 3. Thus, Model F was selected as the most effective and practical sticky trap, which could serve as an alternative tool for monitoring and controlling dengue vectors in Malaysia.
Field strains of house flies, Musca domestica L., from three different breeding sites-garbage dump (IMR), poultry farm (Kundang, Selangor), and agricultural farm (Kampung Batu, Kuala Lumpur), were evaluated against five insecticides. Resistance status of adult female flies was determined using the modified WHO bioassay methods. The WHO susceptibility strain was used as a reference strain for comparison. Flies from the garbage dump and poultry farm were more resistant to the insecticides than the strain from the agricultural farm. Results obtained from bioassay tests were confirmed by in-vitro microenzyme assays of non-specific esterases and glutathione-S-transferases. Significant differences between the esterase levels of WHO and field strains were observed. Levels of glutathion-S-transferases were approximately the same, which may indicate that other enzymes are involved in house fly resistance.
The combined adulticidal, larvicidal, and wall residual activity of ULV-applied bifenthrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, was evaluated in houses in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, against larvae and adults of lab-bred Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. A portable ULV sprayer was used to disperse a ULV formulation of bifenthrin at a discharge rate of 45 ml/min. The results indicated that bifenthrin sprayed at this rate exhibited all the three activities against the test mosquitoes. Complete adult mortalities were achieved, while very high larvicidal activity was also effected, which persisted for seven days. Wall bioassay with adults of Ae aegypti also resulted in very high mortality, which also persisted for one week. The combined mosquitocidal activities of bifenthrin is considered more effective especially in the control of dengue vectors.
Two new repellent formulations, KBR 3023 10% and 20% from Bayer AG, Germany, were evaluated together with DEET 10% and 20% as standard repellent formulations. Evaluation was based on two separate field studies: a daytime study (0900-1700 hr) in a forested orchard on Penang Island and a nighttime study (2100-0100 hr) in a squatter residential area on the adjacent mainland of peninsular Malaysia. Both studies were carried out by exposing humans with bare arms and legs to mosquitoes landing/biting for an eight hour period. Right arms and legs of the human baits were treated with different repellent formulations (KBR 3023 10%, 20% and DEET 10%, 20%) and the left limbs were left untreated to act as controls. The daytime study indicated that all four formulations were equally effective (P < 0.05) as repellents against the predominant Aedes albopictus with greater than 88.5% reduction in landing/biting in the first four hours and not less than 65.0% in the next four hours of the assessment period. In the night study, all four formulations were also found to be equally effective (P < 0.05) in repelling Culex quinquefasciatus, the predominant species. All four formulations provided complete protection against Cx. quinquefasciatus in the first two hours of exposure. The percentage reduction values were maintained above 90.0% for the next six hours of the assessment period. In conclusion, both the KBR 3023 and DEET formulations were found to be equally effective (P < 0.05) in providing a long-lasting reduction in human-mosquito contact in both the day and night field studies.
Cyfluthrin (Solfac ULO15) and malathion 96 TG were evaluated against sentinel sugar-fed adults and 4th-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti at high-rise flats in Malaysia by ULV spraying. The impact of both insecticides on field populations of Aedes spp. (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) larvae were monitored weekly using containers. Both cyfluthrin and malathion 96 TG showed adulticidal effects but cyfluthrin showed more significant larvicidal effect than malathion 96 TG (P < 0.05).
The efficacy of three formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was studied against Aedes albopictus in discarded tires. The formulations were: Vectobac G (corn cob formulation), Vectobac 12AS (aqueous suspension), and Bactimos WP (wettable powder formulation). Both Vectobac G and Vectobac 12AS were effective for 24 hr with more than 80% mortality. Both Vectobac formulations were significantly more effective than Bactimos WP for 24 hr after treatment (P < 0.0005). A week after treatment, Vectobac 12AS was significantly different than Bactimos WP (P < 0.05). However, Vectobac G did not differ significantly from Bactimos WP (P > 0.05); two weeks after spraying there was no significant difference among the various formulations (P > 0.05).
Using cow-baited net traps in the coastal and hilly areas of northern peninsular Malaysia, 21 species of Anopheles mosquitoes were found. The distribution of common Anopheles is presented. The composition of the anopheline mosquito fauna was more diversified in the coastal areas than in the hilly areas. The displacement of Anopheles sundaicus by Anopheles subpictus and the disappearance of Anopheles hackeri in the coastal area were noted.
Cynoff 25ULV (cypermethrin 25 g/l) and Solfac UL015 (cyfluthrin 1.5% w/v) were evaluated against the sentinel sugar-fed adults and 4th-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti in a housing estate endemic of dengue in Malaysia. The impact of both pyrethroids on field populations of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti larvae was monitored weekly using bottle containers. Both Cynoff 25ULV and Solfac UL015 showed adulticidal effects and larvicidal effects. This field trial using Cynoff 25ULV against dengue vectors showed its potential for use in dengue vector control programs.
Four species of synanthropic flies were trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur: Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the organism causing melioidosis, was the dominant bacteria isolated from Chrysomya megacephala. Klebsiella oxytoca, commonly associated with nosocomial infections, was commonly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Aeromonas hydrophila, the bacteria causing gastroenteritis, was predominantly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala and also from Musca domestica and Musca sorbens. A total of 18 bacterial species was isolated from the synanthropic flies trapped. Burkholderia pseudomallei had been reported for the first time.
Deltacide (S-bioallethrin 0.71% w/v, deltamethrin 0.5% w/v, piperonyl butoxide 8.9% w/v excipients to 100% w/v) and Solfac UL 015 (cyfluthrin 1.5% w/v) were evaluated against the sentinel sugar-fed adults and 4th-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti at 17 storey high-rise apartments in Malaysia using ULV applications. The impact of both insecticides on field populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae was monitored weekly using bottle containers. Both Deltacide and Solfac UL 015 showed adulticidal and larvicidal effects. This was the first field trial using Deltacide against dengue vectors in Malaysia and showed its potential for use in dengue vector control programs.
The efficacy of three insecticides, fipronil 3G, lambda-cyhalothrin 10%CS, and sumithion 50EC were evaluated against the dengue vector Aedes albopictus in discarded tires in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The dosage given for each insecticide was 0.01 g of active ingredient/m2. Fipronil 3G was the most effective larvicide with a residual activity of up to two weeks, causing 88% mortality in Aedes albopictus. Lambda-cyhalothrin 10%CS was effective for one week causing 92% larval mortality and two weeks with 63% larval mortality. Sumithion 50EC had a residual efficacy of one week with 79% larval mortality.
The compatibility of the commercial aqueous Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (B.t.i.) formulation, Vectobac 12AS, with the chemical insecticides Actellic 50EC, Aqua Resigen, Resigen, and Fendona SC, for the simultaneous control of Aedes larvae and adults was studied by dispersing nine different formulations using a portable mist blower, in single story half-brick houses. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by measuring the larval mortality, adult mortality, and droplet analysis at varying distances from the sprayer. Persistence of the larvicidal activity of the chemical insecticides and B.t.i was also determined by measuring the larval mortality in the test samples 7 days posttreatment. The sprayed particles in all the trials were 50-60 microns in size, indicating that the particles were those of mist spray. Test samples placed within 3 m from the sprayer gave the maximum larval and adult mortality. Chemical insecticides exhibited maximum larval mortality in the 1 h posttreatment test samples and it was comparable to the larvicidal activity of B.t.i. The larvicidal toxins of B.t.i were more stable and were able to affect sufficient larval mortality for 7 days posttreatment. The larvicidal activity of the mixtures, i.e., chemical insecticides with B.t.i, in the 1 h posttreatment test samples was not significantly different from the larvicidal activity of the chemical insecticides and it was comparable to the larvicidal activity of B.t.i alone. However, the larvicidal activity of the mixtures was significantly more than the chemical insecticides alone in the 7 days posttreatment test samples except for the Actellic 50EC and Vectobac 12AS mixture. In all the trials, with or without B.t.i, there was no significant difference in adult mortality, indicating that this B.t.i formulation, Vectobac 12AS, was not antagonistic to the adulticidal activity of the chemical insecticides. From this study, it can be concluded that chemical insecticides can be used effectively for both adult and larval control, but the chemical insecticides do not exhibit residual larvicidal activity. Hence, for an effective control of both Aedes larvae and adults, it is advisable to add B.t.i. to the chemical insecticides, as B.t.i is specifically larvicidal and is also able to effect extended residual larvicidal activity.
Urbanization has caused an increase in favorable habitats for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), given their ability to reproduce in small and often non-degradable artificial water-containers. While much work has been done on Ae. aegypti biology and ecology in urban landscapes, the role of shading on immature stages as an independent factor from temperature, and any possible interactions between these factors, remains unexamined. We assessed how temperature and shading affected egg hatch-rate, larval/pupal mortality, and larval development to adult stage under different factorial temperature (28; 31; 34; 37; 40° C) and shade (0%, 3,100 lux; 40%, 1,860 lux; 75%, 775 lux; 100%, 0 lux) regimes. Hatch-rate was significantly lower at 37° C (57 %), and no eggs hatched at 40° C. There was no significant effect caused by shading on hatchability. Larval and pupal mortality at 37° C was significantly higher (35%) compared to lower temperature groups, while the effects of shading were emergent at low temperatures. Developmental times from hatching to adult emergence were significantly reduced with increasing temperatures and with greater light exposures. The eco-physiological response of Ae. aegypti larvae to temperature and light regimes suggest a photosensitivity previously unstudied in this species.
The role of sanitation in performance of insecticidal bait stations containing 0.5% chlorpyrifos against the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), was investigated in residential premises. Test sites were chosen from three locations in Penang Island, Malaysia, and clustered according to their sanitary conditions. Results indicated that at 1-week post-treatment, houses with good sanitary conditions showed a significantly faster reduction (P > 0.05) in the number of cockroaches trapped (> 95%) than those with moderate and poor conditions. At 6 weeks post-treatment, all houses treated with insecticidal baits showed no significant difference in terms of reduction rate of cockroach numbers (P > 0.05), irrespective of sanitary condition. However, the bait performance in houses with poor sanitary conditions could not be sustained up to 12-week post-treatment.